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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, February 07, 1942, Image 10

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With Sunday Kerning Edltiea.
THEODORE W. NOTES, Editor.
WASHINGTON, D. C.
SATURDAY...February 7, 1942
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herein also are reserved.
Pensions for Congress
With half a dozen repeal bills al
ready in the legislative hopper and
public opinion widely aroused by rea
son of the short-lived ‘‘bundles for
Congress” campaign, there are in
creasing indications that Congress
will have an opportunity to recon
sider its recent action in voting itself
into the civil service pension system.
There is need for such reconsidera
tion, for the whole controversial
question did not receive the study
and was not attended by the debate
which it deserved. There was little
or no discussion in the House and
no record vote. The Senate confined
its debate chiefly to the Byrd amend
ment, which would have required
back payments by congressional
beneficiaries. This amendment was
defeated by a 34-to-28 vote.
Under the bill as passed, a mem
ber of House or Senate who has
served five years and who is 62 years
old—or younger, if disabled—becomes
eligible to retire on an annuity Janu
ary 1 next by payment of this year’s
premium. The pensions would range
from $58 to $350 a month, according
to length of service.
As to the basic issue of whether it
is proper for Representatives and
Senators to become Government
pensioners, there are sharp differ
ences of opinion, inside of Congress
and out. Seemingly persuasive argu
ments may be heard on both sides
of the matter. There should have
been a full airing of these arguments
before passage of the recent legisla
tion. Apart from this fundamental
Issue and aside from the fact that
the move was inauspiciously timed,
there are other Important points
raised by the new congressional pro
vision in the retirement law.
The propriety of making the an
nuities applicable to legislators now
in Congress certainly is open to ques
tion. Indeed, some critics have sug
gested the possibility of conflict with
that part of the Constitution pro
hibiting members of Congress, dur
ing their terms of office, from taking
Jobs which they had a hand in creat
ing. And if Representatives and
Senators are to be permitted to go
on the civil service pension rolls,
there is no good reason why they
should not be required to pay all
the back premiums for the years cov
ered in computing the amount of
their pensions. Moreover, the joker in
the law which would enable a mem
ber of Congress, by delaying his ap
plication until the last day of the
year, to obtain a life annuity upon
payment of as little as $1.39 —one
day’s premium—obviously should be
removed. Congress can ill afford
to ignore the widespread demands
for early reopening of the pensions
for-Congress question.
Steel Scrap Drive
The plan of the International Har
vester Company to mobilize its
dealers and employes throughout the
country in a drive to increase collec
tions of iron and steel scrap will be
welcomed as evidence that the Gov
ernment can count on the co-opera
tion of American industry in its
efforts to increase our reserves of this
essential war material. The project,
recently submitted to Lessing J.
Rosenwald, chief of the industrial
conservation bureau of the War Pro
duction Board, calls for a thorough
salvage search throughout all the
company’s plants, a similar canvass
in their homes by its 60,000 employes,
and a campaign by its dealers in
agricultural equipment to enlist the
assistance of farmers in speeding the
movement of farm scrap to indus
trial users.
The output of the American steel
Industry last year was estimated at
approximately 82,900,000 tons. To
achieve this production, substantially
larger than that of 1940, the steel in
dustry made heavy inroads into its
scrap reserves. Though exports to
Japan were stopped on October 15,
1940, shipments to that country pre
ceding that date are another factor
contributing to the present shortage
of scrap.
With the new facilities recently
added, or nearing completion, the
steel Industry will have a 1942 ca
pacity of nearly 90,000,000 tons. To
secure maximum output, 32,000,000
tons of iron and steel scrap will be
needed, more than was collected last
year. If the scrap required is not
obtained, steel production may not
exceed last year’s output, and mil
lions of tons of capacity, badly
needed for war production, will be
unused.
In the light of these facts, It is of
vital importance that every effort
be made by the Government, in
dustry and individual citizens to
uncover new supplies and obtain
more material from existing sources,
such as automobile “graveyards.”
Farms and small, towns offer par
ticularly good prospects for the scrap
searcher. Because of the war, iron
and steel scrap, once regarded as
a waste product of no great value,
now has become an important de
fense material, essential to the full
output of the steel industry, our
basic war industry.
American Morale
Those persons in the Capital who
have set themselves up as guardians
of public morale might profitably
reflect upon two questions: What is
the matter with American morale?
And from what direction does the
real threat to it come?
In the first place there is no evi
dence that anything is wrong with
the morale of the people. On the
contrary, there is every reason to
believe it is far better than the
morale of those who seem to think
that professional dancers, movie
actors, press agents and scores of
lucrative Jobs are indispensable in
gredients of victory on the home
front. If there should be any break
down in public morale it is much
more likely to come from having to
foot the bills for the fantastic activ
ities of these self-ordained morale
builders than from anything the
Germans or the Italians or the
Japanese are apt to do.
It has been but a few months since
some people were convinced that the
morale of the Army had gone to pot.
But that myth has been pretty well
exploded. The soldiers who were
“going over the hill” in October—if
one listened to the gloomy prophets—
stuck to their guns and their train
ing instead, and have since given a
first-rate account of themselves
whenever they have met the enemy.
Nor is there any reason to suppose
that Americans in the civilian ranks
are made of softer stuff. Given
appropriate guidance in the really
essential phases of civilian defense,
they will do their part of the job.
And they will do it without being
coddled and pampered by a comic
opera assortment of highly-paid
morale-maintainers with fancy titles
and vague duties.
It does not necessarily follow, how
ever, that morale cannot or will not
be undermined. The people of this
country are prepared to pay the price
of victory. They will buy the bonds,
pay the taxes, give up the luxuries
and comforts, do the work and en
dure whatever hardships may be
necessary without any imoairment of
morale so long as their Government
meets them half way and restricts
its own program to activities that
are genuinely essential. But if the
Government does not do this. It is
foolish to suppose that the morale
of the people can be maintained on
a high plane, no matter how many
dancers and movie stars may be
rushed into the breach.
As a first step, the Office of Civil
ian Defense should drop all boon
doggling activities and stop wasting
money on salaries and programs that
contribute nothing to the war effort.
And this should be followed up by a
vigorous and thorough elimination
of all governmental activities which
smack of “politics as usual.”
Testifying before a congressional
committee yesterday, Edward A.
O'Neal, president of the American
Farm Bureau Federation, charged
that “startling and shocking condi
tions of waste, extravagance and
other indefensible practices” in the
administration of the Farm Security
Administration amount to a “na
tional disgrace.” In substance, he
accused this agency of using public
funds improperly to maintain gov
ernmental control over the indi
viduals coming within the scope of
its activities. Earlier, the adminis
trator of the agency had admitted
that Farm Security funds were used
to pay poll taxes of needy farmers
and had defended this as a “per
fectly proper thing to do.”
The administrator denied that the
money was advanced for the pay
ment of poll taxes with any thought
of influencing the votes of the farm
ers. Be that as it may, there is no
room for denial as to the effect on
the morale of the hard-pressed tax
payer when he learns that the Gov
ernment, instead of spending his
money to fight the war, is using it to
pay the salaries of dancers and movie
stars and the poll taxes of prospective
voters.
It is from this sort of govern
mental activity, repeated time and
again, that the real threat to morale
comes. And if there should be any
breakdown on the home front it will
not result from weakness on the part
of the people, but because the ad
ministration, while wasting its ener
gies on non-essential and even
harmful "morale-buildiijg” activities,
neglects to stamp out the dubious
practices which constitute the really
serious threat.
Korea
When at last the tide of battle be
gins to run against Japan, it well
may happen that the 21,000,000 peo
ple of Korea will take advantage of
the opportunity thus afforded to at
tempt the recovery of their freedom.
Certainly no other community of the
Orient is more notably entitled to its
integral independence.
The ancient kingdom of Ch’ao
Hsien was a center of culture when
Toklo had not yet been founded. Its
history traces back nearly three
thousand years before the start of
the Christian era. The Korean race,
separate and distinct from all
neighboring tribes, was civilized for
ages before the Japanese established
the rudiments of their barbaric state.
It was from Korea that Japan re
ceived Buddhism and the art of writ
ing in script. Not even the oppres
sion of Jenghlz and Khublai Khan
could destroy the essential character
of enlightened Korean society. The
religion of Confucius, introduced by
Ni Taijo or Litan about 1392 A.D.,
merely confirmed the lofty ethical
nature of the native inhabitants.
Japanese aggression commenced
with raids by pirates who ravaged
the coasts. In 1592 the Regent Hide
yoshi ordered an invasion of Korea
which continued until his death in
1598. “Gigantic and bloody war”
during that period left the country
desolate. Seoul, the capital, and
many other cities and towns were
burned, their residents slaughtered
and their property—especially their
artistic treasures — carried away.
Firearms supplied by Europeans, it
must be mentioned in this connec
tion, were employed by the Japs
against the Koreans with deadly
effect.
A policy of isolation was developed
by the government of Korea from
the start of the seventeenth century.
But such a hermit role merely served
to invite foreign interference. Rus
sia in 1860 took the province of
Usuri, Japan in 1876 obtained Fusan.
By 1884 Seoul was opened to the
world. An attempted revolution in
1894 revived the ambitions of the
Japanese for complete domination
of the country. China tried to help
her suzerain, but Japan won the en
suing contest. The Russo-Japanese
War settled the fate of Koreans
without regard to their wishes. On
August 29, 1910, the Emperor of
Korea formally surrendered his
crown to the Emperor of Japan.
But at no time since the “conquest”
has the average Korean wholeheart
edly accepted Japanese tyranny.
There have been a long list of “in
cidents” suggesting the smoldering
resistance of the people. Perhaps
their hour is soon to strike. If so,
their friends in America will rejoice
to aid them in their endeavor to
achieve their liberty.
Help for the Greeks
The people of Greece have a legiti
mate claim on the friendship of
America. Ties of blood exist between
the two communities. It also hap
pens that the present tragic plight
of the Hellenes traces back to the
valiant part they played in the
struggle against the Axis powers in
the critical period before the United
States formally Joined the fight.
Had the heroic Evzones not resisted
the Italians and the Germans then
it is possible that the cause of free
dom might have been irretrievably
lost in Eastern Europe now. Remem
bering the history of Greek effort to
halt the aggressors, every individual
who hopes for the salvation of civil
ization must be grateful to the sol
diers of Attica and Sparta who de
feated Mussolini and waged such a
brave fight against Hitler’s armies.
Americans encouraged Greece to
defy the enemies of human liberty.
Help was pledged by both the United
States and Great Britain. How fully
it was given is a matter not alto
gether clear. But there can be no
question about the obligation which
the United Nations owe to their
Greek allies past, present and future.
For that reason Prime Minister
Churchill has approved a proposal
to send food into Greece through the
Turkish Red Crescent, a branch of
the International Red Cross. To
what extent American sympathizers
will be permitted to assist in this
relief enterprise has not yet been
disclosed.
Undersecretary of State Sumner
Welles, however, is profoundly in
terested in the problem. The Nazi
conquerors, he has explained, have
despoiled Greece of all available food
supplies, thus creating a famine
which is costing hundreds of lives a
day. An Associated Press dispatch
from Bern, Switzerland, January 28,
confirms his declaration that condi
tions among the Greeks of all classes
are "utterly appalling.” “People * • •
are like skeletons. • • • Bread is
selling at fifteen dollars a loaf.”
Of course, it is useless to suggest
that relief should be provided indis
criminately. Such procedure would
serve no purpose but that of fur
nishing the Axis authorities with an
excuse for further expropriation.
Yet a practical method certainly
could be devised for aiding the
starving Greeks without too greatly
advantaging their German and Ital
ian oppressors. Similar policies have
been worked out on other occasions.
The "epidemic of hunger” in Greece
is so compelling a reality as to
prompt immediate consideration of
what is feasible to do and how best
to do it promptly.
Raid Precaution
As an Illustration of how the war
will affect us more and more as time
goes on, one may consider the advice
of the New York State Restaurant
Association on how to act during air
raids or alarms so as to minimize
the casualties. Of course, if Messrs.
Hitler and Hirohito happen to make
a direct hit, there is little that could
be done, but that possibility is con
sidered remote. Far more likely is
the chance that a test air-raid di
rector might sound off a few sirens
and put out the lights, thereby cre
ating panic and opportunity on the
premises. Especially opportunity.
When the tumult and the shouting
die, and the lights go on, it seems to
be feared that among the restaurant
casualties will be scores of unpaid
and abandoned dinner checks, whose
sponsors will be out roaming Broad
way, reflecting that possibly Sherman
was a trifle hasty in expressing his
opinion of war.
The association does not elaborate
so freely—but can any one suggest
an alternative interpretation of
these actual words from its bulletin—
“When an air-raid alarm occurs,
service might be discreetly arranged
on a pay-as-you-enter basis"?
Of Stars, Men
And Atoms
Notebook of Science Progress
In Laboratory, Field
And Study
By Thomas R. Henry.
Can Brazil’s Jungles grow rubber for
North America’s tires?
After nearly 15 years of experimenta
tion-some of it costly—the plantations
of the Ford Motor Co. along the Topajoz
River, third tributary of the Amazon, are
giving an affirmative answer.
The extensive plantings at Fordlandia
and Belterra, which cover nearly 20,000
acres and Include more than a million
hevea rubber trees, now are producing
a high grade of rubber on a commercial
scale. From the beginning in 1928 spe
cialists of the United States Department
of Agriculture have watched the experi
ment and seen one difficulty after
another overcome.
American towns have arisen along the
Topajoz. Plantations comparable in every
way with those of the British and Dutch
in Malaya have been established. The
Ford experiments have telescoped years
of patient experimentation which other
wise would have been necessary for gov
ernment agencies.
Since the start of the present rubber
shortage citizens of the United States
have been asking how their Government
allowed a condition to develop when a
major crop, native to th» Western Hem
isphere, should have been cornered al
most completely by the Far East.
The Ford experiment gives the prac
tical answer. In 1927 the Companhla Ford
Industrial obtained rights to 2,500,000
acres along the Topajoz. The next year
was established the thriving settlement
of Fordlandia, about 150 miles from the
point where this river empties Into the
Amazon.
It was the native land of hevea rubber.
From very close to the site of Fordlandla
the first hevea seeds had been taken to
England. The Ford agents planted with
native stock and the result was dis
astrous.
The difficulty in producing rubber In
the Western Hemisphere has been, from
the beginning, the leaf blight disease.
The hevea rubber tree Is a native of
Brazil and eastern Peru. In the Jungle It
grows wild—three or four trees per acre.
The wild tree is a poor producer and
harvesting costs are heavy. But with
such a thin population the blight, a
fungus disease, spreads slowly and In an
attenuated form. Wild rubber trees
through countless centuries have learned
to live with it.
When the hevea trees are planted in
plantations, about 1,000 to the acre, the
disease spreads like a forest Ore. It in
creases in virulence from tree to tree.
The total Investment In a plantation will
be lost in a few months.
Back in 1876 an English botanist
named Wickham gathered 70,000 hevea
seeds from a region about 200 miles up
the Tapajoz River, in Brazil. He knew
nothing about the leaf blight. He carried
them to the celebrated Kew Gardens In
London. From them has come the Brit
ish and Dutch Malayan rubber crop.
There were no germs of the disease in
the Far East. The seedlings were bred for
yield and for resistance to new diseases
never heard of in Brazil. At first it was
not a particularly profitable Investment.
Rubber had a limited use in footwear,
garden and fire hose, etc. The Malayan
plantations were small.
About the beginning of the 20th cen
tury there came a use of rubber hitherto
undreamed of, the automobile tire. At
first It was quite limited, but the world's
rubber supply was overtaxed. Tires cost
$50 each. They were of unbelievably
poor quality, the inner tube had not
been invented. It became a common
practice to fill tires with molasses in
stead of air. Otherwise there was a
puncture every few miles.
The price of rubber sky-rocketed.
About 1910 Brazilian rubber reached the
record price of $3 a pound. A frenzy of
speculation set In the world over. Ameri
can schoolteachers and spinsters were
swindled out of their last dollars, in
vested in rubber plantations in Brazil,
Central America, the Congo region,
Dutch East Africa.
The hevea tree simply was not suit
able for plantations—in Brazil. It was,
at the time, the poorest of all known
rubber sources, even with the breeding
experiments already started by the Brit
ish and Dutch. Through Central America
there were extensive plantings of the
native castilla rubber tree. In Malaya
thousands of acres were planted with
ficus elastica, the “rubber plant” of Vic
torian era parlors. Africans planted their
native rubber vine.
The yield was very small—less than a
pound per tree per year. When such trees
were tapped at the right season “rub
ber Juice” would stream out, but the
stream was short-lived. The automobile,
which depended on rubber tires to be
come popular, seemed due to be a
colossal failure.
Denies That American People
Rejected “Vision” of League of Nations.
To tha Editor of The Star:
"Woodrow Wilson’s majestic vision • • •
was rejected by the American people In
the afterlight.” So goes an editorial in
the February 7 Saturday Evening Post.
Untrue! That vision never has been re
jected by the American "people, but only
by less than half their representatives.
Our thoughts about the League and
Union Now hav# been needlessly confused
by fears of “entangling alliances.” Ac
tually, there is “no entangling alliance
in a concert of power,” as Wilson wrote.
And, in case we cannot realize that
point, just look at .what actually has
happened: We have been forced into an
alliance because three anti-democratic
powers made and acted upon an Infamous
treaty aimed against our very life as a
nation. Could anything worse have hap
pened to us if we had joined the League?
Again, the Post warns us against act
ing upon our "feelings”: “The impulse
is again upon us.” Well, we Americans,
who cotlld find no impulse sufficiently,
strong to get ourselves into action till
Pearl Harbor, ought to know now that
the right impulse is half *>f any victory.
No doubt there are many journals other
than the Saturday Evening Post which
were isolationist over many years and
which now aim their guns at any sort
of union Now among the nations. All of
which shows that union certainly will
never come automatically, but only as
an act of will—a stupendous act of will
on the part of the people.
BOLLING SOMERVILLE.
A
THIS AND THAT
By Cttarles E. TraceweU.
“14th STREET.
"Dear Sir1
"Your This and That column In a re
cent Issue of The Star arrested my atten
tion, especially in noting a very clear and
expressive description of feeding habits
which you termed those of a goldfinch,
as the description of the bird seemed
suited.
“This part of the description, Very
quick in movement and sprightly, hang
ing and feeding head down on the house
vines,’ fits habits more particularly
the vireo.
“I do not know what species of vireo
may be found here, nor, for that matter,
what goldfinches, but the Arkansas and
American goldfinches of the West do not
behave in that manner, but it is a definite
characteristic of vireo behavior.
"Sincerely yours, J. O. P.”
* * * *
No vireo winters here.
The red-eyed vireo is an abundant
summer resident. It is ber* from late
April to early November.
The Philadelphia vireo is classed as a
rare migrant, to be seen, if at all, from
the first week in May to the first in
October.
The warbling vireo is a rare summer
resident, here between the latter part of
April and the first half of September.
The yellow-throated vireo is a common
summer resident, not seen as often as
the red-eyed.
The solitary vireo is classed as a reg
ular migrant, seen from April 6 to Oc
tober 20.
The white-eyed vireo is common
enough in the underbrush along the
Potomac.
It is the first to arrive, usually before
April 15, and may remain almost up
to November.
So it may be seen that we have half a
dozen vireos hereabouts, none of which
is here in the winter, to be mistaken
for a goldfinch in its winter garb.
The goldfinch is, after all, unmistakable.
The American goldfinch, our local one,
Is a common permanent resident, with a
coat for each of the main seasons, sum
mer and winter.
As far as we know, it is the only sort
of goldfinch hereabouts.
The European goldfinch was introduced
Into the United States at several times,
ranging from 1872 to 1886, but it is
scarcely likely that there are any of
them left.
The Arkansas goldfinch is slightly
smaller than the American goldfinch, so
widely called the wild canary.
It—the Arkansas form—has three
stages of development, and at one time
was given a different name under each
stage, until it was discovered that It was
all the same bird.
A variant form called the green-backed
goldfinch is found in the great Southwest.
The Arkansas goldfinch is sometimes
called the tarweed canary and the Ar
kansas greenback.
* * * *
The American goldfinch, the common
one, is larger in the Pacific Coast and so
has been called the willow goldfinch, but
it is the same old bird.
In the Rockies, it is paler and hence is
called the pale goldfinch, but again it is
the same species.
It is interesting to study the same bird
in various parts of the country and try to
figure out what makes it slightly different.
This may account for the different
habits, too. There is every likelihood
that a species might not act exactly the
same in different sections of the country.
* * * *
We have never seen a goldfinch at a
feeding station.
This will not mean that some one else
has not seen one in a trough of grain
or mixed seeds.
But in our yard no goldfinch has ever
come within a dozen feet of a feeding box,
no matter what foods were therein.
We believe that if it were stocked ex
clusively with the very weed seeds these
birds like, they would not come.
They much prefer to take their food
directly from nature. When there is no
snow, they feed from weeds. If snow
covers these, they like to eat at the alders.
If they cannot find these, they will seek
the seeds of the spruce and hemlock. Al
together, they are resourceful little birds.
* a a *
Dandelions and trumpet flowers will
attract goldfinches.
The only times when we have had gold
finches In the yard were in early spring
and late fall.
There was one exception. The birds
were after the trumpet vine pods In
January.
This vine is a good one to put on trees.
The flowers are great hummingbird at
tractors, being of the color and shape
preferred by the tiny ruby-throated hum
mingbird, the only one that comes to
this locality.
The trumpet vine once was a great
favorite, but In recent years Its popularity
has somewhat declined.
It Is a fine grower, but not what you
would call rampant. It lives year after
year, too, another good point.
A plant which can attract both hum
mingbirds and goldfinches Is well worth
having In any yard.
Gardeners should use the trumpet
vine more.
Letters to the Editor
Calls for Economies
In Preparation for Battle.
To the Editor of The SUr:
Our national administration has been
creating so many new governmental
agencies during the past nine years that
it actually is handicapped by them in its
war effort. They clutter up the Federal
District and in an effort to find office
space and living quarters for war workers,
the Government is scattering various
Government agencies all over the country.
Why not abolish a lot of unessential,
parasitic agencies? That would not only
make room for the war machine, but
would also save expenses to the taxpayer.
The latter is also desirable. The Gov
ernment is trying to do too many things
for the individual which the latter should
be doing for himself. For Instance, there
never was any Justification for the Gov
ernment's spending millions of the tax
payers’ money for “rural electrification.”
During the entire life of the R. E. A,
neither the Government nor the farmers,
as a group, were able to afford such lux
uries. Plenty of other Government ac
tivities could be abolished or curtailed.
In the early years of the New Deal,
when the responsible citizens of the coun
try became alarmed at the mushroom
growth of new governmental agencies, we
were told that the latter were but tem
porary organizations, created only "for
the emergency,” and that they would be
abolished In time. By the end of the
Hoover administration the number of
Federal employes In the District of Co
lumbia had been reduced from a wartime
peak of about 120,000 to about 57,000.
And Mr. Roosevelt, who was not yet
President, thought the latter figure was
too high. But since he became President
the number of Federal employes In Wash
ington has grown to four times what It
was In 1932, and as we are entering the
new war, It is already about twice what
it was at its peak during the last war.
It would seem that the time has come
to do some paring down. When a battle
ship prepares to go into battle, It “strips
for action,” all unessential structures and
equipment being removed. The entire
Nation now must do the same, and the
Government should set the example.
EDW. WOLESENSKY.
Replies to Senator's Char**
That People Were at Fault.
To the Editor of Tfct Otar:
In The Star for February 4 I find a
report headed: "All American People to
Blame for Hawaii Attack. Barkley Says."
That Is a ridiculous statement, and It
Is most surprising that any American
would make such a statement.
The terrible destruction of our ships
at Pearl Harbor Is graphically Illustrated
by the photographs In The Star for
February 3, and nobody could have been
responsible for such disaster save those
who should have been at the spot, but
who evidently were not on the Job.
They knew the strained conditions
which had existed between this country
and Japan for some time. It was their
business to have ship and plane patrols
circulating about that greatest naval
base In the world. H. B. BRADFORD.
Condemns Dogma of Scarcity
As Source of Prosperity.
To the Editor of Th« Star:
Members of Congress are to be con
gratulated for their wisdom in provid
ing generous pensions for themselves.
It seems that these congressmen are
afraid to compete In the economic world
that they have created and perpetuated
—a world where the right to work and
produce has degenerated to a tooth-and
claw battle between man and man to
get a Job and hold it. Maybe these
members of Congress are becoming aware
of the age limits on employment
The gospel of scarcity I How long must
ws plow under cotton, bury pork, bum
Letters to the Editor must
bear the name and address of
the writer, although the use of
a pseudonym for publication is
permissible. The Star reserves
the right to edit all letters with
a view to condensation.
sugar cane, refuse productive employ
ment to millions? Our unemployed in
this past decade could have given us
invincible armament. Even today, with
our inadequately armed forces facing
death in far parts of the world, employ
ment offices are choked with job-seekers;
older persons are denied the right to
participate in production; courts still
send hordes of hungry vagrants to jail,
and the theory that scarcity creates
prosperity still thrives unchecked.
Wake up, members of Congress, make
this truly a land of opportunity and you
will not have to pursue your purpose of
providing for yourselves while millions
of your fellow citizens face poverty and
despair. HARRY G. HECKER.
Sacramento, Calif.
Tells of Patriotic Tipping
In Aid of National Defense.
To the Editor of The 8tar:
It would seem that any new angle, plan
or procedure to help increase the sale of
Defense stamps would be welcomed.
The writer has tried out what he thinks
is a new idea. He has purchased a num
ber of Defense savings stamps and in at
tempting to be generous with those with
whom he comes in contact, who have ex
tended him service, especially in the
various eating places in Washington,
instead of leaving the conventional cash
tips, has substituted Defense savings
stamps.
This form of tipping is most acceptable.
It gives a recipient a feeling that he or
she, too, is contributing to this na
tional cause. E. L. BENNETT.
Replies to Congressional Critic
Of Government Employes,
ro the Editor of The Star:
I have read with a great deal of inter
est and amusement the statements made
by the esteemed Representative from
Indiana.
Does the gentleman actually feel that
he is justified in his remarks, or is he
merely trying to put himself in the spot
light during his first term in Congress?
The Representative states that in some
Instances 100 people are doing work which
easily could be done by six persons. If
such a situation exists, it seems to me
that it could be remedied if civil service
‘refused to create new positions without
first thoroughly investigating the neces
sity for them. There are far too many
persons being assigned to Government
Jobs for which they are not trained and
for which they have taken no examina
tions. Too many people also are being
sent to departments where there is no
actual need for their services.
As to the proposed curfew, that seems
an echo from Nazi Germany. If girls who
work for the Government are not per
mitted to have any amusement or relaxa
tion after office hours, If the manner of
spending their leisure hours is to be de
termined by a dictatorial Government,
then the war we are fighting has no
meaning. Even the suggestion of a cur
few for Government girls violates the
principles of freedom and democracy.
It is my belief—from my own personal
knowledge and observation—that the
average girl who works for the Govern
ment does not go out every night in the
week nor does she come to work minus
breakfast and make-up.
I think the Representative from In
diana could find more important things
to do during this time of emergency than
attempting to curtail the few hours of
liberty which fall to the lot of Govern
ment clerks. MART F. PAGE.
Haskin's Answers
To Questions
By Frederic J. Hasten.
A reader can get the answer to any
Question of fact by writing The Eve
ning Star Information Bureau, Fred
eric J. Haskin, director, Washington,
D. C. Please inclose stamp for reply.
Q. How much electricity will be saved
by going on daylight saving?—M. V.
A. The Federal Power Commission es
timates there will be a saving of 736,
282,000 kilowatt hour* of electricity an
nually.
Q. Why are the Australians called
"diggers”?—M. E.
A. The nickname derives from the
early days of gold digging In that coun
try.
Q. Where was Sally Benson, author of
"Junior Miss," bom?—M. V. L.
A. She was bom in 8t. Louis, Mo., but
has lived In New York since childhood.
Q. What does the "U” stand for In
U Maung Saw, the name of the Premier
of Burma?—C. S. S.
A. The U, in Burmese, means “elder*
and Is employed in the sense of "mister.*
• 111 ■
How to Cook Poultry—The rules
of modem poultry cooking are few
and easy to follow. They hold for
birds of all ages and kinds from
the spring chicken to the old hen
sent to market when she ceases to
pay her way in eggs. This publi
cation has 30 beautiful halftone
illustrations, numerous recipes and
suggestions for carving. To secure
your copy of this booklet inclose 10
cents in coin, wrapped in this clip
ping, and mail to The Star Infor
mation Bureau.
Name
Address
Q. Does cold weather affect the run*
nlng of a clock?—H. M.
A. The National Bureau of Standards
says that temperature affects clocks un
less they are specially compensated for
temperature changes. Most clocks tend
to gain in cold weather and to lose in
hot weather.
Q. What is the name of the tree that
has hundreds of roots?—O. A. D.
A. The banyan tree, which belongs to
the mulberry family, is notable for its
aerial roots. They grow from the
branches and on reaching the soil
thicken and form supporting pillars.
Q. Can the flesh of the porcupine be
used for food?—M. L. B.
A. The flesh of the porcupine is edible
and considered quite a delicacy by the
Indians.
Q. What is the neutral comer in box
ing?— B. M.
A. A neutral comer is the comer which
is not being used by any of the con
testants between rounds for their rest
periods.
Q. Are there any birds besides ostriches
that cannot fly?—W. S. B.
A. The kiwis of New Zealand, the
cassowaries of Australia, the emus of
Australia and penguins are unable to fly.
Q. Have any pieces ever been written
for the violin alone, without accompani
ment?—R. F.
A. There is a considerable repertoire
of such music, the best-known piece be
ing the famous “Chaconne,” by Bach.
Q. Is school attendance compulsory in
all States?—M. E. L.
A. Since 1918 compulsory school at
tendance laws have existed in all the
States.
Q. Where was Simon Newcomb, the
great astronomer, bom?—C. L. O.
A. Newcomb was bom at Wallace
Bridge, Nova Scotia, on March 12, 1835.
His ancestors, of New England extrac
tion, were among the early settlers in
Nova Scotia. He worked his way to
Salem, Mass., and thence to Maryland,
where he privately studied mathematics.
Q. Can you name the three Indian
women who acted as guides or interpre
ters during certain exploring expedi
tions?—M. L.
A. Sacagawea, who was known as the
“bird woman” accompanied Lewis and
Clark in 1804 and 1805. The “Lady of
Cofitachequi” went with De Soto's army
from the neighborhood of Augusta, Ga,
to the Little Tennessee in 1540. Dona
Marina accompanied Cortez in his con
quest of Mexico.
Q. Why Is a cat so often referred to
as pussy?—L. S. F.
A. Its origin is unknown, although the
word is present in many Teutonic lan
guages. It was applied also, in the 17th
century and since, to hares.
Q. What is the origin of the name of
bridge?—B. M.
A. In the original bridge whist, the
dealer could name trump or could
‘‘bridge" this prerogative over to his
partner, and it is from this that the
name derives.
Q. How tall was Maginot?—N. K. A.
A. Maginot was 6 ft. 6 in. tall.
Q. What percentage of the inhabi
tants of Martinique consists of Negroes?
—E. B. A.
A. Negroes comprise 99 per cent of the
population.
Q. Who developed cubism in art?—
A. K. B.
A. This form was evolved by Picasso
in collaboration with Braque.
Q. How far is it from Niagara Palls to
the home of the Dionne quintuplets?
—R. D. H.
A. The distance from Niagara Fall*
to Callander, Ontario, the home of the
quintuplets, is approximately 310 miles.
*
Q. What is the most popular shade of
automobile?—T. F. C.
A. Black is the most popular color.
Q. How long has the Homes take mine
in South Dakota been operating?—O.
H. A.
A. It has been producing almost con
tinuously since 1876.
Q. In which State are the most wild
flowers found?—F. L. A.
A. Texas claims to have more varletlea
of wild flowers than any other State, the
number exceeding 1,400.
Q. What is Mickey Rooney’s real
name?—S. X.
A. The actor's real name is Joe Yule, Jr.
a

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