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Brazil Tackles ‘Litt Midst
4k-: - \ u ♦ \:;m These fishing vessels at Santos, Brazil, are Japanese-owned and operated, and like many others, some ocean-going, add to the Axis threat to Brazil. —wide worm photo*. % 'H*re is an amazinz nictura of tha atrangth Of thi Japanese colony in Brazil, whera hun dred! of Nipponaae have been arrested, de acribffl by E. M. Castro, veteran corra sponlant. who has just completed a lengthy tour of the state of Sao Paulo Castro traveled armed, and with an official atate polite bodyguard ! By E. M. Castro, Wide World News. SAO PAULO. Brazil.—The 271,000 Jap anese-born residents of the State of Sac Paulo consider the vast lands they occupy as personal property of their Emperor in Tokio. They smile and seemingly comply with current restrictive measures of Brazilian State and Federal authorities, but with the same smile they show their com plete confidence in an Axis victory and their calm assurance that present re strictions will be overthrown shortly. This is the most striking impression I gathered in a trip into the interior and ■long the coastline of this State during which I was in personal contact with the activities of about 20.000 of the 271,000. Immigration statistics show a smaller number, but in Brazil there are about 350,000 Japanese-born. "We realize the existence of a danger ous Japanese fifth column in Brazil." one high government authority told me, "but we do not at present believe there Is danger of an isolated movement from this colony alone against the nation." The present stern measures of the government and others to be carried out shortly are calculated to remove danger of an internal blow from the Japanese in Brazil, but the graver problem facing authorities is represented by the pos sible activities of the Japanese colonists in the event of an attack or promise of armed assistance from the outside. An Army of 100,000. Official calculations say about 40 per cent of the Japanese colony in Sao Paulo are men, able to form an army of 100, 000. Organization of these Japanese along semi-military lines already has been proved. The remaining 60 per cent of women and children are listed for specific auxiliary services. Recently a letter, reportedly written by a Brazilian-born Japanese for Sao Paulo authorities, told how this organ ization was prepared to seize all com munications and power plants, water supplies, food sources and key factories, to isolate the huge industrial city of Sao Paulo. Asked about this danger, Dr. Accacio Nogueira, secretary of public security for the state, told me: •"We have plans for meeting anv at tempt such as this against public wel fare, regardless of origin. "State authorities have worked out a plan with the approval of the Federal Government, which includes co-operative action of the Federal army, military po lice and state police. First phases of this plan already have been effected against widespread espionage and fifth column groups in this state." With a population of almost 2.000.000 in the capital, and 7.000,000 in the state, Sao Paulo counts 1.000.000 citizens of the Axis countries or their descendents. The biggest group are the Italians, whom Brazilian authorities consider the least dangerous. In addition to police vigilance main tained constantly on these elements, the Brazilian government recently decreed various measures of control, such as freezing funds of Axis citizens, partial confiscation to pay for the Axis damage to Brazilian property, prohibitions on carrying arms, speaking German, Italian or Japanese, or traveling. The Japanese, however, is able to cir cumvent even the strictest government restrictive measures, through the nisei or first generation Japanese, born in Brazil and regarded as Brazilian citizens. Although no statistics are available on the number of Nippo-Brazilians, it is estimated that thev total about 100.000. This group, considered by the Brazi lians as just as dangerous or more so than the Japanese-born, may do all which is prohibited for their parents. Dangerous Spy Groups. These born citizens of Brazil, many of whom can hardly speak the language of their fountry, enter the Brazilian army under obligatory service and thus can form direct links with Japanese spy groups. They assume the businesses of their parents and enjoy every privilege of Brazilian citizens—while forming an or ganization integrally linked, it is charged, to the goal of their parents, the domina tion of Japan. Recently state police here arrested a Brazilian-born Japanese, graduate of the government’s reserve officers' school, when a clandestine shortwave radio sta tion was heard reporting to Axis agents. Thus far no government action has been taken against this group, Brazilians by birth but Japanese by instinct. Any such action would Involve important modifications of the national constitu tion. Many Japanese living in Brazil have had previous military training in Japan. Recent arrests throughout Brazil have disclosed officials as high as lieutenant generals of the army and captains of the navy, usually cultivating tomatoes. Japanese propaganda material seized in South Sao Paulo, Brazil, includes a telephone system for spy work and a Japanese translation of “Mein Kampf” and other literature. The Japanese In this state live com pletely isolated from the native element. Their centers vary from 300 to 6.000 in population, in cities, towns and large farms, but always In atmosphere and surroundings completely Japanese. Their homes are styled after their homeland, their principal products are rice, tea and silkworms. Their children, among all the foreign populations in this vast nation of 45.000.000 persons, are those who least assimilate the Portu guese native tongue, generation after generation. Under Observation. Authorities are watching closely the silk production, guarding against any Japanese effort to diminish it or destroy their crops since silk was declared a strategic war material and all excess production destined for the United States. Japanese in this State have shown little inclination for industry, concen trating their efforts on truck farming and large-scale agriculture production. They control the Sao Paulo food sup plies. The Japanese concentrations about this great city, third largest of South America, form a virtual blockade—they cut across communications with the south, in the State of Parana, which contains the headwaters of the great Argentine river of the same name, most important inland water route of the con tinent. They are in position to block Brazilian inland communications with the State of Matto Grosso and the Sao Paulo coastline. A long federal police report on dis tribution of Japanese Immigration, show - ing how they have entered this State and spread in uniform lines from south east to northwest, indicates the thought to strategic occupation that went be hind the apparently innocent Japanese colonization of Sao Paulo: Japanese colonies in Brazil, their ac tivities and their enterprises, were di rected by the Tokio government, through diplomatic and consular representatives. With the closing of these representa tives when Brazil broke relations with the Axis powers last January this direc tion passed to the agents of Kaigai Kog yo Kabushira Kaisha. a company found ed in 1917 In Tokio to control Japanese emigration programs. "This company,” said a federal police report, “is controlled by the Japanese Foreign Ministry and the Ministry of Foreign Commerce, and has as principal stockholders the steamship lines Osaka Shoshen Kaisha and N. Y. K., as well Training Pet Dogs for War Duty By R. R. Taynton. The Army wants dogs, trained dogs that can do a sentry job and supplement the work of their soldier handlers. Defense plants want dogs, trained dogs that can give 24 hours of alert guard ianship every day and prevent as well as apprehend saboteurs. Other countries have been training and using war dogs for years. A trained army of dogs has been in the W’ar pro gram of the Germans since they ren dered such a good account of themselves In World War I. The Japs have been secretly buying purebred dogs from the Germans for years and training them for both offensive and defensive work In this war. But the United States, un til recently, has done nothing along these lines. This country-, in the name of sport, how owns more purebred dogs of suitable breeds for war duty, and more trained dogs, than any other country In the world. True, these dogs are the beloved household pets of just the common peo ple. and they have bred their dogs to a standard of perfection for the joy of seeing them improve from litter to litter. They have trained them in the obedience test classes and entered them for competition at the almost daily dog shows all over the country and their breeding has resulted in a race of dogs with unusual stamina Their obedience training and breeding for intelligence has resulted in a reserve of dogs that already have all the fundamental train ing needed for work in the armed forces and in defense plants. But these dog lovers love their coun try and they are proud to offer their dogs without waiting for the canine selective service. Those who have suit able dogs, not trained, and those adept at training, but owning at the moment no suitable dogs, and those who have neither dogs nor facility at training, are all en gaged in a Nation-wide campaign to fur nish "dogs for defense.’’ In order to co-ordinate the work of these various groups, Dogs for Defense, Inc., was established some time ago. Its list of officers includes representatives from every branch of’ the dog field, bench club officers, obedience training experts, professional handlers associa tion, and dog show superintendents. These people know every angle of dog bre«Mj>g, handling, training, showing tnd Mfiemblinf. They know the leaders A boxer owned by Mrs. Jouett Shouse, head of the Potomac Boxer Club, which will donate funds for the use of Dogs for Defense. in their fields not only in their own sec tion of the country, but all over the country and they know who has the dogs and who can best train them. As a double cneck on their knowledge, they have appointed regional directors who know their own canine sectors inti mately. It is the work of the regional director to see that the people who know how to train dogs get the dogs to train And that the people who have neither suit able dogs nor training ability but are interested in the project get a chance to support it by the donation of funds to pay for the boarding of dogs while they are in training. Official recognition of this movement came with the acceptance of the United States Army of the offer of 200 trained sentry dogs to be delivered as soon as possible. This acceptance for the Army came through Maj. Gen. Edmund Bris tol Gregory, who appreciated the ablll ties of trained dogs in helping to guard the vast supplies stored in depots throughout the country. Lt. Col. Clifford Smith was desig nated by Gen. Gregory to command the corps of sentry dogs. He said that he was prepared to leave the choice of the breeds of dogs up to Dogs for Defense, but specified that the dogs be of medium rather than small or giant size. He pro fessed himself as being in entire ac cord with the opinions of the organiza tion as to age and necessary training of the dogs accepted. Dogs for Defense, Inc., prefers for Army training pure bred dogs of either sex. between one and five years of age, and of one of the many average size breeds. Experience abroad has found boxers, collies, German shepherds, Doberman pinschers, airedales. giant schnauzers, and dogs of comparable size and habit, mast valuable. As for their training, the simplest rules of obedience training suffice. They must heel on and off leash, they must stay put until recalled, and they must be amenable to the handling of any body instead of responding to only one master. Perfection of form, either of the dog himself or of his performance in obedience, is not important. Depend ability and immediate response to spoken and signaled commands is im perative. Funds for this non-profit organiza tion are being raised by volunteer dona tion and by the efforts of many show giving organizations. The first such club in this area to co-operate with the national organization is the Po tomac Boxer Club, headed by Mrs. Jouett Shouse, which will donate the proceeds from its series of sanction matches this summer to the use of Dogs for Defense. Another Washingtonian interested in boxers, but acting as the president of the New England Boxer Club the is vice president of the Potomac Boxer Ciubt. Keith Merrill, was instrumental in the offer of four boxers for training. Doubtlessly members of the local group will also donate some of their dogs. Other kennel clubs that are donating cash derived from show profits are the Greenwich. Conn., club, and the Long Beach, Calif., club, both of which have worked out Ingenious scheme* to make sure that their shows will show a profit instead of a deficit. as the company Tokio Takusorl Kaisha.” This K. K. K. K., as it is known in Brazil, transmits its orders to Japanese co-operatives, whose .officials in turn control activities of the smallest Jap anese farm concentrations. Every Jap anese or descendant in Brazil is reg istered by this firm. Of the 45 Japanese co-operatives in Sao Paulo, only four are administered by Brazilian-born. They contain 9.000 Japanese. 558 Brazilians and 261 of other nationalities. Authorities refer to them as the "real centers of espionage ac tivity.” Information of local police reveals that when Japanese emigrant families were organized in their homeland to be sent to Brazil, a "family” was designated with at least three grown men, one or two ' women, and a majority of male chil dren. In contrast to the Germans, the Jap anese do not organize social or sports A Japanese fisherman of Iguape in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, steps forward for questioning. Every nav igable river mouth and small harbor in the state is under control of Japanese-born resi dents. groups, but avoid all collective assem blies, preferring to receive instructions through their private mail service, which is strictly prohibited by the Brazilian government, but which reportedly still exists in this State. Essentially an agricultural state, Sao Paulo once welcomed this Japanese im migration as a labor supply. But the Japanese tendency to concentrate among themselves defeated the chief Brazilian aim in letting down the immigration bars. While the huge numbers of Japanese in the interior and their inclination to filter into Matto Grasso and Parana might seem the greatest danger, one who This Japanese-operated store is typical of business places in the city of Registro, Sao Paulo, state of Brazil, where Japanese concentrations offer a fifth column threat. has had opportunity to visit the Japa nese control of the Sao Paulo coastline sees an even more significant point: Here fishermen with oceangoing ves sels of long range, and farmers control ling every navigable river mouth and small harbor, operate as though in their own country. In Registro. a city of 9.000 persons of whom more than half are Japanese, Bra zilians living there, many for years, told me they "feel like strangers in a strange land.” Of 45 business firms, three are Bra zilian. I saw Japanese driving buses, taxis and trucks, working in Japanese owned stores and selling to other Japa nese, Japanese laborers and Japanese schools with only Japanese students. An old resident of the city told me that the Japanese consider this area a part of their empire under Japanese law. He said Japanese criminals are tried and Judged according to their proceedings, without consideration of Brazilian au thorities. I had occasion to visit several Japa nese residences, colonies along the banks of the river Ribeira and farms in the countryside, where nothing was missing from the Japanese viewpolnt„even to the Buddhist temples. I talked at length with leaders of the Japanese nucleus of this region, one of whom attempted to hide his absolute confidence In a Japanese victory. One of them told me: “I am a Japanese Today we are friends.." He smiled. 'Tomorrow we may be enemies.” * During my visit here I attended several police inquiries, at which suspected Jap anese were qutstloned. They alway* masked their feelings with a bland smile, but it was evident that the questioning yielded little Information. Ground Officers Become "Eyes of the Army’ By William T. Rives, Wide World New*. BROOKS FIELD. San Antonio, Tex.— While Gen. Douglas MacArthur was making his stand on Bataan Peninsula, his artillery smashed Japanese emplace ments of big guns intended to pour death into the American stronghold. It was a convincing demonstration of the effectiveness of observation, even without air superiority. A few United States observers, flying over the targets, relayed to MacArthur's men the exact location of the Japanese guns. Here at Brooks Field is the Army's only advanced observation flying school. Apt Is its slogan—“The eyes of the Army.” Training of observation pilots, as has every other phase of military instruc tion, has been revolutionized with the development of lightning warlare and the necessity for turning out all sorts of fighting men in mass. In “the old days” of several months ago. Army observers also were pilots. Now ground officers—infantrymen, cav alrymen and artillerymen—are trained as observers, thus increasing the number of pilots available. As observers, the line officers Join the pilots in two-man combat teams. "Our specialty,” said Lt. Col. Stanton T. Smith. Brooks commander, “is taking officers of other branches and making them into observers. Unless we can co ordinate the air, the ground and the water forces, we are not going to win anything.” The observers receive their training at Brooks Field at the same time student pilots were given advanced training. A student pilot and a student officer observer are teamed and join a flight of four combat teams. These combat teams are the stagehands, so to speak, for the modern warfare theater. They sweep ahead of the dive bombers, the infantry and tanks, mapping the way. They also may act as artillery spotters, radioing the range of various targets. "A large percentage of the information upon which battles are fought comes from aerial observation.” Col. Smith said. “Hitler's early successes were due in large measure to observation.” Each class attends the Observation School nine weeks. That time is crammed full of flying and ground study. This Army Air Corps observer is "shooting” the enemy. It is his job to bring back detailed photographic maps. —Wide World Photo. The student explores photography, air navigation, codes, combat orders, map making and map reading, cavalry mis sions, radio procedure, signal communi cations and a host of other related sub jects. The observer’s task is not easy. Recently an 18-plane flight took off on a training mission. The students were to fly over a designated area and then re port what they saw. Prom 5,000 feet It is difficult to pick out camouflaged instruments of war, and 17 of the planes returned with no ob servations of anything but peaceable pursuits. One observer noted he saw two boys playing, another saw a farmer at work in the field, another saw a cow. The 18th plane's observer, however, noted a truck moving away from a patch of forest. The pilot swooped down and :ircled the area. The observer came back with a report that 75 field guns. 130 trucks and many other pieces of equipment were in the possession of a large number of troops camouflaged In the trees. Where the naked eye may miss details, the camera often tells a story, and photography plays a tremendous role in observation. The speed of a plane, haze, or high altitude may baffle the eye, but the camera isn’t fooled. The speed of the ship is taken care of by the camera'! swift shutter; haze is eliminated by use of a filter, and special long-range lenses overcome the altitude problem. The big bulky cameras are used to take five types of photographs: Pin points, reconnaissance strips, aerial maps, stereopairs and obliques. Pinpoints are single photographs taken to locate an object and Its surroundings. The reconnaissance strips are series of overlapping photographs taken over a long, narrow objective, such as a railroad. The aerial map Is composed of over lapping strips to cover large areas for study purposes. Stereopairs are the Army version of the old stereoscope—two photos of the same object taken at different angles to give the illusion of height when viewed through an apparatus similar to the stereoscope. Obliques are taken at varying angles to show depth, background, construction types and conditions of the objective. Success of photo missions depends greatly upon the ability of the pilot to place the plane in an advantageous posi tion and the ability of the observer, of course, to do a good job with the camera. That is where the teamwork comes in, but it goes further than that. Sometimes the team has to fight its way home, al though observation planes are not armed for combat specifically. Usually the pilot and observer must elude detection until their ship reaches its objective—for ordinarily it is not accompanied by fighter planes—and then beat pursuers on the race home. Yachting Season Opens Under Wartime Sail By Malcolm D. Lamborne, Jr. Washington yachtsmen will take to their boats this season fully aware It's a new role they are playing in the sport and the war effort. Some 25 or 30 former pleasure craft that once cruised favorite Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay rendezvous are now in operation with the Potomac Naval Command and under direct command of the Coast Guard. Flying the flag and pennant of the latter service, they are on 24-hour duty guarding vital military reservations and bridges of the Poto mac's 100 miles. A few of the owners of these craft, now painted a warlike gray, are in service with their boats, serving as chief boatswain mates or with other ratings in keeping with their experience. If the owner has not found it possible to go with his boat, regular crews have gone into the service in his stead. For the civilian boatmen, however, wartime yachting will be a far call from the sport they enjoyed a year ago. Paints, marine engines, wire rigging— all the things needed to go to equip the ships of our Navy and Coast Guard—will become increasingly difficult to procure. Yachtsmen before they go afloat will have to apply for credentials required under wartime regulations governing the movement of vessels on all navigable inland waters. Once favorite cruising haunts may fall within restricted areas set up by the Army, and yachtsmen will find they cannot navigate within 100 yards of cer tain military reservations bordering tha water. Sentries have been ordered to shoot on sight any strange craft moving too close to these areas, and a skipper will have no one to blame but himself if his boat is the target of an alert guard. There is a rift in the clouds, however. The Army and Navy have gone on record that the sport should continue, so long as it does not interfere with the war eflort. It is excellent for morale, they say, to he able to relax aboard a boat in these times. And further the sport serves as a good training ground for future sailors in the sea-going services. And so. taking all these points into consideration. Washington's boating people are flocking to the water front each warm week end. Capital, Corin thian, Columbia, Washington, Eastern Yachts Clubs are the scene of the usual fitting-out process, which some enthusi asts say is the best part of the sport. Owners of every conceivable type of craft afloat are cheerfully standing in line at the Capital Yacht Club where the Coast Guard has established a tempo rary heado.uarters for the registering of pleasure craft owners and their boats. They are writing back home for copies of birth certificates so that the identifi cation cards required by the Govern ment may be issued them. Anri if certi ficates are not forthcoming from the local courthouse, family Bibles years old are being earned to Capital so that. Coast Guard officials can establish yachtsmen’s citizenship. At. last report clo.se to 2.000 boat owners tn the Metropolitan Area had made application for cards and move ment licenses necessary to operate on the river and bay. This alone, It Is pointed out, indicates a continued in terest, in the sport and a desire for skip pers to pursue their favorite sport de spite handicaps. There is another reason, too, why Fed eral authorities are encouraging a con tinuance of boating. In this war of great surpi isos, it is not impassible that yachts men of our coastal regions may some day figure in another Dunkerque. The important, part small craft played in the evacuation of the British and French Armies on the beaches of that coast is still fresh in the minds of many. A national boating magazine recently proposed that yachtsmen plan to sign on one or more youth of grade and high school age as crews during the summer months. Not only would they assist in keeping boats in condition for any emergency, but the boys would receive valuable training in seamanship that would prepare them for duty with the services, the magazine has contended. Just such training is being given by the Sea Scout “ships’’ operating under the District Boy Scout Council. These young boys are learning seamanship, small-boat operation, piloting and other nautical lore under competent leaders. One of the outstanding troops of the city is the Corinthian Yacht Club group in rharge of Frederick Tilp, its skipper. With a membership of 20 to begin the season, the organization recently ap pealed for additional recruits. Scouts there commission and sail their own craft—a fleet of two 28-foot eatboats. several rowing craft and sailing dinghies. Organized sail racing on the Potomao here, now in its ninth year, will be re »atned next Sunday, under auspices of PotoRiver Sailing Association. Tha go-aheaa signal has been given the group by the Coast Guard, through its captain of the port,' and the triangular course northwest of Hains Point soon will be covered with white sails. The association pians to sail until thp middle of June, and if sufficient numbers request it, a summer series— the first of its kind here—might ba instituted. Formerly many sailboat owners, at the close of the racing season here in late May, have moved to the bay for participation in summer regattas. But with gasoline rationing and tire shortages facing all pleasure seekers, it is believed that the majority of the sail ing group will make this summer and the remaining war summers a purely local affair. Reports from yacht clubs and other groups, including the sailing association, indicate that boating in the District, despite heavy odds, is in for a boom this season. A growing number of war workers and Army and Navy officers transferred here seek information almost daily on chartering of boats and facilities available should they decide to bring their craft here from home waters. A few even are considering living aboard as a means of solving the city-* housing shortage. They include men from the State Deartment, Army officers and key men in War Production Board.