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With Sunday Morning Edition. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. WASHINGTON, D. C. SATURDAY....February 28, 1942 The Evening Star Newspaper Company. Ma n Office: 11 tb Bt. and Pennsylvania Ava. New York Office: 110 East 42nd Et Chicago Office: 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—City and Suburban. Hegular Edition. Evening and Sunday 75c per mo. or 18c ppr week The Evening Star . 45c per mo. or 10c per week The Sunday Star 10c per copy Night Final Edition. Night Final and Sunday Star 85c per month Night Final Star bOc per month Kural Tube Delivery. The Evening and Sunday Star 85c per month The Evening Star.. _... 65c per month The Sunday Star 10c per copy Collections made at the end of each month or eRch week. Orders may be sent by mail or tele phone National 6000 Rate by Mail—Payable in Advance. Daily and Sunday 1 yr., #12.00: 1 mo.. $1 On Daily only _ 1 yr.. #8.00; 1 mo., 75c 6unday only- 1 yr.. #5.00; 1 mo.. 60c Entered as second-class matter post office, Washington. D. C. Member of ihe Associated Press. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use for republlcation of all news dispatches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this paper and also the local news published herein. All rights of publ-ratlon of special dispatches herein also are reserved. Non-Resident Judges In fairness to the District and in the best interests of sound judicial administration, it is to be hoped that the Senate will reconsider its action in strikihg from the bill to merge the local Police and Municipal Courts a provision requiring that appointees to the merged bench be actual resi dents of the District. Under existing law appointees to the Municipal Court and to the Police Court must have been actual residents of the community for at least five years prior to their selec tion. Similarly, a three-year resi dence requirement applies in the case of District Commissioners and civil ian members of the Public Utilities Commission. Why should this long-standing principle be abandoned in the case of the proposed new court? The only reason advanced by the sponsor of the change. Senator Tydings of Maryland, is that approximately one third of the lawyers practicing before the District Courts live outside the city limits. Yet neither Senator Tydings nor any one else contends that an abundance of capable judicial material cannot be found among the members of the bar who actually reside here. In this connection, it might be pointed out that members of the District bar who live in Maryland and Virginia often are primarily in terested in the affairs of their place of residence. Many of them take an active part in the political affairs of the nearby counties. Certainly, they do not have that undivided interest in the problems of the District which is characteristic of lawyers whose residence as well as their practice is here, and which is so essential to the best administration of justice. The bill to merge the Police and Municipal Courts—both of which are strictly local tribunals—is a prom ising step in the right direction. It is to be hoped its beneficial effect will not be vitiated by retention of any amendment to break down the residence requirement for the judges who will administer the affairs of the merged tribunal. County Governments The rapid growth of suburban communities adjacent to the District of Columbia in recent years has led certain groups in each county bor dering on Washington to examine closely their basic governmental setups. In Arlington County, geograph ically the smallest county in the Nation and perhaps the fastest growing, the study has led to a movement to convert the county into a city under Virginia law. A similar effort to change the county's status through incorporation was defeated some years ago. Subsequently the county-manager form of government was inaugurated. It is not dissatis faction with the county-manager system, however, that has caused the present movement for a change. The proposal has been made because some officials and citizens believe Arlington would gain certain finan cial and administrative advantages if it functioned under the laws of the State as a city rather than as a county. Cities have power to create debt, which the counties lack, and the basis for allotment to cities of State funds for schools, highways, courts, etc., differs from that for counties. If enabling legislation permitting Arlington to become a city is passed by the General Assem bly, the issue will be settled at a referendum. In Montgomery County a spirited discussion has been under way for some weeks over the circulation of petitions by the County Civic Federa tion calling for a referendum on the question of adopting the charter form of government. Details of the governmental setup under such a charter have not been determined. The federation’s action is the latest development in a movement, begun about three years ago, that led to an exhaustive study of Montgomery's government by the Brookings Insti tution. While that step antedated the current war boom, it also resulted from a widely held belief that the ex isting governmental structure, which retains much of the traditional rural form, should be re-examined in the light of the county’s rapid growth. In Prince Georges County steps to change the form of government have not advanced as far as in the neighboring counties. There have been indications, nevertheless, that thoughtful citizens and leaders be lieve certain changes would be help ful. Soon after the results of the Brookings survey In Montgomery were made known, Prince Georges civic groups proposed a similar study tn their county, perhaps by Univer slty of Maryland specialists. No official action was taken, however. More recently, T. Howard Duckett, civic and political leader, received a cordial response from the County Civic Federation when he proposed the abolition of the multiple incorpo rated towns and special taxing areas in the Metropolitan Area and the organization of the territory into a single municipal unit. At this time the war is, or should be, the one item of major concern i to every American. Nevertheless changes such as proposed for the counties around Washington affect the citizens there vitally. It is im portant that they take the time to weigh the proposals carefully—or postpone determination of the issues until after the war. Russian Offensive Moscow’s announcement of a de cisive victory in the district of Sta raya Russa should be considered both as a local success and as part of a renewed Russian offensive along the whole north-central front from Leningrad to Smolensk. Staraya Russa is a point of high strategic importance. Lying 140 miles southeast of Leningrad, it is a junc tion for three railroads and several highways. The region about Sta raya Russa is a maze of swamps and small rivers flowing into Ldke Ilmen, just to the northward. These give excellent protection except in winter, when marshes and rivers are alike frozen to a depth permitting the passage of tanks and heavy artillery. This accounts for the infiltrating tactics of the Red forces which over came the desperate resistance of the Germans and by-passed the town itself. That, at least, is the Moscow version, which Berlin emphatically denies, though it does admit fierce Russian attacks and heavy fighting. Assuming the Moscow version to be correct, the fall of Staraya Russa would abolish the southern half of the German salient whose northern part, north of Lake Ilmen, is an chored upon the city of Novgorod. Once this key salient is taken, the Russians presumably could push westward and cut the railway line running north and south from Leningrad to Vitebsk. This is the main lateral communication line be hind the German winter front. In deed, by pushing a bit farther west ward, the Russians might cut the other main north-south railway line on which the German armies besieging Leningrad largely de pend. The cutting of those vital communications would render the German position before Leningrad so precarious that the siege might have to be raised promptly in order to avoid a major disaster. The Germans reportedly are throw ing in large reserves to stem this Russian offensive. That must have a reflex effect upon their ability to stem another big Russian attack on the great Smolensk salient, whifch is being hammered heavily by the Reds on all three sides, especially at its southern base, where Moscow reports the capture of the town of Dorogo buzh. The abolition of that salient would deprive the Wehrmacht of its only promising springboard for a renewed push toward Moscow in the spring. That climatic fact is, beyond doubt, the basic reason for the re newed stepping-up of Russia’s of fensive. Already, the snows in the Crimea and along the Black Sea are beginning to melt. A few weeks hence, the genial breath of spring will sweep out of the south, turning snow and frostbound soil into slush and mud which will virtually immo bilize both armies for from one to two months, according to the na ture of the terrain. This is the last chance to take advantage of winter conditions which favor the Russians in many ways. And, by current re ports, they seem to be making good use of the time which remains to them. The death of John Harris, inventor j of welding, is announced with regret. The death of the inventor of welders’ strikes would be announced with pleasure. Justice for All In setting up a new system for the legal defense of indigent persons ac cused of crime, the local bench and bar have taken proper notice of the fact that the improvised “public de fender” arrangement which has pre vailed in the past has fallen far short of the objective of equal justice for all. In the past the judges have called upon a limited number of lawyers for this feeless service and occasionally those selected in major cases were relatively inexperienced in criminal procedure and were given but little time to consult with the defendants and prepare their cases. There have been indications that persons accused of serious crimes did not receive the quality of legal advice to which they were entitled. The faults of the old system were discussed by the Judicial Conference for the District of Columbia at a previous meeting, with the result that a joint committee of the bar associations, acting with a justice of the District Court, was authorized to prepare and put into effect a plan of reform. Reporting for this commit tee, Associate Justice Proctor has just advised the conference that such a plan has been formulated and will become operative during March. Under the new arrangement, a large panel of active practitioners, capable of rendering efficient service to in digent defendants, will be made ' available to the court. With the co operation of jail officials, such at torneys will confer with indigent prisoners immediately upon commit ment to await grand Jury action, «o that the designated lawyers may have ample opportunity to famil iarize themselves with the cases they have been assigned to defend. The prisoner at the bar then will have had the benefit of competent ad vance counsel before pleading to an indictment. The new plan thus will serve the dual purpose of better protecting the rights of underprivileged citizens and of spreading more evenly the duties of defending them. Admittedly such duties constitute a burden which should not be borne by a few mem bers of the bar. As one means of compensating members of the de fense panel, the committee proposes that the court make use of the group in appointing lawyers to defend cer tain divorce actions and to serve in guardianship, fiduciary and other cases involving compensation. With proper co-operation between the at torneys and the Judges, the revised arrangement should help materially in assuring fair treatment under the law of an unfortunate class of fellow citizens. Defense Contract Taxes Representative Cochran of Mis souri again has drawn attention to a condition that needs correcting by the introduction of a bill to exempt Government defense contracts from l State and local taxation. On the basis of the tremendous expenditures to which the Govern ment is committed, Mr. Cochran estimates that sales, use, income and other taxes, levied against contrac tors and passed on to the Govern ment, will call for an outlay of more than a billion dollars. This is ri diculous when 'it is considered that the taxing Jurisdictions will get the same benefit from the arms program as the rest of the country. Right now, to cite an outstanding example of the incongruities that have de veloped. the Army and Navy are attempting to adjust claims for gross receipts taxes which the territory of Hawaii seeks to collect from contrac tors engaged in a project designed to protect the island against further attack. And this is but one of many similar instances. At the inception of the defense program, Congress refused to enact legislation to exempt contractors from State taxation, and the Su preme Court added a clincher a few weeks ago, in two cases from Alabama, holding a cantonment con tractor subject to the State sales and use tax. The mere fact that the tax eventually was included in the cost which the Government bore, did not affect the liability, the court said in the unanimous decision read by Chfef Justice Stone, which brushed aside the contention that the con stitutional immunity of the Fed eral Government from State taxa tion was a barrier to collection. The court indicated, however, that Con gress could provide immunity by legislation. 1 The Army and Navy are backing the Cochran bill principally because the harassing effect of these State and local taxes tends to discourage contractors from taking war work, but the Treasury has withheld ap proval, according to the Missourian, arguing that the taxes are not dis criminatory. Mr. Cochran ascribes this attitude to the fact that the de partment does not w-ant to compro mise its position in favor of levying the Federal income tax on income from State and local securities. There is little or no analogy between the two issues, however. Failure of Congress to act favor ably on this question edsily might serve as an incentive for additional tax burdens on defense work, par ticularly since the pinch of war time restrictions undoubtedly will be felt on other sources of revenue, causing States and municipalities to look around for new income. Donald Woodward When the prophet Isaiah referred to the merchants of Tyre, “the crowning city,” as princes, he pro vided a phrase which may be applied with justice to Donald Woodward of Washington, whose life closed yes terday. He was a person of chival rous manner and bearing. His defer ence to others was courtly in its graciousness. It is not too much to say that he was a statesman in com merce. He belonged to “the honorable of the earth.” Certainly, he was indebted to his parents for the opportunity of serv ice which he inherited as their son. Yet Mr. Woodward might have won a “self-made” success in any other field of enterprise that he could have chosen. He accepted the tradition into which he was born because it was a duty so to do. But it would be an error to suppose that he did not make his own original contribution to the establishment whose principal executive officer he was for nearly twenty-five years. The institution which bears his name in association with that of his father's partner is a monument to him as well as to his predecessors. He assisted its growth and added to its value to the com munity. It must be mentioned also that Mr. Woodward was generous with his wealth. Modesty prompted him to conceal many of his benefactions,* but those that necessarily were a matter of public record sufficed to show that he was in truth a philan thropist. He is entitled to remem brance likewise as a soldier, a good citizen of the District of Columbia and, above all, a patriotic American who deeply loved his country and quietly but effectively desired to be of use to it. A long illness has ended his career at a time when, had he been granted health, he would have been glad to bear his part of the common burden. Of Stars, Men And Atoms Notebook of Science Progress In Laboratory, Field And Study By Thomas R. Henry. Day after day traffic policemen breath fumes of carbon monoxide gas from automobile exhausts. That, the suggestion frequently has been made, Is what makes so many of them mean. It is the same gas whose fumes, breathed in a closed garage, rapidly prove fatal. But the policeman no longer need fear serious effects on his health after experiments arranged by Drs. Rudolph F. Sievers and Thomas I. Edwards of the United States Public Health Service and Drs. Arthur L. Murray and H. H. Schrenk of Pittsburgh. The tests were conducted, they have Just reported to the American Medical Association, on 158 polipemen stationed In the Holland Tunnel. The majority of them have been on the Job 4 hours a day for 13 years. They were in good health when they started work, have since had periodic medical examinations, and steady jobs at good wages have enabled them to live well. Unavoidably they breathe much more carbon monoxide In the closed tunnel, however well it Is ventilated, than do traffic officers on the outside. The con centration of the gas had been recorded continuously ever since the tunnel was opened in 1927. With from 10.000 t« 16,000 cars moving through a single tube every day, the records show, the average exposure of officers on duty Is about 70 parts of monoxide to a million parts of air. * The only complaints of the men, the Government doctors found, were that they sometimes quit work with throb bing headaches after hot, windless days. One effect of constant exposure to carbon monoxide, it has been claimed, is to raise the blood pressure and cause various heart conditions. The Holland Tunnel officers after 13 years had better i hearts than the majority of men of their age. Most notable effects of the gas in heavy concentrations is on the nerv ous system. The policemen showed almost unimpaired nervous systems, relative to the population at large. This only meant, of course, that they had not deteriorated. They had undergone strict physical examinations before get ting the jobs. Besides the customary examinations an excellent test for judging the in tegrity of the nervous system was avail able in the form of marksmanship records obtained annually on the pistol range. There was no significant differ ence in the scores of men who had worked in the carbon monoxide atmos phere for 13 years and those who had worked there for shorter periods. As a group the tunnel officers have ranked high in shooting competitions. • The study is significant, the Govern ment physicians say, because the con centration of carbon monoxide fumes in the Holland Tunnel represents about the maximum to which workers may be exposed in industry. In recent months Public Health Service engineers have been conducting a survey of arse nals and various establishments engaged in war work. No serious damage is to be anticipated, it is concluded, so long as there are no higher concentrations, but they urge that the utmost precautions be taken to keep the air as pure as possible. Has America deteriorated mentally In 25 years? About 7 per cent of rejections of drafted men for general military service are for mental or nervous ailments. This is about twice as bad as during the First World War but, selective service psychiatrists say, it is very difficult to | make comparisons, although there is some reason to believe there has been a slight decrease in mental abnormalities due to the faster pace of living and the great depression. But the psychiatric examination of draftees in 1917-18 was very superficial. A man was accepted if he had approxi mately normal nerve reactions and was not obviously crazy. As a result, men who suffered mental breakdowns in some way tracable to service have filled Gov ernment hospitals ever since and cast the Government more than a billion dollars, with the end nowhere in sight. By 1945, according to an estimate in the current issue of Psychiatry, journal , of the White Psychiatric Foundation which is advising the Government on this subject, it may be expected that 800,000 men will have been rejected for nervous and mental causes. Many of these would have been accepted 24 years ago. The rejections, the journal editors cal culate, may be expected to save tax payers of the next generation approxi mately $17,500,000,000, assuming that dis abled veterans get the same care and benefits as have been given their First World War predecessors. There is one cause of rejection this time which would have been laughed at in 1917-18 and still would be laughed at if it had not proven so Incredibly expensive—the personality defect. Cer tain types of personalities, the First World War experience showed, are especially prone to go to pieces under stress, throw away battles if they happen to be in important positions, and live off the taxpayers for the rest of their lives. These rejections have aroused much opposition. A man may be in apparently perfect health, highly intelligent, act normally, and present a pleasant person ality. Here is a case, for example, that led to a controversy between Army officers and Dr. Harry Stack Sullivan, psychiatric adviser to the Selective Serv ice Headquarters. The man had come to Washington from the Midwest on a defense agency job. In two years he had lost about 20 pxmnds and had not been able to regain it by any diet. He had a pulse rate of 128 and it was markedly irregular. “In personality,” reads the report on him, “he was imp»erturbable, quietly very alert, skillfully agreeable. His intelli gence was superior. His brothers were already identified with the Army as a career.” The man did not object to being drafted. He told the psychiatrists, how ever, that he was in love with a Wash ington war worker and was worried lest she forget him if he were sent to a training camp. “This fellow is fine officer material,” said the Army doctors. He was drafted. • THIS AND THAT By Charles E. Tracewell. "BETHESDA, Md. ‘Dear Sir: "In your article of February 24 was a letter from M. T. J. asking the Identity of certain birds, which, from his descrip tion, you identified as goldfinches. “These seem to be the same birds that I have had for the past two or three weeks and I have identified them as purple finches. At first I thought they were three distinct types of birds, as the male, female and immature young were so different, but on looking it up, found they were all purple finches. “A few days ago the males and the immature young disappeared, but today I have 12 females. "These finches seem to be tamer than the goldfinches and eat on the feeder a few feet from the window and on the ground beneath the feeder. • Since having my feeder, I enjoy your articles more than ever. "Sincerely yours, I. H. * * * * There is no doubt about Mrs H. having purple finches, but that M. T. J. did is still open to doubt. The latter said that "tiny gray birds” never once ate off the ground. Purple finches always do. Now, purple finches (even the females and the young, which look alike i, are not "tiny” in any sense. The male, in deed, is rather husky, being from 6 to 6 Vi inches long. A feature of all the purple finches is that they are streaked, the male with bright purple, or wine, and the others with brown. M. T. J. said that the birds never once flew around with the other birds or ate on the ground with them. Purple finches do both. * * * * But it makes no difference when it comes to purple finches. Any one who has them is fortunate, and February is their month, undoubt edly, hereabouts. Usually the observer is attracted by the bright males. These are of such a different color that they always call attention to themselves. It is impossible for even the newcomer to bird watching to fail to wonder what they are, after a little time. Occasionally an amateur will believe them to be young cardinals, but the color is entirely different. In some parts of the country the females have been called "English spar rows" by hasty observers, who, not liking these sparrows, have immediately dis patched them, thereby depriving the world of some of its most beautiful birds, L e., purple finches. * * * • The purple finch is about 6'« inches long. whic£ takes him out of the "tiny" class. The male is pinkish-purple and brown; the female olive-grayish above and white below, conspicuously streaked above and below. The crown of the male Is a deep wine purple. This is a better way to put It than pinkish-purple. Wine Is all over the back and shoulders, often In two depths, streaked. The distinctive thing about the male Is this glorious color. It almost has an electric something or other, which demands that the eye look at it. Occasionally the starling has this in an "electric blue,” when reflected light hits him Just right in the spring. * * * * By the way, listen to the starlings from now on. You are likely to hear some of the sweetest notes in the entire repertoire of birdland. It will be necessary, however, to con nect up the whistle with the birds. Starlings are not bold singers. They are rather shy at it; they prefer to be con cealed in bushes or evergreens. Their range of sounds from now on is marvelous. Government scientists who have spent their time studying the species extremely closely report that no body gives the bird one-tenth enough credit as a musician. Persons who like music for itself, not as a show-piece or a subject for sophis ticated conversation, know that its range 1 is far wider than many give it credit for; not only does music range from sym phony to cantata and through opera to musical comedy, but it also has thou sands of folk songs, the very stuff from which all the other music is made. These folk songs of all nations have come into their own in recent years. It ; is no longpr fashionable to sneer at a folk songs because they are simple. We realize now that the great masters loved them and used them in their greatest works. The song ideas of the starling are simple, but they are good. You need not listen for the purple finch much while he is here. He is on the way North, where he will do most of his singing. His loud, lovely song will be heard in the forests there not long from now. Hereabouts we must be content mostly with his color. The householder with a feeding sta tion by the window will never forget the morning a male purple finch alights on it. It has a coloration all its own. Even at some distance in a flower bor der the male purple finch is easily spotted by his feathers. The color is not bright, so much as different. Somehow’ it reminds you of poke-berry juice. Letters to the Editor Explains Criticism of "Brass Hats" Was Not Aimed at Services. To the Editor of The Star: Referring to an Associated Press report carried in late editions of The Star for February 19, in which Representative Smith of Virginia was quoted as having criticized me for “a tirade against the Army of the United States,” I wish to say that, as an Army officer of many years' service, I would hardly oppose either the Army or Navy, which services I regard as the best in the world. As soon as Mr. Smith finished speak ing. I arose and said that I was there to protect the Army and Navy against "a few brass hats.” or words to that effect. Our association always has supported the President's preparedness policies and war effort. In verification of this state ment, I refer you to a radio address re printed in the Congressional Record for October 15, 1941, headed "Superiority in the Air Means Victory on Land and Sea.” I would appreciate it very much indeed If you would print this letter in your paper and thus correct any wTong im pression concerning my efforts to secure air preparedness. J. E. MYERS, Col.. U. S. A., Retired. President, Aviation Defense Assn., Inc. Resent* Criticism Of Britain and Russia. To the Editor of The St»r: Next to a direct act of treason the worst form of disloyalty to the United States is to treat with insult or con tumely either England or Russia, our Allies and co-partners in the fight against Germany and Japan. Unjust criticism of England's war ef fort is destructive of unity and en couraging to the enemy. Whether we like the English or not. England and the whole commonwealth of British nations are today indispensable to our survival as a free people. During the past six months the Rus sians have been keeping back the Nazi avalanche. Who p-re we to insult a peo ple who have demonstrated their courage and self-sacrifice? Assuming that our religious and political ideas are the best available, what have we done to bring the Kingdom of Heaven to earth? I do not know how "red” the Russians are in politics, but the whole world knows them to be a red-blooded nation. Let us emulate their devotion and directness of purpose. HYACINTHE RINGROSE. Discusses Difficulties Of Sugar Registration. To the Editor of The Otar: On the first page of The Star for Feb ruary 23 there was an article relating to the Sugar Rationing Board. In this article, after stating that the registration for sugar rationing will be conducted in most of the public schools, the following He probably will be sent to an officer’s training camp. “It's all luck,” says Dr. Sullivan. "I'm Just waiting.” This man, he says, is a "schizoid per sonality.” And, he continues, “If I was in a tight fix the men I would want around me would be schizoids, if I was sure it wouldn’t last very long.” But these men arrive at the point of nervous exhaustion very quickly. He urged that the man be turned down and was overruled. There were, of course, just as many schizoids in 1017-18. From their ranks came some of the outstanding heroes of the war—also men for whose support the Government will be paying $100 a month for years to come. Letters to the Editor must bear the name and address of i the writer, although the use of a pseudonym for publication is permissible. The Star reserves the right to edit all letters with a view to condensation. occurs: “The questionnaires, indicating the number of persons in the family and the amount of sugar on hand, will be turned over to the sugar board and the registrants will then have to apply di rectly to the board for coupon books, according to Commissioner Mason." The latter portion, if a correct state ment, will mean that registrants from all over the District must apply, in per son or by mail, to the one office (that of the sugar board in the Force School) for the coupon books. Whether they apply in person or by mail, the result will be the worst bottleneck this city ever has experienced and made worse, both for the board and the individual, if the residents apply in person. Why cannot registrants obtain their coupon books at the time they fill out the questionnaire? The job of distribu- j tion thus would be greatly facilitated. That, as I am told, is the plan that is being considered by Baltimore. If it is considered that under such a plan there would be too much risk of several members of the same family going to different schools and obtaining a greater number of books than they are entitled to receive, then let there be an interval between registration and the issuance of books to afford opportunity for the board to make a check against any such scheme, the books thereafter to be sent to the schools for distribution. J. G. MASSEY. Says Cheaper Construction Is Available for Wartime Use. To the Editor of The 8t«r: On a day tljat The Star carried an article .showing that a shortage of ten million men was faced by the arms pro duction plants, a committee of Congress was considering a proposal to authorize a residence building program for the District of Columbia which would em ploy the full time of 40,000 men, here or elsewhere, for six months, in order to provide housing for 20,000 war workers. At the same time various Government housing agencies are placing orders for more than 10,000 housing units a week, each one of which roughly requires the equivalent of the labor of three men for six months, directly or indirectly. Of course, housing is necessary, but negligible consideration is given to the fact that good construction is available requiring less than half of the man hours of labor or the amount of ma terial involved in conventional construc tion being used. We have ruthlessly policed the waste of materials and man power in private industry. When are we going to begin policing the waste by Government agencies? E. W. PENTON. Asks Trenchant Questions About Hero of Bataan. To the Editor of The Star: The situation of Gen. MacArthur in the Philippines generally is spoken of as such that no assistance may be rendered to him. Would it not be possible to furnish him arms and ammunition by plane? Don’t worry but that he will provide a landing place. And as for man power, may not it reach him by infiltration from the outside native pop ulation? Again he will see to that also. Why not talk about what may be done Instead of saying nothing can be done I VERITY. Haskin's Answers To Questions . By Frederic J. Haskin. A reader can get the answer to any question of fact by writing The Eve ning Star Information Bureau, Fred eric J. Haskin, director, Washington, D. C. Please inclose stamp for reply. Q. How much hu unemployment de creased In the past year?—T. A. E. A. According to estimate* of the Con ference Board, the average number of unemployed Is slightly less than 3,500,000, or fully 50 per cent below the comparable 1940 total of 7,800,000. Q. Which is the smallest state in the world?—N. D. A. A. Vatican City, which comprises only 106 7 acres, is the world’s smallest state. It is called a sovereignty and the full executive powers are vested In the aov ereign pontiff. The office of governor of the Vatican City was created In 192# for the protection of property, the main tenance of public order and hygiene and the ordinary relations with the Italian state. Q. Will the Kentucky Derby be run this year?—C. N. F. A. The Kentucky Derby has been set for Saturday, May 2, 1942, the date au thorized by the Kentucky State Racing Commission. Uncle Sam’s Almanac—A store house of facts, figures and tables covering 200 subjects. Includes many new and timely features, such as family income expendi tures, food - for - defense budget, rank and Insignia of Army and Navy, and some 1940 population figures. Also material on sports, aviation, radio, taxes, as well as the usual almanac and calendar pages. To secure your copy of this publi cation inclose 10 cents in coin, wrapped in this clipping, and mail to The Star Information Bureau. Name Address Q. What percentage of deaths are caused by accidents?—S. R. A. At all ages combined, in recent years, accidents caused about 9 per cent of all deaths among males in the United States and about 5 per cent among females. Q. Is there anything that can be dona for a tree that will not bear fruit?— G. M. C. A. The United States Department of Agriculture suggests the following tem porary expedient that frequently proves quite effective. When the tree la in bloom cut a big bouquet of blossoming branches from a fruit tree of the same kind, but of another variety. Put these branches in a pail or can of water hung on a branch of the tree. Bees working the trees will visit the blossoms on the pollinizing bouquet and transfer pollen to the blossoms growing on the tree. Q Where did the ordinary brown rat originally come from?—R. E. A. The brown rat is believed to have first Invaded Europe from Asia in 1727, when hordes of them swam the Volga River. About the same year they arrived in England on ships from the Orient. Since then, traveling by ships and inland routes, they have spread to all parts of the world. Q. Is snow formed from frozen rain?— S. Y. A. It is not. Though snow may melt into rain, rain cannot freeze back into snow. Frozen raindrops form sleet. Snow Is formed when the water vapor in tha air condenses at, a temperature below the freezing point. Q. Of the three branches of the service, Army, Navy and Marine Corps, which is the oldest?—N. V. E. A. The War Department says that with respect to the armed forces of the United States proper, the Army, the Navy and the Marine Corps are all of equal age, since all were in existence in July 1776. when our independence from Great Britain was declared. Q. Please give some information in re gard to the British constitution.—W. L. A. The British constitution is mainly unwritten and customary, but its devel opment is marked by certain funda mental laws of which the principal are Magna Carta (1215), the Habeas Corpus Act (1679), the Act of Settlement (1701», the Act of Union with Scotland (1707), the Act of Union with Ireland (1800>, the Parliament Act (1911), Government of Ireland Act (1920), the Irish Free State Agreement Act <1922> and the Statute of Westminster (1931). Q. Who were the three Presidents of the United States who held office during one month?—M. L. O. A. Martin Van Buren was President at the time William Henry Harrison was elected President in 1840. Harrison died, however, only a month after his inaugu ration and the Vice President, John Tyler, became President. Q. Is it permissible to give a ahower for a bride-to-be when her engagement is announced even though the date for the marriage has not been set?—B. E. F. A. It is correct to give a prospective bride a shower as soon as her engage ment is announced. The fact that the wedding date has not been decided upon has no bearing upon the question. By the Winter Haystack The hayloft was full—it had been packed To the gables; so at last they stacked Tfie late autumn mowing in a mound On the south meadow, where field mice found Homes in its clover, and the old ox Came regularly as trusty clocks Strike noon, to lie drowsing in sun Close against the stack; the dun Field was whitened with chill and snow, But lifting his head, the wise and slow Gaze of the ox looked beyond cold, And nudging the hay with a sinewy fold, He found the warm perfume of summer's flower There in the winter’s noontime hour. JESSIE M. DOWLIN.