Newspaper Page Text
In Our Navy Criticized 'Disorganization' Charge by Officer Is Quoted By DAVID LAWRENCE. No 'court-martial now for either Kirnmel or. Short and maybe not till after the war. This announce ment marks the test real defeat for public opinion since the war started. For it means that un der' the conven ient excuse given by the adminis tration that the enemy- miist not be permitted to know the mis takes that led up to Pearl Harbor, the American people will not know them David Lawrence. I either. And this means that the same system of incompetent opera tion of the Navy Department which made Pearl Harbor possible will be continued'. The outside world may not realize It, but a controversy of the deepest significance has been raging for some time among Navy officers of high rank concerning the right kind of an organization for the Navy Department in wartime. The out side world may suppose that since Pearl Harbor the faulty organiza tion has been corrected. But the truth is some of the highest among our naval experts think the present organization, involving as it does a system of dual control within the Navy, is cumbersome and ineffective end should be changed. Admiral Taussig, who, like Billy Mitchell’, was punished for a patri otic attempt to serve his country by constructive criticism of the exist ing "tradition,” wrotp an article in January, 1940, which was published In Naval Institute Proceedings an alyzing the weaknesses of the Navy organization. It was made part of the public records of the Senate Naval Affairs Committee on April 22. 1940. It not only pointed out the errors in the setup, but gave con crete recommendations for Improve ment. The principal contention of Ad miral Taussig was that the chief of naval operations cannot give or ders to.the other bureau chiefs in the Navy Department. He cannot even assign officers to the fleet without the consent of one of his subordinates—chief of the Bureau of Navigation. Disorganization Charged. Now President Roosevelt has su perimposed on an already confusing system of bureau chief control an other high-ranking officer—the com mander in chief of the United States Fleet„who has no statutory author ity to give orders to -the chief of naval operations, but probably' does. CommenUng on the present state of affairs, a naval officer, whose namp must necessarily be withheld, observed omy last week in a letter to a friend: ■ Right as Admiral Taussig was on the Far Eastern issue, he was much 'inore correct in trying to impress a workable organization on the Navy. Diie to the superimposing of the Chmmander -in Chief of the United fttates Rleet over th£ Chief of Naval Operations, everything is in a terri ble state of disorganization. Officers spend more time trying to find out w;hich office to appease in order to get letters approved than in prepar ing the letters themselves. "In spite of the self-evident truth, *o ably shown by Admiral Taussig .that the Navy organization would not function in war, 1 can see no real Improvement in this dual system of control. When an organization doesn't work, the remedy seems to 1 be to superimpose something else. ] Of pourse with the proper spirit of co-operation most any organization can be made to work some way or •other, but I am still wondering about our present setup.” - The -foregoing type of criticism comes indirectly but nevertheless is 'authentic. Yet nothing of this kind can officially see the light of day when a court-marital is postponed indefinitely and when congressional .'Naval Affairs Committees are in fluenced by the administration to squelch any public inquiry. It does seem inexplicable that the Senate or House Naval Affairs Com mittees do not feel their responsi bility to the American people suffi ciently td insist on knowing at least the form of organization that exists In the Navy Department and sub jecting it to the scrutiny of retired officers who are-free to speak. For the truth is that' while Ad miral Kimmel and Gen. Short did not take all the precautions they should. It is also true that the Navy and War Department officers in Wash ington failed to do certain things which, if the courts-martial are On the Record Government Criticized for Conducting War With People in Role of 'Outsiders' By DOROTHY THOMPSON. In Washington one hears com plaints that the people are not awake, that they "don't fully rea lize the war.” In all humility, I would like to suggest to Washing ton what the rea sons for this arp. . "Morale" is not created by press agents. Nor is it created fcv the action of an admin istration. It is self-created by the people Dorothy Thompson. themselves. You cannot have a . people’s war unless the people actively participate in it. And participation implies more than merely carrying out bureaucratic orders. It means helping to cre ate new instruments for the win ning of the war. Notv the feeling of the people is that there is really nothing creative they can do about this war, unless they rdn to Wash ington and get a job in an agency. From moving about this country and talking with large numbers of groups, I have found one thing: Frustration. The people are aware of a great many things that deeply perturb them. But they have the feeling that to do anything about them might upset the adminis tration machinery. Somehow they must fit themselves as cogs into the mechanism or be useless. Since it is> impossible to organize over 100,000.000 people like a ma chine and, above all. organize the American people, who have an entirely different tradition of organized action, we have the state conducting a war, with the people as outsiders. Actually, what we are doing in this war is supplanting the Na tion by the state.- But the talent and vitality of the people is not In the state, but In the Nation. The state is by its nature a bu reaucratic mechanism. In total war that mechanism should be used to mobilize the people, not to mobilize , itself. The larger and more cumbersome it becomes, the greater are the dangers of breakdown. Anri the more per fect the machine, the more is human initiative eliminated from it. In the perfect administrative machine, man plays the part of a cog, and any intervention of real brains and ideas breaks down the machine. Problem of Integration. This is the perennial trouble with armies. They almost invari ably court-martial their Billy Mitchells and don't listen to their MacArthurs or de Gaulles. For creative intelligence disturbs the 'smooth-functioning tables of basic regulations. But it is the perennial trouble with all bureaucracies. Small colonial wars can be won by staffs of civil servants. Apparently the British in the Far East thought that this was that kind of war. But total wars involve the use of all the forces existent. And the problem, therefore, is one of the integration and re-creation of existing organized and indi vidual energies. Let us take an illustration of what I mean. The state has set up numerous instruments for the dissemination of information, the purpose of which is to keep the people as accurately informed as is commensurate with military safety and through the spoken and written word to bliild a crea tive morale. But the written and spoken word Is actually the function of certain Institutions and persons —newspapers, magaslnes, books, radia commentators, public lec turers and teachers In this coun try—thousartBs of persons who possess the gift of elucidation and persuasion, in whose in tegrity and accuracy the public has trust.. Scores of them are highly trained In domestic and Interna tional affairs. They have made a life study of the subjects on' which they write and speak. The confidence of the public Is based on the public’s experience with them. How Morale Can Be Created. It is they who through the written and spoken word can create the spirit and morale which the Government is look ing for—create it because: <1) They know what they are talk ing apout and the public knows they know. (2) They do not have to create an audience, it exists already. (3) They do not have to find outlets—they have them al ready. (4> They do not have to be paid—they earn their livings by the spoken and written word for which the public is willing to pay. Now one would think that a government, anxious to mobilize the people through the written and spoken word, would call into conference immediately on mat ters of policy, the leading edi torial writers, magazine writers, lecturers and radio commenta tors of this country—the people who already are reaching mil lions daily, weekly, monthly. But not a single agency has ever dreamed of doing this. In stead they create bureaucratic instrument* which have no res onance among the masses of the people, and the press—In the largest sense of the word press— Is treated on the whole as though It were a public nuisance; something that has to be put up with simply because we are a free country. As a matter of fact, mast writ ers In this country are longing to contribute more constructively to the war effort. But they can not merely be given handouts from the state, for in the areas in which they are expert their own basic knowledge and power of persuasion are often superior to that of the people who give them handouts. Need to Be Confided In. They ought to be taken into consideration, asked to make sug gestions for the themes that need to be emphasized, to report on what the temper of the country is and what Is bothering it—for that is something they know much better than the information bureaus. In a total war it Is necessary to mobilize the totality of good will, and above all the totality of tal ent. And instead good will and talent are actually being demobi lized—they are less effective than they were before the war began. For their possessors are being made Into outsiders. The state with all its agencies usurps the center of the war effort and keeps outside and un used thase talents which do not need the state for their own personal survival. If I write about information, it is only because this is an area in which I am personally at home. But it is not an isolated example. I shall Illustrate with others. (Released by the Bell Syndicate Inc.) ; ■ I postponed, indefinitely, will never become-known till the war is over : and needless sacrifices have been ' made. For it was the system that Kim ' mel and Short followed which to ! day stands convicted. That system is in principle in effect still, as will ■ presently be revealed when testi i mony begins to be taken about the j burning of the Normandie—the sec ond disaster which may be traced to dual controls and divided responsi ! bilities within the Government is ] self. Libel Suit Settled, Says Corliss Lamont By the Associated Pres*. NEW YORK, March 2—Corliss Lamont, author and son of Financier Thomas W. Lamont, said yesterday that his $100,000 libel suit against the Bobbs-Merrill Co., publishers of ‘The Red Decade." by Eugene Lyons, had been settled. Mr. Lamont said the publishers had agreed “to make nine substan tial changes in the text of any and all future printings, including se rializations. dramatizations, broad casts or any other form of pub lication.” In his suit Mr. Lamont had con ^icheg-freeman CUSTOMIZED CLOTHES Army Officers' Uniforms Officers' Jackets, Trousers and Overcoats customized by Hickey-Freeman are available for immediate delivery mMEM’S 1409 H STREET tended that references to him in the book had injured him in his profession as a writer, author and educator. CTHE opinions of the writers on this page are their own, not * necessarily The Star’s. Such opinions are presented in The Star’s effort to give all sides of questions of interest to its readers, although such opinions may be contradictory among themselves and directly opposed to The Star’s. The Great Game of Politics Aroused Congress, Not Cabinet Shifts, Called Best Way to Cure Administration's Ills By FRANK R. KENT. If It Were not th»t Mr. Roosevelt is the Commander in Chief in a time of national peril, the criticism) of him would be much more out spoken. What imposes re straint is reluc tance to con tribute to na tional disunity and a desire not to harass a heavily bur dened national leader. Hence, a good many, in Con-' gress and out, have refrained from personal Frank K. Kent. attack and unhappily "gone along*’] against their judgment, blaming the . subordinates and hoping that In time the President would correct his mistakes, accept the counsel of ex perience and rid himself of the weaknesses which prevent the full weight of the Nation from counting effectively and threaten us, if not with defeat, with disasters almost as great. The wisdom of this restraint is now being questioned by a num ber who heretofore counseled it. Particularly is It questioned by those who appreciate' that nearly 20 months were wasted before Mr. Roosevelt could be induced to adopt an effective organization for war, production: that it required an out burst of publid resentment to even partially clean up the unsavory O. C. D. mess: that only unde* threat of action by a Senate com mittee did he end the awful disorder , of the 16 unco-ordinated hous ing authorities; that he has taken no step to support those who are fighting to regain, through re trenchment, control over Federal finances: that he is permitting de fense money to be wasted beyond all reason: that a confusion exists so great that the minority of ef ficient men are mired in it, like th* rest. Cabinet Changes t'rged. Review of the pgst year L« enough to show that Mr. Roosevelt moves to retrieve his errors of Judgment and of administration only when forced by public opinion or to fore stall congressional action. Proof of this lias been so abundant and the need for correction is so great that recently some who have in the past held that unswerving support of Mr. Roosevelt was essential have swung over to the conviction that if we are to escape danger, public senti ment must be focused on the presi dential shortcomings. In evidence of this, there arose last week in quarters not at all unfriendly, a determined moved to compel cabi net changes that will increase com petency and promote unity. These who best knowT the situa tion do not believe cabinet changes are the real answer. They are con vinced. for example, that Mr. Roose velt can never be Induced to put In men whom he cannot dominate, who will stand up to him and. even when they obey orders, decline to agree that he is right. If he makes cabinet changes the new officials will be good but not aggressively able. Certainly they will not include the ablest men in the country, practically all of whom incurred his personal ill will by the vigor of their opposition to his 1940 re-election. It will be no gain to replace the good men now in his cabinet with other good men, whom he can con trol—who, for example, will Indorse ! such things as the St. Lawrence sea ' ways because he asks them to. It isn't going to help very much I to replace Miss Perkins with gome FOR SPRING ’42 Oxford Clothes Difficult as they are to procure ... rare woolens from the finest looms of England and Scotland continue to be included in our new arrivals of Oxford Hand Tailored Clothes for Spring. Your early inspection is invited. $72.50 to $110 Exclusively in Washington at LEWIS & THOS. SALTZ 1409 G STREET N.W. DISTRICT 3822 NOT CONNICTID *'I T H IAITZ »ROl. INC. one else If Mr. Roosevelt Is going to continue playing ball with the labor lobbyist* and retain his political labor alliances. A more promising plan than that of forcing him to change one set of acquiescent men for another set equally acquiescent would seem to be to build up in Congress a vigorous, persistent, critical spirit which will prod and probe the Executive and the many boards and commissions created by him into abandoning ln competency for competency. That can be done by arousing public sentiment, and public senti ment can be aroused by getting to the public the facts—as was the case with Mrs. Roosevelt and the O. C. D. nonsense and with the con gressional pension business. Right now the things concerning the President about which the pub lic should be concerned are—first, the ineffectual way in which he is dealing with the inflation danger. Second, is the way In which he continues to temporize with the stiike situation and his refusal to permit any restraint to be imposed upon the plans of the labor leaders to utilise the war to push toward the goal of industrial socialization —and the closed shop. Third, there Is his non-co-opera tive, if not actually hostile, attitude toward the Byrd committee recom mendation for saving *2,000,000,000 _by cutting every non-war expendi ture to the bone. Fourth, there is his insistence upon retaining all the so-called "social gains” of the New Deal during the war. Hopkins Called a "lianger.'’ In addition, there 1* hi* obvious determination to keep only New Dealers, or those whom the New Dealers approve, in the key defense positions. And finally, there is the danger of having as his cloaest coun selor and friend as inefficient and enthusiastic a yes-man as Harry Hopkins. Perhaps all these things cannot be corrected by an enlightened pub , lie opinion and an aroused Con gress. but certainly most of them can be. And it is hard to see how any of them can be corrected by cabinet changes, which is not, how ever, to say that some cabinet changes would not constitute a measurable Improvement. At any rate, it is clear that the perils involved in the present state of affairs cannot be averted by ac cepting everything the President does in the Hopkins spirit. To fol low that course Is neither patriotic nor intelligent. It would, in fact, be calamitous The solution lies in an informed public opinion which will reflect it self in Congress. Congress hold* the cards, and should be made to play them. This Changing World France's Factories Seen as Bigger Threat Than Her Navy if Vichy Joins Axis By CONSTANTINE BROWN. Diplomatic pourparlers between Vichy and Washington sre con tinuing, but well-informed quar ters express little hope that our diplomatic action can prevent the French from joining the Axis this spring or summer. Conver sations are proceeding much in the manner they did between the State Department and Ja pan's "peace emissary,” Saburo Kurusu, last November and early December. While the Implications of a French turn against the United Na Jons are not as weighty as the Japanese betrayal, there is, nev ertheless, a good deal of uneasi ness over the prospects of that former ally of Britain and friend of the United States throwing in her lot with our enemies. you'll oC*u 06 STABVE/ V y • The French chief of state. Mar shal Petain, has striven to be true to his verbal and written promises that his country would remain on the sidelines for the duration of the conflict, it Is ad mitted in well-informed quarters, but terrific pressure has been brought to bear on him not only by his Vice Premier, Admiral Darlan, but also by other ele ments at Vichy. The argument which, apparent ly, has persuaded the octogen arian ruler of Prance to give the signal for co-operation with the Axis was that unless the war prisoners now doing hard labor In the Reich are returned to France in time to work the fields. France will certainly starve next winter and there will be no relief for France, either from the United States or the Reich. Prisoners Used as Lever. These 2.000,000 men which Ger many is using as a powerful lever to force France into the “new order” are m06tly young men, more than half of them farmers. Otto Abetz, Hitler’s Ambassador in Paris, informed Marshal Petain that unless France participates effectively—rather than intellec tually, as hitherto—in Europe's ••new order” these men will re main in the Reich, and will be used for all kinds of work, either in Germany itself or behind the lines on the Russian front There is something more to be considered In the prospect of full collaboration between France and Germany than the Nazis' use of the French fleet against Brit ain and the United States. The French fleet Is. of course, im portant, but It is felt In respon sible naval quarters in Wash Ington that after the French men-of-war have given u* some bad headaches it* Importance will dwindle awey. The factor which causes more disturbance in Washington than any action by the French Navy is that with France co-operating whole-heartedly with the Nasi "new order" the excellent French factories will be working for the Nazis 24 hours a day. The capi tal of France also will be trans ferred from Vichy to Paris and the government will give the out ward appearance of independ ence, and with the propaganda means at its disposal it will not take long to convince the French people that they are not ruled by the Nazis but by the French. Unified Europe Hitler's Goal. Under such circumstances all anti-Nazis activities, which have been serious in the industrial dis tricts of occupied and unoccu pied France, are bound to dis appear and work will be resumed on a 100 per cent basis. The French factories, which before and during the war lagged badly because of the struggle between employers and employes to de rive the maximum material ad vantage from the war, will work to their full capacity for tho Reich. The Germans are particularly interested In obtaining the volun tary—not forced—adherence of France to the Axis for a psycho logical reason; thpy are trying to unify Europe uhder Hitler's leadership and are having a hard time of it. The turbulent Balkan nations like Yugoslavia and Greece, al though militarily crushed, are ( causing considerable trouble. This compels the Axis to main I » VI tain large forces in those coun tries to fight guerrillas. An al most Identical situation prevails in Bohemia, where in spite of the Nazi mailed fist the Czechs continue to fight. Less virulent, but unpleasant, disorders occur in Holland and Norway. Berlin believes all these coun tries could be quickly pacified if France were to become a mem ber of the Axis. The dominant position of French culture in most of these countries, particu larly in the Balkans, Is great. If Hitler can present France as the first former great power to recant its association with the Anglo-Saxon countries, he ex pects to have little trouble pacify ing Europe and proceeding me thodically to war on Great Britain and the United States, against whom ha will be in po sition to fight a long time. Guard Your Valuables AGAINST FIRE THEFT LOSS These and ether valuables should be kept safe—in an American Security Safe Deposit Box: Agreements lirtti Certificates lands Contracts Deeds Heirlooms Insurance Policies Jewelry Leases legal Papers Marriage Certificates Mortgages Notes Real Estate Papers Stock Certificates Trust Agreements WHIs with an AMERICAN SECURITY SAFE DEPOSIT BOX Keep papers, valuables and difficult-to-replace items in an American Security Safe Deposit Vault.... You can rent an individual box for a trifle more than a penny a day. Boxes available at any American Security office. AMERICAN SECURITY & TRU ST COMPANY Member federal Deposit Insurance Corporation MAIN OFFICE: FIFTEENTH STREET AND PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE CENTRAL IRANCH: 7TH AND MASSACHUSETTS AVE., N. W. SOUTHWEST IRANCH: SEVENTH AND E STREETS, S. W. NORTHEAST IRANCH: EIGHTH AND H STREETS, N. L NORTHWEST IRANCH: 11* FIFTEENTH ST, N. W. Boy V. S. Sarlng* Bond* and Stamp* McLemore— Hush-Hush War News Policy Criticized By HENRY MrLEMORE. WEST PALM BEACH, Fla—I saw a tanker burn off here the other njght. Two nights before I saw’ another Hcnrjr McLenort. tanker go up in flame*, it wasn’t a pretty sight. One moment there was noth ing but the blue waters and the dull horizon The next then* was a vast puff of smoke, as If a tree had sud denly sprung up in the middle of the Atlantic. The smoke cleared. The fire took charge. From Its glow the meager masts of the tanker were silhouetted The blaze was visible for 10. 20, 30 miles, each way, meaning that for a stretch of 60 or more miles along the Florida Coast thousands of persons were aware of the dis* aster. The thousands told other thou sands. the other thousands told other thousands almost overnight. So quickly does information spread, every one In half of the State of Florida knew that enemy subma rines were operating almost within an orange toss of the shore. This is all a lead-up to what I really want to say. Officials’ Silence Deplored. What I really want to say is that the men in Washington—and I don't know' who they are—who cover up these sinkings, who keep the de tails locked in their bosoms fnr three, four, five, six and seven days, are foolish. The story of the sink ing of the tanker that I saw go down has not yet been released from Washington. All over the east coast of Florida people are talking about it. And they re wondering. They're wondering things that Americans should never wonder. They're wondering how things art going. They wonder, and naturally, that if the sinking of a tanker off the Florida coast is hushed up. what isn’t hushed up all over the world. That'makes sense, doesn't it? No matter how patriotic you are, you buy bonds, you pay your taxes, you send your youngsters off to fight. Then you find that your I Government doesn't trust you. “Tell Everything" Policy I'rged. It feels that it must hide thing! from you. You are something to be petted, pampered, urged, cajoled, brought around. You mustn't be shown the facts of life. So you mustn’t be told that the enemy is near lest you shiver and shudder. You mustn’t be told that things are mean and rough and tough and that before we come through victorious you must give up your nice living, your—well, your everything. Damn it—and I wTite for a lot of family newspapers and I still sav damn it—I ask the Government to tell us Americans everything. The ones who can’t take it aren't good Americans. The ones who can’t take it aren't members of our proud, chesty group. There are millions of Americans in this country who are willing to go the whole way. There are Texans who will pick up rocks and throw at those who don’t belong. There are men and women from Massachusetts, Idaho. Louisiana, New Hampshire, and all the other states who will do the same. Let’s get something good out of this war. Let's make our melting pot a real melting pot. Lets find out, once and for all, lust who belongs In this sweet and lovely land. Let's find that dross. War May Be a Blessing. Let us find out by the fire and the sword. Anyone ran be an American when the money is easy, the taxes are low. the cars are cheap, and everything is soft, sweet and gentle. America now stands the chance of showing its worth. In years to come Americans will look on this war as a blessing, or in a few more years we're like France. Now—well, the honest, the sin cere, the rugged, the decent, the genuine—are going to find their level. This war Is going to chase mil lions of bums from these shores (DtitrlbutH by McNmisht STndlrafe, Inr | Malta Air Raids Total 236 During February j By the Associated Br*»s. VALLETTA, Malta, March 3 — This British Mediterranean Island base had 236 raids In February, slightly less than January's 263, but the February raids generally lasted longer. There were alx alarms yesterday, and each time a small number of enemy bombers came In heavily escorted. “Anti-aircraft artillery engaged the raiders and fighters also were active, but no R. A. F. reports are available yet,” said a communique last night. War in Retrospect BT the Associated Press. One Year Ago Today. R. A. F. bomb* Rumanian oil field*. German troops reported massed at four points on Greek border. Two Years Ago Today. Finns destroy'Russia’s 34th Tank Brigade northeast of Lake Ladoga. Finland gets $20,000,000 loan to buy vital supplies from the United States. Twenty-Five Yeara Ago Today. British continue western front drive on both side* of Ancre River after Germans withdraw Along 11-mlle front.