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Continued moderately cold tonight. Tempera tures today—Highest. 60. at 3:55 p.m.; lowest, 35. at 3:30 a.m. From the United state? weather Bureau Report. Full Details on Pace A-2. Closing N. Y. Markets—Sales, Page 16. NIGHT FINAL <<4>) Meant Aaeociatad Pratt. 90th YEAR. No. 35,742. WASHINGTON, D. TUESDAY, MARCH 10, 1942—FORTY-FOUR PAGES. THREE CENTS. TANKER SUNK IN CLOSEST EAST COAST RAID Late News Bulletins Dirksen Raps Information Center Representative Dirksen, Republican, of Illinois told the House late today he was "distressed” because $600,000 is being used to build a ' Temple of Wisdom” at Fourteenth street and Pennsylvania avenue N.W.. as a new information center for the Office of Government Reports. "It’s a shame and an out rage to spend this money for a temporary building that is to be destroyed after the war, when that money would buy four good bombers or four first-class interceptors,” he declared. (Earlier Story on Page A-l.) Paris Radio Quits During News Broadcast LONDON The Paris radio went off the air during the 9 o'clock news broadcast tonight—possibly for security reasons. U. S. to Get Seized Axis Ships From Brazil RIO DE JANEIRO <#>.—'The United States has completed a deal with Brazil for the 24.000-ton former Italian liner Conte Grande and the 16.000-ton former German Windhuk, official sources said today. The ships were in Brazilian ports when the war started and were later taken over by the Bra zilian government. Ankara Reports French Fleet Units Shifted LONDON 'The Ankara radio in Turkey reported to day that six light naval units of the French Fleet had been transferred, from Dakar, in French West Africa, to Mada gascar, French island off the African east coast. British Down Axis Planes in Malta Raids LONDON <£*>.—British fighter planes and anti-aircraft batteries have brought down three Axis bombers and two fighters and damaged nine bombers and two fighters during day and night attacks on Malta in the last 24 hours, the Air Ministry News Service reported today. 125-Billion Debt Limit Approved by House Amid Economy Pleas Doughton Stresses Need To Save; Jennings Hits Wasteful Projeefs 8r th« Associated Press. Legislation to raise the statu tory Federal debt limit from $65. 000,000,000 to $125,000,000,000 was approved by the House today and sent to the Senate amictpleas for cuts in non-defense expendi tures. Chairman Doughton of the Ways find Means Committee told the House the increase was necessary because war expenditures had been so great that only $1,400,000,000 in borrowing power remained in the Treasury at the end of last month. He said current estimates indi cated a Federal debt of $110,400,000. OOO by June 30, 1943. The measure aiso would give Sec retary Morgenthau greater flexibil ity in issuing Federal securities and would permit Defense bonds to be used directly in payment of income taxes. Those bonds would be only ; those subject to payment on de- 1 mand at the Treasury. Saving of Billion Urged. Chairman Doughton and a dozen other members called for a $1,000. 000.000 saving in Federal expendi tures not connected with the war. Representative Woodrum. Demo crat, of Virginia remarked that the Nation was facing an increased mortgage "on homes, farms, busi ness, productive capacity, inventive genius and future earnings" with the passage of the debt-limit in crease. Representative Jennings, Repub lican, of Tennessee said Tennessee See”DEBT LIMIT, Page 200_ Markets at a Glance NEW YORK. March 10 (/Pi.— Cotton higher; trade and com mission house buying. Stocks ir regular: blue chips' weakness continued. Bonds steady; some rails improve. C H I C A G O —Wheat higher; President s address. Corn higher wflth wheat. Hogs opened steady to strong; later trade weaker; top, $13.75. Cattle, choice kinds, steady; others weak to 25 aents lower. Late Races Earlier Results. Rossvan's, Other Elections and Entries for Tomorrow on Pate 2X. Tropical Park FIFTH RACE—Purse. $1,000: elaim !ni 3-year-olds: 8 furlongs. A One (Wielander) P.20 8.50 4.10 Portable (Mehrtensi 7.10 4 70 Airspring (Smith) 7.00 Time, 1:1 lJj Also ran—Town Hall. Mixer. Catoctln Lad. Eric Knight. Keekee. All Crystal. Kind Gesture. SIXTH RACE—Purse. $1,200: allow ances 3-year-olds. 1 mile and 70 yards Eternal Peace (Arcaroi P 50 4 SO 3,20 More Than Few (Young) 3 40 2.PO K Dorko (Meade) 3.30 Time. 1:42S. Also ran—Notes Miss Glamour. Florlzan Beau. Clip Clop Silver Grail. SEVENTH RACE—Purse. $1,000: claim ing 4-year-olds and upward: 1 mile and 7n yards. One Tip (Young' 18.20 0 30 5,20 Mordecai tWielander) 11.30 5.00 Perfect Rhyme (Robertsi 4.40 Time, 1:43's. Also ran—Maeceace. Hotzea, Ronctt. Kansas, Master Key. Oaklawn Park THIRD RACE—Purse. $T0(>: claiming; 4-yaar-olds and upward: 8 furlonga. Little Bolo (Briggs) 4.40 3.P0 2 80 Owasse (Balaskl) 5.20 3.40 Hi Gold (Westrope) 4.40 Time. 1:15 1-5. Also ran—Triplane. Valdina Bishop. Light Tide Fureellville and Darby Dlenat. FOURTH RACE—Purse $800: allow ances; 3-year-olds: 8 furlongs. With Regards 'Loagden) 3 10 2 40 2.30 Jug (Balaskii 2 80 2.60 Emolument (Zufelt) 4.70 Time. 114 Also ran—La Zor.ga Bold Chanee. Little lit a Fox, Powder Bluff Griff Pitchers Good In 1 -to-0 Defeat of Cleveland Indians Wilson Fans Three Tribesmen in Row; Five Hits Yelded By BURTON HAWKINS, Star Staff Correspondent. ORLANDO. Fla.. March 10 — The Nationals registered their second successive grapefruit league victory here today, deal ing the Cleveland Indians a 1-0 defeat. Sid Hudson, Jack Wilson and Alejandro Carrasquel lim ited the Indians to five hits. Washington nicked Clint Brown for its only run in the first Inning when Bruce Campbell doubled to score George Case, who had singled and taken third on Stan Spence’s single. Hudson permitted only one hit in the first three innings, and Car rasquel allowed two more. All the Indians’ hits were singles and no Cleveland runner reached third base. In the sixth inning Wilson fanned Weatherly, Peters and Kelt ner in order. FIRST INNING. CLEVELAND—Repass threw out Weatherly. Boudreau flied to Case. Keltner walked. Keltner stole sec ond. Fleming fanned. No runs. WASHINGTON—Case singled to center. Spence singled to right, sending Case to third. Campbell doubled to center, scoring Case, Spence stopping at third. Vernon flied to Hockett. and Spence, who had feinted for the plate, was trapped off third for a double play. Hockett to Boudreau to Keltner. Early flied to Hockett. One run. SECOND INNING. CLEVELAND—Edwards fanned. Hockett walked. Hegan struck out. Hockett was out stealing, Early to Repass. No runs. WASHINGTON—Keltner threw out Estalella. Repass was safe on — ' See BASEBALL," Page 2-X.) Army Urged to Move Japs From Hawaii While It Can By the Associated Press Representative Costello, Demo crat, of California said in an in terview today the Army should move 20.000 Japanese from Hawaii to the mainland of the United States "be fore it is too late.” "The Army should take the same precaution in Hawaii that it is tak ing in California and remove Jap anese from areas where they might become dangerous,” Mr. Costello said. "It should take 20,000 of the Japanese in Hawaii grho are most likely to be subversive in case of an attack upon the Territory and re move them to the mainland, far enough from the coast so they can not engage in sabotage. "It is my guess the Army is con sidering . such a program, but it should do it now and not wait until the South Pacific situation gives the Japanese the opportunity to attack Hawaii." Meantime, four subcommittees of the Pacific Coast congressional dele gation went to work to investigate the defense of the Coast. Suspect Held in Probe Of N. Y. Hotel Slaying By the Associated Press. NEW YORK, March 10.—District Attomev Frank S. Hogan announced today that John D. Cullen, 45. has been found in the Bronx by detec tives of the grand jury squad seek ing him on a homicide charge in connection with the slaying of Mrs. Susan Flora Reich, wealthy Polish refugee, in the Hotel Sutton last week. * Cullen was taken to Mr. Hogan's office for questioning. Pilot Smith Turns Up In a Dress and Is Turned Down By the Associated Press. VALDOSTA, Ga.. March 10.— David M. Smith, a civilian pilot and a good one. too, applied for aviation cadet training at Moody Field here but was re jected by the examining board. That was a disappointment, because civil aeronautics and other authorities had been in quiring whether Pilot Smith wanted to join the Air Corps. Pilot Smith appeared before the board in a dress, because Pilot Smith is an attractive young woman, whose full name 1?: David Marion Smith. Nazi Blow at England Soon Predicted by Gen. McNaughton Canadian Army Leader Here for Conferences With Roosevelt By BLAIR BOLLES. England is making ready against a German invasion at tempt which leaders think might come this spring, Lt. Gen. A. G. L. McNaughton, commander in chief of Canadian forces in Eng land. told a press conference here today. The general, who rame to Wash ington for conferences with Presi dent Roosevelt and others, said the whole Allied plan contemplated winning the war by going after the Germans In an offensive operation. But. he added, it “must be a sore temptation to Hitler and his asso ciates to swing a club on us and put us out of the picture" by sending his armies to England For that reason the defense of England is regarded as a paramount considera tion of Allied strategists. Nazi Strength Is Greater. Gen. McNaugtyon said he thought Germany was in a better position today to try an invasion than it was in 1940 after the fall of Prance, even though Germany has to fight Russia. Germany has been build ing up its forces in Europe to handle the invasion operation, he explained. The general advised against shift- i ing large bodies of troops from their present place to the West Coast of Canada if Japan assaults it with , "nuisance bombing raids" “The people responsible for the direction of the war have got to make up their minds where the de cisive theaters are." Gen. Mc Naughton said as he met the press at the Canadian Legation. “They then must bring the maxi mum forces to the places of deci sion. and they must resist all temp tations to dissipate the forces. Says Canadians Are Restless. “It's unpleasant for people who have to take the nuisance raid, but | that's one of the things about go ing to war. Somebody is going to get hurt.” Gen. McNaughton said the Cana dian forces in England now consist of three infantry divisions, one ar mored division, a tank brigade and organizations necessary to a corps establishment. These troops, he said, are rest- 1 less for the time when they can "put something sharp into the belly ' of the Hun.” or. in other words, take the offensive. Gen. McNaugh ton said: *Tve never done anything but talk an offensive in Europe. I be lieve in it. Canada believes in it. j It must be obvious to everybody we have been building up our forces in England, and I don't think you can accuse us of building up the forces there just for the fun of moving them across the Atlantic." »----- mtm. .... . ..— ... Capital to Have 4-Hour Blackout This Week Young to Reveal Exact Hour of Test Later (Earlier Blackout Storv on Page B-I.) A four-hour test blackout— later this week—exact date and hour to be made public later, was announced late today by Civilian Defense Co-ordinator Young. Commissioner Young refused to announce the date pending the ap proval of military authorities who must pass on any real or practice blackout in the Metropolitan Are3 At the same time. President Roosevelt at his press conference disclosed that he would send a let ter to Acting Federal Works Ad ministrator Baird Snyder directing him to exercise jurisdiction in blackout matters over all Federal buildings and non-Federal buildings occupied by Government agencies. F. W. A. Gets Authority. The President thus gives the F. W. A. authority to see that in cases where continued operation is essen tial in a blackout necessary pro visions are made for obscuration and that all lights are out during black outs in buildings where night work can be eliminated The President plans to base his letter on a letter he received from O C. D. Director James Landis which he is having rewritten He indicated that a copy of his letter to Mr. Snyder will go to civilian defense officials who have been trou bled by the previous failure of Fed eral buildings to be able to blackout without turning out essential light ing Plans for the next trial black out were considered today shortly after the Commissioners had adopted new regulations to require that beginning March 22 all light ing visible from the exterior of buildings be blacked out nightly— for the duration of the war—unless persons are posted to turn off the lights immediately upon receipt of notice from poper authorities or unless police officials are willing to certify that such lighting is neces sary and that suitable arrange ments have been made to have them put out on proper notice X P.M. to Midnight. While the exact date could not be announced. Commissioner Young said the forthcoming blackout trial probablv would last four hours, probably from 8 p.m to 12 p.m, on some night between now and Mon Jav night. He said it probably would not be as early as Thursday night since this would not be “adequate notice.’’ but it might be Friday night. One of the main purposes Co ordinator Young said, would be to check up on what arrangements pri vate householders had made for blackouts since the last test, which was for a 10-hour night-time dura tion. District officials have made the point that merely to turn out lights is no answer, since normal living conditions, so far as possible, should prevail during any and all trial blackouts and that this can be done best if lights are screened. Woollcott's Condition 'Still Fairly Serious' By tre Associated Press, SYRACUSE. N. Y.. March 10 — The condition of author-critic Alex ander Woollcott. undergoing treat ment for a heart condition, was de scribed today by his physician. Dr. Erode Jensen, as "unchanged and still fairly serious.-’ KELLY FIELD, TEX.—A NEW SPRING TRAINING FOR BUDDY —Far from Orlando, Fla., where he normally would be In spring training with the Washington Nationals, Buddy Lewis (with fielder’s glove) talks baseball to fellow aviation cadets. At 25 Buddy already has seven years of baseball to his credit, six with the Nats. Now in the Air Corps, he’s taking basic military training here. —A. P. Wirephoto. REPORTS ON PACIFIC MOVES—Admiral Thomas C. Hart 'left*, back from the Southwest Pacific, where he commanded the United Nations' naval forces until poor health forced him out, is shown studying a map of that war area today as he rep®rted to Secretary of the Nav/ Knox. * • Story on Page A-l.) —A. P. Photo. Roosevelt Says Recreation Aids Wartime Efficiency Should Be Taken To Build Up Body, He Declares By JOHN C. HENRY. President Roosevelt came to the aid of wartime sports and recreational activities today, reading to his press conference a prepared statement indorsing such activities as necessary and beneficial in promoting an over all efficiency in the war effort The Chief Executive emphasized that his statement was not an in dorsement of "recreation as usual" any more than he believes the coun try should continue on a business as usual basis. Instead, he pointed out that recreation should be un dertaken solely for the purpose of building up body and mind to greatest wartime effectiveness. Asked if individuals in essential industries should take vacations. Mr. Roosevelt said he believed a rule of reason should be applied ^ 'See ROOSEVELT. Page 2-X). Bowling Director Of 0. C. D. Unpaid, Landis Says Responding to Senator Byrd's demand to know if the Office of Civilian Defense had a co-ordi nator of bowling. O C D. Direc tor James M. Landis today ad mitted the presence of such a co-ordinator, pointed out he was on a purely voluntary basis and defended the bowling program. In a letter to Senator Byrd, who yesterday expressed "strong con demnation of any activity of this nature." Dean Landis said that Jack Willem of Chicago, who was named in the Senator's letter, was spending his own money and his own time to increase bowling facilities for in dustrial workers. He was appointed on February 17 by Jack Kelly, head of the O. C. D. Physical Fitness Division. In response to Senator Byrd's comment that he had omitted Mr. i See O. C. D. Page 2-X > Staff Merger Centers Navy Responsibility, Roosevelt Explains Expansion and Materiel Situation Forced Change To Single Command (Earlier Story on Page A-l.) By CLAUDE A. MAHONEY. President Roosevelt today de scribed the absorption of the of fice of chief of naval operations by the office of the Commander in chief of the fleet as a move toward simplification necessary because of changes in the Navy's physical operations. The move, announced last night, sent Admiral Harold R. Stark, oper ations chief, to command American vessels in European waters and gave the duties of his office to Admiral Ernest J. King. The President said for years the old system worked well, but within the last few years there had been a greater change, due to expansion of the Navy and to what he termed the materiel situation. It became increasingly difficult. Mr. Roosevelt said, to divide opera tions involving movement of ships and their preparation for movement. Thus it was decided to merge the divisions and give one commander the power to prepare the vessels for operation and the power to keep them going. Responsibility Centered. The new arrangement makes for a centralized responsibility, the President said. Mr. Roosevelt was asked to discuss the disappoint ing tests of the Sea Otter, a type of cargo ship designed to be powered by gasoline engines with more or less an outboard-motor type of pro pellor. Secretary of the Navy Knox (See NAVY, Page 2-XJ GUIDE FOR READERS Page. Amusements, B-24 Comics . B-22-23 Editorial_A-8 Editorial Articles ...A-9 Finance_A-16 Legal Notices B-21 Page. Lost and Found _A-3 Obituary ...A-10 Radio _B-22 Society _B-3 Sports A-13-15 Where to Go . A-7 Woman's Page _B-18 Complete Index on Page A-l Taxation to 'Limit' Of Survival Urged By Manufacturers Maximum Levy Asked To Pay for Terrific Burden of War Bv the Associated Press. NEW YORK. March 10—The National Association of Manu facturers today proposed taxa tion "to the limit—leaving only ! enough for survival” and will of fer its detailed plan to Congress tomorrow. The N. A. M. made the an nouncement after a joint meet ing of its Executive and Finance Committees. The chairman or the latter group. J. Cheever Cowdin, who is also chairman of the board of Universal Pictures Corp.. issued this statement: "It is the sense of this committee representing 80 per cent of the Na tion's war production manufactur ers that all corporations and in dividuals with income should be taxed to the maximum of their abil ity to pay for the terrific burden of this war. * * * “All income over and above that needed to keep our business struc ture alive and intact should be taxed to the limit—leaving only enough for survival—in order to guarantee the victorious prosecution of the1 war. to eliminate profiteers and to, insure the future solvency of our Government.” Asserting that groups of commit tee members had been wording since the first of the year on factual ma terial to be presented to Congress. Mr. Cowdin said: "It is our aim after reviewing the j complicated, technical problems in volved to determine an equitable base to insure the collection of maximum taxes from all corpora tions. _ "We will do everything possible to help the Congress in finding what might be determined a flexible ceil ing; above which no unwarranted profits will be permitted to any cor poration but beneath which there will be a sufficient return to insure private industry’s ability to carry out the war production program of the Government.” R. A. F. Blasts Japs In Burma Despite Loss of Rangoon Moulmein Airfield Target Of Punishing Bomb Raid; Fighters Shield Troops (Earlier Story on Page A-l.) By thf Associat'd Press NEW DELHI, India, March 10. —The R. A F. continued to smash at centers behind the Japanese lines in Burma, despite the loss of Rangoon, and today a punishing raid on the airfield at Japanese-held Moulmein was announced. A communique said that despite heavy and accurate anti-aircraft fire and interception attempts of Jap anese fighters, a ,-quadron of nine bombers accomplished its mission and returned safely. “Bombs fell among 14 dispersed aircraft and two fires were started.' the communique asserted. The raid was yesterday. British fighters, meanwhile, “pro vided fighter shields over our troops in forward areas.” the communique said. It reported a Japanese bomb ing raid south of Tharawaddy in which some Burmese civilians were killed. India Sees Danger of Attack. Dock installations, oil refineries and other valuable equipment were destroyed by demolition squads before the British forces withdrew from Rangoon and the southern tip of Burma to continue the fight in the central part of the country. Meanwhile, the India Legislative Assembly was told Bombay and Karachi are in danger of attacks from the sea. The warning came from V. H Symons, joint secretary of the Civil Defense Department. The situation in India hung in delicate balance Apparent delay in Prime Minister Churchills state ment to Parliament on India had resulted in disappointment Moslem Revolt Threatened. Mohammed Ali Jinnah. president of the All-India Moslem League, de clared in a cablegram to Mr. Churchill that Moslem India would revolt if the statement were detri mental to Moslem interests, particu larly to the Moslem plan to divide India into separate, self-ruling Mos lem and Hindu states. The Moslems are set against any program which would give India self-government at the cost of en- ' gulfing the Moslem minority under <Hindu control. Geographically, the two sects are mixed to a large ex tent. Traditionally deadly’ enemies. In dia's 240,000.000 Hindus outnumber the Moslems by three to one. Harper and Keiser Lead Hogan and Sarazen, 1 Up (Early Story on Page A-15.) By the Associated Press. MIAMI, Fla , March 10.—Chandler Harper and Herman Keiser turned in a spectacular eight-under-par best ball of 63 in the semifinals of the International Four-ball Golf Tournament today, taking a 1-up lead over Ben Hogan and Gene Sarazen. Hogan and Sarazen. who won the event last freer, carded a 31-33—64 for the first 13 of the semifinals. Harper turned in the finest per formance. He had birdies on the first, ninth. 10th, 15th. 17th and 18th, and his partner was able to, trim four strokes off par. The team was out in 32 and back in 31. Another pair of veterans. Jimmy Hines and Willie Goggin, were lag ging at the half-way mark. They went to lunch two down to Ben Lov ing and Jack Grout. Loving and Grout put together a 30-35—65 and their opponents hung on with a 35-32—67. Torpedo Splits Ship in Half; 16 Missing Gulf Oil Co. Vessel Hit Only Few Miles Off Barnegat, N. J. By !he Associated Press NEW YORK. March 10— An Axis submarine torpedoed the 6.766-ton Gulf Oil Co. tanker Gulftrade at 12:40 am. today only a few miles off Barnegat, N. J., in the closest approach un dersea raiders have yet made to the Eastern coast of the United States. Third Naval District headquar ters. announcing the sinking, said 16 of the 35 man crew were rescued bv Coast Guard boats and landed at _Tompkinsville. Staten Island The Navy said the torpedo split the 22-year-old tanker in half. 60 miles ,Vom New York City. She was bound, fully loaded, from a South ern port if> New York Waves Sweep Away Two Boats. Capt. Torger OLsen. 56. of Port Arthur. Tex, a survivor, said ail the crew members left the ship safelv and that the missing men were in two lifeboats which were carried away by high waves "Aftpr we got as far as Barnegat we thought we were safe.' Capt. Olsen said. "A few minutes before we were struck we saw two ships ahead of us. In order to avoid a collision I ordered the running lights to be put on. We were torpedoed while the lights were burning " Another survivor. Third Mate Martin Tammick of Boston, said he was on the bridge when a single torpedo struck without warning. “It cut us in two." he said. Blow Came Without Warning. The Navy said surface craft, planes and blimps were scouring the area for the missing 19 men. Survivors said the blow came without warning while most of the men were asleep in their bunks. The torpedo ripped into the star board side of the vessel about mid i ships, evidently aimed at the engine room. The naval account, obtained from I survivors, said the ship split in two i in three minutes and that a huge wave promptly smothered a fire that broke out immediately Tons of oil splashed over the ves sel. Seven of the survivors, rescued from the drifting stern of the ship, told of seeing the submarine on the surface within 100 yards of the ship and within Plain view of land. The attack occurred 20 miles south of the scene of the torpedoing of the Standard Oil tanker R P. Resor on February 27. Thirty-nine men went down with the Resor. Stories Differ Slightly. Caftt. Olsens account differed slightly from the Navy account. He said his vessel was 3'2 miles east of Barnegat lighthouse and 42 miles from Ambrose lightship when the torpedo struck. He said that all crew members left the ship in boats, but the Navy account said some went overboard trying to launch a boat. None was injured severely, al though all suffered from shock. Capt. Olsen said he spent three hours looking for the other boats. The blast, he said, caused the 96 foot foremast to catch fire, and watchers from shore said it looked like a flaming signal for help. "All I wish," he said, "is that they would put me aboard a Coast Guard cutter so I could go out to sea and hunt that sub that sank my ship." Mate Tammick said he shouted to the radio man to send an SOS. adding that he didn't think the op erator had time. Painter Killed in Fall From Ladder on Roof A painter was killed about noon today when he fell from a ladder while painting the front of a house in the 600 block of Kenyon street N.W. The victim. Warren R Tickle, about 30, of 614 Fifth street N.W., was pronounced dead on arrivpj at Casualty Hospital Police were told that Mr Tickle had a step ladder placed on the front porch roof of the house he was painting Falling from the lad der, he landed on the roof and then fell to the pavement. He was em ployed by a locp.1 real estate com pany. police said. U. S. Volunteers Destroy 43 Jap Planes in Burma By the Associated Press r NEW DELHI. India. March 10 — The American Volunteer Group fly ers in Burma destroyed 43 Japanese planes last week, dispatches re ceived here today said. Among the leading scorers of the group were Squadron Leaders New kirk and Robert Neale of Seattle, Wash., and Flight Leader Robert Little. Neale said that during the opera tions in Burma he never had taken to the air with more than 11 Ameri can planes, yet his pilots were so far superior to the Japanese that in one engagement they shot down 19 of the enemy. In another battle, he said, three of his Tomahawk planes shot down five of the Japanese. In all, 60 or 70 A V. G pilots have been engaged in the Burma campaign, of whom seven have been lost in combat since hostilities began.