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TVEOIM)M W MOTES. E4IM. WASHINGTON. I»~c7” WF.DMT.SI>AT April a. IMt Tht Evening Star New*paper Cmpaa; 1**H» OdBae lJtg St and FeoarrlraBia *»• _.*»* TJJ» Office 1)0 Ea»t «;nd m nueeg* Office. 436 KarA Mtefegao Are PeSvarwd by Carrier—City and Hobwrban. ■eealer UIUm Weej>* and •randar • V per «u> ar l»c per Tin preaine Star (Ac per a» or !Or per week The Sander fl’ar 10c per copy Nikki final Edities Nwbi Etna: and Sunder Star (Ac per month Meat Fine: Star *Or p*' nniti Collection# made at the end of each month «r each week Order* mar b* *em or mail or tcla PBonr Nation*. 6000 Rale# ky Mail—Payable in Advance. Marrtead aad Virriaa. I>» r and Sunder Kvenint. Sunder I rear . . _. SKtOo |Sm> fV0« « month# f><* fct 00 I: to I month 66c lie tot gl#ewhcr# la I nlted State*. Jraar | - 00 *• on }5 Oft month* »« 00 »t On » W moots_ .. 41 (Hi "he tot Mhtarod a# aecord-c.a## mailer poet offie*. Waihimlm, O. C. Member of tbs Associated Press. Th* Aaaoc.ated Pre»* la eirluaivclr entitled to M»e dm tor republleaUen of ail new* ditpateho eredttad t* it or no*, otltcrwla# credited in thi# paper and *l#o the local new# published herein Ail rtghu of publication of macia! dimatcfce* herein alao are rcterved Parks and the War It If not surprising that Secretary ot the Interior Ickes, as custodian of National Capital parks, should have decided to force a showdown with Army, Navy and Public Build ings Administration officials over the alarming encroachments on park land that have taken place recently— and which threaten to continue. Interior Department officials, the National Capital Park and Planning Commission and many local organi sations and citizens have appre ciated the fact that in time of war park areas along with many other things must be sacrificed. In token of this recognition, park officials have made frequent and numerous conces sions to military and naval author ities lh the matter of granting use of park areas on the fringe of the Mall and In West Potomac Park for war time office buildings, dormitories and ether temporary construction. Bat each concession has been fol lowed quickly by demands for more and more space, until much of the recreational area in the vicinity of the Monument and the Lincoln Me moril has disappeared. Throughout this whole park-requisitioning proc ess there has been evidenced a deplorable lack of co-ordinated plan ning by the site seekers. The tend ency seems to have been to grab the most convenient open space that met the eye, without proper consideration of the fact that alternate sites might be found In other locations. The thwarted attempt to place the new War Department Building directly in front of Arlington National Cemetery was a prize example of this planless trend. To have placed rows of bar racklike dormitories on the Mall would have been an equally iil-ad vlsed action, In view of the fact that suitable sites were available else where—as the National Capital Park and Planning Commission has dem onstrated. It does not suffice merely to say that war is war and parks necessarily must suffer by reason thereof. As Mr. lekes aptly emphasizes, the well being of a city which has become the world headquarters of the Allied war effort certainly is an important factor in the successful prosecution of the war. And the well-being of the thousands upon thousands of Workers packed in crowded offices Is certainly affected by the withdrawal of outdoor recreational facilities. There Is another point which de serves frank emphasis. Valuable planes were destroyed on the ground in the Hawaiian and Philippine islands because the Japs caught them neatly lined up together on the air ports. In Washington the authorities have on the one hand cautioned against the danger of air raids, at the same time packing important temporary war structures together merely because open park spaces provided convenient building sites. The result is to increase traffic con gestion, Increase the hazard from air raids and possibly to lose the effi ciency sought in more office space that would be gained by a more care ful decentralization of temporary buildings Mr. Nelson Protests The fact that Donald M. Nelson, chairman of the War Production | Board, has found it necessary to pro- ; test to & Senate committee for the second time within a few weeks against attacks on dollar-a-year men tn the Government service should serve to restrain criticism of this , type, which is not founded on fact •nd which is as unwarranted as it is harmful to the war effort. Mr. Nelson has not taken the posi tion of defending dollar-a-year men against any and all criticism. On the contrary, there is no doubt that he would be the first to welcome valid complaints. But he does take ex ception. and properly so. to the com ments of those critics who attack the integrity of*dollar-a-year men as a class without taking the trouble to ascertain whether their charges are well founded The war production chief's latest protest was made to the Truman committee—the same group to which his earlier complaint was directed. Asserting that this congressional criticism is handicapping the W. P. B. Mr. Nelson said: "We are having tacrcasing difficulty In getting good teen to come down here to do this Job. They have to face continued ariticism of the honesty of their in tentions. There is a lot of criticism Just because they are businessmen, And it to getting to the* point where | if you know something about busi ness you art suspect * It Is to he hoped that the critics to whom Mr Nelson s remarks were directed will lake his admonition to heart, and It Is to be expected that all who are genuinely Interested in promoting the Nation's war effort will do so This does not mean that doiiar-a-year men should be beyond the reach of critics when the facts warrant criticism But it does mean ! that responsible critics should make a reasonable effort to ascertain the facts before assailing the integrity of men who have given up their positions in the business world—often at a loss to themselves— to come to Washington to serve the Government at the Government's request. Words as Weapons The announcement over the Gov ernment-controlled Tokio radio that Japanese Christians are praying for the “restoration of peace” through out the world lends added signifi cance to Archibald MacLeish's ad monishment that the American press must be prepared to meet an Axis “peace offensive ” The fact that the Tokio broadcast reached this country with the approval of the Japanese government may or may not warrant an assump tion that It was intended for propa ganda purposes. And the incident, of Itself, is of little Importance. Mr. MacLeish, in addressing some 600 editors and publishers in New York, had in mind not an occasional enemy peace feeler, but an all-out propa ganda offensive such as the Axis has used with such devastating effect in the past. "A peace offensive,” Mr MacLeish told his audience, “is an offensive in political warfare, and political war fare Is fought with the weapons journalists and publishers are trained to use—the weapons of Ideas and words. It can be met and turned only by the employment—by the most skillful and effective employment— of these same weapons. And It is the press, in a country which puts its reliance in a free and independent press, which has that skill and can employ it." Americans, Mr. MacLeish said, are aware of the fact that the Axis has made effective use of propaganda as a military weapon, but, he added, as a people we have had little knowledge and even less experience with po litical warfare. “The power of words to overthrow nations and enslave their people,” he declared, "Is g power in which we do not altogether or lit erally believe." The great danger, he added, lies in this unfamiliarity with the technique of Axis propa gandists, plus the fact that propa ganda attacks upon the American people will not be advertised as propaganda, but will be made to appear as American suggestions orig inating within the United States. To meet this menace, the press, in his judgment, should proceed along two lines. First, he said, the press “must expose and counteract those of its own members who, at this mo ment of national peril, are attempt ing to influence American opinion, not in the direction of American vic tory, but in the direction of American defeat." The second line of resist ance. according to Mr. MacLeish, lies in the development by the press of what he termed a “strategy of truth." This strategy, he said, must have for its object a truthful understanding by the people of the meaning of the war in which they fight, thus en abling them to penetrate the frauds and deceits by which our enemies have confused and conquered other peoples. This address by Mr. MacLeish is an invitation to the press of the country to play a vital role in the winning of the war, to serve a purpose which goes beyond the strict reporting of the news. It is sn opportunity and a privilege to which & free press can and should respond with alacrity. Orchestra's Function The cultural standards of the Na tion must be maintained in time of war. Otherwise the purpose of the effort would be defeated In part if not as a whole. Such is the convic tion of those who wisely urge the necessity for adequate support of the National Symphony Orchestra in this current period of conflict. Great music represents a precious portion of the civilization for which Ameri can men and boys now are fighting on a dozen different fronts. It would be a tragedy if the premier musical organization of the Capital of the United States were to be allowed to fail in days when, as perhaps never before, it has a function of impera tive social significance and value. Victory over the Axis, it now is clear, will be won not merely by ac tivity in fields far distant from Wash ington. What happens in the Dis trict of Columbia also is important j to a compelling degree. The morale of the entire American community depends upon the development of unlimited survival power in the Fed eral structure of the Republic. From this single center on the north bank of the Potomac there must go out to the remotest village of the continent an unfailing leadership as inspiring and dynamic as patriotism itself. The source of the requisite strength and seal lies deep in the character of | citizens gathered here from every ! portion of the country. It best is summoned forth by noble art. Hence the tremendous popularity of the National Gallery, a con stantly growing demand upon the Library of Congress and the Wash ington Public Library, unprece dented increase in attendance at local churches since December 7 last. The entrance of the United States into the second world wide eonuwt j between the democracies and mth- | leu barbarism released a spiritual an emotional and an Intellectual tide which is sweeping onward with ac- i eelerated speed and vigor Bach sep arate concert of the orchestra con tributes to the demonstration of American determination to endure the prevailing ordeal without flinch ing. The same observation may be offered In behalf of the Nation a will to win the goal of peace and freedom for which, with expanding efficiency, ! it strives. Only a relatively small and Incon sequential sum Is wanted to insure the National Symphony’s eontlnu 1 ance. The -campaign objective Is $114,000, of which amount approxi mately $35 000 has been subscribed. Every penny given to the orchestra : this year may be regarded as an In vestment in the essential ideals by which America lives In return a regular winter season of twenty weeks and a summer season of six weeks of music to lift up the hearts j of multitudes are promised. Lava I-Darlan Double-Talk That strangely assorted triumvirate | —Petain. Laval, Darlan—who have cast the already equivocal Vichy regime into a still more dubious mould, have all gone on the air to tell their respective stories. In quavering accents, the old Marshal, who re mains technically Chief of State, briefly bade his fellow eitisens to rally to the new setup. Then Laval went on the air with a long and obviously propagandist harangue. Lastly Ad miral Darlan gave a radio address directed especially to the members of those fighting forces over which he has been given command. The most Interesting aspect of DarIan’s address is the way he em phasized the separation of military and civilian authority arranged by Marshal Petain when he named Admiral Darlan commander of the armed forces responsible solely to himself, the Chief of State, rather than to Laval, the Chief of Govern ment. This logically means that the old marshal has deliberately dele gated authority in separate spheres to two men who mutually distrust and dislike each other, thereby estab lishing a system of checks and bal ances under himself. But that suggests a still more Interesting Inference. The Germans could have blocked this arrangement If they had so desired. That they acquiesced may mean a plan to play off all three men against each other, thereby exercis ing a hidden grip over and above their obvious power to intimidate and compel obedience by military action or reprisals. We here glimpse a sinister web of intrigue and latent double-crossing with unpredictable ramifications. Meanwhile, Laval, the avowed Nasi agent, is doing his stuff with the tortuous ability for which he is no torious. His broadcast is a tissue of rhetorical sophistries and special pleading. Bach group and class in France is cajoled and appealed to In terms of their prejudices and selfish interests. This conscienceless politi cal manipulator poses as an old fashioned patriot upholding his country’s welfare against sinister foreign influence. Only, the sinister influence comes from England, while Germany Is glowingly depicted as the considerate, high-minded power with whom France can collaborate In the creation of a new and better European order. To analyze in detail Laval's tricky distortions of reality would be profit less. Their only importance is as indications of his next steps as di rector of both the foreign and do mestic policy of the Vichy regime. There is some evidence to imply that the immediate emphasis may be on internal affairs. The new regime may feel impelled to consolidate its position at home before venturing decisive moves abroad. This do mestic campaign logically should be accompanied by concessions from Germany, such as release of more war prisoners and easing of the occupa tion. Laval Is now in Paris, confer ring with his Nasi masters. Events will soon show how the wind is blowing. Coll for Izaak Walton The fish story has long been a sym bol of the fantastic and the incredi ble. Ever since the dawn of history the fertile imagination of man has been at its best on this subject. Some of the tales would make even Baron Munchausen and Herr Goebbels un easy and envious. And yet many are genuine. The curator of the Chicago Field Museum, a scientist whose prominence guar antees his statements, says that in many parts of the Middle West, farmers in plowing lowlands often turn up a species of fish called mud minnows, which carry a water supply ' in pockets on each side of their ! bodies, to keep them alive until spring rains have a chance to wash I them to more suitable homesites. Bad news, surely, for manufactur ers of fishing tackle unable to carry plows as a sideline, but interesting news for farmers whose hired hands are always looking for time off to go Ashing. The combination of business and pleasure sounds ideal—but is it? Somehow one cannot visualize Izaak Walton as enthusiastic. His prey were wily, gamey and elusive, worthy of th« angler's highest tribute. Of course, he was not really Te Compleat Angler, aa he undoubtedly missed the experience of catching dry-land min nows with a plow, but It is thought that the old gentleman was compleat enough to get all the satisfaction he wanted. Japanese Threaten Madagascar Writer Tells How Seizure Would Interfere Wirti Route From England to India By Mary Ann Bodine. NEW YORK. April 22— (Wide World» Madagascar, once the haunt of pirates who laid a heavy toll on rich cargoes sailing between England and the East Indies again may serve as a raiding base should the Japenese seize the island. In their hands, the Axis would have a vital naval base on the western end of the Indian Ocean and thus multiply the complications of getting the Allied armies and materiel to the Middle East. A Japanese mission was reported to be on the island more than a month ago negotiating far naval and air bases. London sources at that time remarked that since the fall of Singapore the importance of Madagascar. fourth largest Island in the world, had doubled. Japanese control would make it com paratively easy to cut the supply lines which run past the cape of Good Hope and the strategic Mozambique channel, which separates the island from the African mainland to the West. While representatives of Vichy have insisted that no commitments Iwve been made to Japan, there has been a feeling among the Allies that the same procedure might be followed as in Indo-China. Madagascar is far from being Ideal for such extensive naval operations as would be necessary to dominate the Indian Ocean; but its command by Japan would certainly imperil the United Nations' hold on the route to Egypt, British-occupied Italian East Africa, Iran. Iraq, India and Russia Its long shore line has few natural harbors, especially an the east coast, which is almost straight. Japanese raiders, however, could be based at Diego Suarez In the rugged north tip of the island and at Mmjunga on the northwest coast, both naval stations for units of the French fleet In the Indian Ocean. Diego Suarez is the best harbor on the island, and Majunga would be valuable as a base for attack on Mozambique channel, which is about 350 miles wide. TTie native* are a simple, primitive people. They have no formal religion, preferring to call God simply “the fragrant one." Their language is soft and musical and they are fond of sing ing. A fabulous land, scene of the exploits of Sinbad -the sailor and other tall tales from the Arabian nights, pirate base and one-time sieve market, Madagascar has had a colorful history. Early in the 16th century Diaz claimed the island for the Portuguese and called it -isle of st. Lawrence " When hla countrymen made no attempt to colonise it, the Dutch tried and failed. Then came the French, who estab lished military positions on the east coast. They were massacred. Not until the late 19th century did they get the land. The island itself is #80 miles long and its area of 228500 square miles is ex ceeded by three other islands, Green land, New Guinea and Borneo. The chief commercial port Is Tamatavs on the east coast, but the city is un healthy, built close to marshes and has a hot, humid climate. Fort Dauphin, In the arid southern part at the island hag little to recommend It save a good high way to TsmaUve. Foreigners, of whom there are some >5,000, have found the island’s high central plateau a healthy and pleasant region. Tananarive, capital city of 100,000, sUnda on the plateau near the approxi mate center of the island. It is modem in appearance with boulevards and parks, churches, schools, hospitals and an imposing railway sUtion, and a palace or two vacated when royalty waa formally abolished on the island in 1896. Economically, the island would be a good grab for the Japanese, for there is considerable wealth in the red earth. The gold mines, worked by the French since 1887, the year after they took the island over, have not proved as rich as was first believed, but many varieties of precious stones are found—rubies, sapphires; emeralds, topazes and aqua marines. Iron is abundant and other minerals are believed to lie in the moun tains. Much British capital has been in vested in Madagascar in the past, but three-fourths of its trade has been with France. The chief exports are raw hides, preserved meat, tapioca, rice, dried vege tables, coffee, graphite and precious stones. At one time the island yielded some rubber. The forests have been virtually de nuded and the tableland is brown and barren. Cattle raising is an important indus try, and it has been Mid that there art more cattle per capita raised on the island than in any other country in the world. The natives will not kill them for food. A man’s social position is gauged by the number of cattle he pos sesses. and he would let his family go hungry rather than butcher one Of the beasts. Food is plentiful and the natives need Utile money. Moet of their individual income la from handwork. They weave beautiful mats and baskets and are skilled In fashioning silver and gold ornaments. Like the Japanese, they are good copyists. The natives, called Malagasy, are of a brown rather than a black race, and belong to the Malayo-Polynesian family. There are Semitic. Mongol and Negroid strains in their blood. Members of the ruling families are descended from Arabs. Cites Factual Error In Report ef Lecture. To the Bditor of The Star: In the account of my lecture of Mon day night in The Star I am reported as saying that the Chilean Navy is not con voying ships. But I said that the Chilean Navy is convoying ships. That point was important in relation to the general presentation. KDWIN RYAN. Conveys Metaphoric Bouquets For "Answer- to Mia Thom poor To tb* Ml tor ef The Sur Flowers to the editor for publishing Marion Bloom’s answer to Dorothy Thompson's article on the "Rainbow Pamphlets." edited by the Womens Division of the War Department, and a special bio mom to Miss Bloom for ha grand retort I EUGENIA WALLACE. THIS AND THAT By Charlti f T'acttcfl! "Parasite" la a word which has been ' bandied around frntr time u» time In the bird world It is mostly applied to the cowbird One of these came to our feeding sta tion Saturday evening at exactly I o'clock. This feeder is located within a few feet of the window, to it was easy to see the creature. Certainly there is nothin* parasitic in Its appearance As far as we know, this is the only bird with a black body and a brown head and neck. It is an odd combination, especially when the black is glossy, with a green and even violet undertone. • * * * Cowbirds. like the English cuckoo, lay their eggs in the nests of other birds. The one at our feeding station was a male, so he would do no egg laying. We looked around for his mate, a plain sort of brown bird, but did not see her. In the meantime, the male was greedily eating assorted seeds and grains. He ate as If he had not had a bite to •at for a long time. Unlike the local birds, which pick and choose, he thrust in his thick bill re peatedly, seizing anything which came t« bill. w ^ w w Last spring we had a female eowbird. So it would seem that the two are not often seen together. These birds, although they indulge in what might be called an axis-like trick, do not do what they dp because of sly ness. but simply because it is their nature to do it. Nesting begins in this month, if nest ing it can be called. The cowbirds are j what at one time in this country were called exponents of "free love." They do not stick together, as most birds, but make up to any one of their species they came across in the meadow, where they often walk after cows, to eat the Insects stirred up by the feet of the quadrupeds. (Hence the name.) * * * * These birds do not nest, In the usual sense. It is a sneak affair, like Pearl Harbor. The mother eowbird fly* around until she finds a nice nest with fresh eggs in it. Then she lsys an egg, it is believed Just one at a time, and flies away. Her duties are over. Not for her the hatching of the egg, and the feeding of her own progeny. Most mother birds, aa well as their mates, work themselves into a frazsle, as the saying has it, feeding the young, but not the cowbirds. If they cannot find a place to put the egg, they put It on the ground. Sometimes they pom* bark and ranr tt earefullv in • n**t oik# thev And a mi table on# Thu I la thetr only sign of tenderness • * • • The eowbird egg u larger In moot ra«et than the rightful egg* in th# neat So tt gets more heat Alao. It require* a shorter t tine to hatch Hence the cc.wbird appear* first and gata the Item's share of the food the foster parent rustles up. It would seem strange, at first thought, that tha mother bird in the nest would not know her own offspring On second thought, It is seen that she would have no way of knowing So she goes right ahead, feeding the large bird, which often grows so rapidly that It receives moat of the food The rightful birds In the nest starve to death, while the poor mother feeds the big hungry eowbird. - * * e * Sparrows and warblers are the favorite victims of this deception Young cowbtrds grow so fast that they often get ail the food the guileless mother bird brings, because she is off the nest so much, looking for food, that she does not have time to give her own eggs sufficient warmth to hatch them! This would seem to be the all-time “low" for bird intelligence, but again we have to take into consideration that birds have no way of protecting themselves against such goings on. The eowbird, fortunately, is the only bird in this country which indulges in such methods, and so the other species have not had the chance to build up re actions against them. It la just as if a human family of tender, gentle, kindly persons has sud denly thrust into it a scheming, me&n tongued person, who proceeds to “rule the roost" because the others do not know how to prevent It. The cowbird does not often eat insects off the hide of cows, as is commonly pic tured, but mostly uses cattle to flush Its game, as it were. That is, the cows move, and In moving drive out of the grass the various Insects, which are seized by the following cowbird. Most of the Insects eaten are harmful species. But this Is offset, according to the experts, by the fact that for every young cowbird, two to five other birds are killed In nesting. In the far South there are three other eowblrds, the dwarf, the red-eyed and the bronzed, all of which lay their eggs in the same way. Our specimen, no doubt Just in from the South, suddenly stopped eating and flew away. As he went we noted the sparkle of his feathers, and how his head and neck •lightly resembled those of the dovs. Letters to the Editor niei — ri Problem of Finding a Home Far a Family With Children. To tb« Sditor of The Slur I am Just one of the thousands who hare been asked by the Federal Govern ment to come to Washington and help out in the present emergency. Like all decent men, I wanted to keep my family intact and have its members with me. Can you Imagine how I feel when, looking for an apartment, to have the person in charge throw up his hands in apparent herror when I tell him I have two little girls and a pup? For my own information I would like to know what one i§ supposed to do to wnd a place to live here, divorce his wife and send his children to an orphan's home or rob a bank and buy .an apart ment building and live in it alone? It v seems Uke a child goes into the same category as a wild animal in this vicinity. In Mississippi, my home 8tate, we are glad to rent to a family with children, as the chances are It is far more settled and quiet. It really seems a shame that we have to make all kinds of sacrifices to protect a place that is too “good” to give shelter to children. J. G. POULK. Disagree* With Proposal To Saopend Elections. To tho Editor of Tho Star I have just read with incredulity the article by David Lawrence entitled "Fall Elections Called Peril to War Effort” and am forced to admit that as an American loyal to our republican form of j Government under the Constitution of the United States I have never expected to hear or read any such opinion. Mr. Lawrence's opening reference to the suspension of elections in Britain and Canada begs the whole question involved. Without periodic elections there can be no representative govern ment, for the people have no other way of expressing their will except through the ballot box. Once that right is taken away it never can be regained except by force. The people of Britain and Canada expect to resume elections when the war is over, but there Is a grave possibility that a radical change in circumstances may make the present Incumbents unwilling to submit to the electoral process, or they may be suc ceeded by those who do not believe In the democratic process at all. The very fact that the elected member* of a parliamentary body are unwilling to place their political records before their own people for examination and approval is a warning signal that gov ernment of the people, for the people and by the people is about to perish. Mr. Lawrence says that a political campaign at this time would give real comfort to Hitler, for he would "see America's energies diverted from all-out war to all-out politics.” We already are giving comfort to Hitler on these grounds. Certainly, the enemy could j not have been more pleased than when all sorts of rich plums were being handed around in the O. C. D. while our brave young men went through the agonizing siege of Bataan. The industrial corporations of the i United States today are being hounded j on the grounds they are impeding and obstructing the war production. There may be a few auch organizations, but any one who knows the American in dustrialist know* that when the Gov ernment tells Him to proceed, he does so to the limit of his capacity and the directions he receives from the Government. The sight of American Industry being threatened by our own Government must give comfort to Letters to the Editor must bear the name and address of the writer, although the use of a pseudonym for publication is permissible. The Star reserves the right to edit all letters with a view to condensation. Hitler, for It it an old story in Germany. The fact Is that all-out politics are being played here right now and it is time to call a halt. If a congressional election, which must be held under the Constitution, and which must be held In good faith, can help eliminate the disastrous politics which permeate every aspect of affairs relating to the security of the United States, then I am sure Mr. Lawrence would be In favor of holding the election. His assumption that a Republican Congress (and I mean a Congress dominated by members of the opposition party; would mean dis unity in our defenae effort is not valid. It is not so much a question of which party is in Congress, but rather of having men there whose sole purpose is directed toward the protection of the United States, its territories and possessions, and the complete defeat of the enemy in the most efficient and thorough manner possible. We did H in 1918—and we also held an election in 1918. ELEANOR H. FINCH. Sees Second World War As a "Crusade" for Freedom. TO tht Sditor of TK« Star: If we want a new name for World War II. can’t we call It “The Crusade Against Conquest"? Is not this conflict more than war? Wars always have been, and always will be, isolated Incidents in the evolution of mankind, and the episodes in which we now find ourselves are no less transi tory. But from our standpoint they are also the outward Indications of a deep seated revolt against the oppression, the physical enslavement, which certain powers seek to impose by force upon all mankind. Germany and Japan are momentary physical enemies to be de feated by every means at our disposal, including an all-inclusive war effort; but deeper, more far-reaching, than this is the necessity for a crusade stemming - from the natural revolt of ail peace and-order-loving individuals and nations against conquest, against the enslave ment of nations whose sincere desire is to live at peace with their neighbors. Ail the good, all the real and lasting power in earth and heaven would be enlisted in such an effort. We may tiot see eye to eye with Russia when political economy is viewed; our desire few industrial progress and me chanical aids to human comfort may be stronger than those of the people of China and India; we may desire a more compact geographical sphere of Influence than does Great Britain; but certainly all of us can join in a revolt against the forcible enslavement of peaceful neighbors. The differences In the opin ions held by ourselves and our Allies are superficial and of small import when we contemplate the basic, fundamental motive that actuates all of us. If we value freedom for ourselves and our children we must become inspired, determined comrades in a crusade which will extend far beyond our certain vic tory In the present conflict. We must become tried and trusted partners in an endeavor which will continue long after history has recorded the Axis try tor power ae an example of total failure. Why not "Crueade against Conquest”? EDWARD PIERCE. Hoikin'* Answer* To Questions l| 1 H«i*ut 4 'mite e«« pH tho **isw to *«# fuestMMi #1 MH kg fto to*' «»•*# Star Information Unraam Prwf* *** ]. Haiti* dtrirtiw WasAtMfto*. D C. Please • nr lose ilastp tor rpywp Q Where are the highest and lowest post office* torsi#*' T T A According to th# toteet Informa tion, Trail Ridge Colo. Is th# htghe«t post office tn th# United HUtes having an sltttud# of U.7V7 fee* above as* level. Mecca. Calif , tn th# Imperial Valiev t» the lowest poet office, the elevation being 1M feet below see level These two places ar# small and cannot be called cities. Q Who Is th# author of the saying that it is better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to speak out and prove it?—8 T. D A. The words, "Better to remain silent and be thought a fool than speak out and remove all doubt," are credited to Abraham Lincoln. President* and Their WivM— Meet the 32 Executive# of the United States and the women who have presided at the White House throughout our history. Do you know their names, term of office, their poUtics. religion, education, birthplace, burial place, parents, wives, children, personal and public history? This booklet will answer innumerable questions on the subject of our Presidents. To secure your copy Inclose 10 cents In coin, wrapped in this clipping, and mall to The Star Information Bureau. Name Address Q Is there an estimate of the amount of explosives the intense bombing of England costs Germany?—®. D. O. A. Between August 8, 1940, and Janu ary 2, 1941, Berlin claimed to have dropped over 92,000,000 pounds of high explosive bombs and over 3,500,000 pounds of incendiaries on British soil. If these figures and the figures of Brit ish air-raid casualties are correct, it cost Germany about one ton of bombs for each casualty inflicted and two and one-half tons for every eltlsen killed. Q From what opera Is the song, “The Last Rose of Summer." taken?—A. H. A. "The Last Rose of Summer," based on an ancient Irish air, Is Interpolated as an aria In the opera "Martha," by Flo tow. Q. Can you give some Information on the big barbecue once given by Gov. Walton of Oklahoma ?—W. N. D. A. The food which Gov. Walton of Oklahoma served at the barbecue which he held to celebrate his Inauguration on January 9. 192), included beef, buffalo, bear, reindeer, antelope, pork, mutton, rabbit, squirrel, chicken, goose, duck, opossum, coon. aU cooked in a mile of trenches. There were also high piles of sliced bread and coffee urns holding 10, 000 gallons each. A crowd of over 100,000 was served. Q. in what direction should a tennis court lief—A. M. N. A. A tennis court should be laid north and south so that the sunshine will come from the aides and not blind the players. Q. Please explain how a bird can go forward by flapping its wings and why a humlngtoird is able to fly backward or forward.—A. 1C. L. A. .The back stroke, when the wings touch over the head, propels the bird. The front stroke, when the wings meet over the body, sustains the bird In the sir. The wing tips of soaring birds are "slotted" to prevent stalling. Just as the modern airplanes are constructed. The tremendous speed of the wings enables the hummingbird to fly both forward and backward. Borne birds possess the power of sailing Indefinitely without flapping their wings. Their ability to do this lies in the fact that they use their momentum against the pull of gravity and the rising wind or air currents. Q. How far back does the history of Japan go?—S. Y. A. Japan’s history begins with a year which corresponds to M0 B.C., when a band of invaders settled in Yamato. The early history of Japan Is Indistinguish able from mythology. Q. Where was the last battle of the Revolution fought?—E. R. A. A. The last great battle of the Ameri can Revolution was the siege of York town, Va„ which lasted 19 days. On October 16, 1781, the British Gen. Corn wallis surrendered to the allied French and Americans under Gen. Washington. Q. When and where was paper money first used?—P. N. A. Paper money was In use In China at an early date. The oldest paper money of which a specimen is known to exist Is the Kwan note first issued in China In 1368 A.D. How Long? How long do notes of music poise in air Or spoken words, unscattered by the wind, Retain the contours given by shap ing lips Before their pattern blurs as clorfds are thinned? How long before the unseen waves are spent That carry precious sounds, too faint to hear Till captured by a magic instrument That frees their beauty for the listening ear? But you were close beside me. As / spoke, Ton did not answer, did not turn yoy head, And silence fell about us like a cloak TiU I forgot the words that I had said. Then you replied — your answer bringing wonder: Where had my question lingered? By what art Were words sustained that did not fall asunder, But took to long to penftrate your heart? INEZ BARCLAY KIRBY.