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With lliiir Moraine Edition. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. WASHINGTON, D. C. FRIDAY. ...May 8, 1942 The Evening Star Newspaper Company. Main Office. 11th St. and Pennsylvania Avi. New York Office, lin East 42nd St Chicago Office. 415 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—City and Suburban. Regular Edition. Evening and Sunday 15c per mo. or 18c per week The Evening 8tar 45c per mo. or 10c per week The Sunday Star 10c per copy Night Final Edition. Night Final and Sunday Star.. 85c per month Night Final Star .. 00c per month Collections made at the end of each month or each week Orders may be aent by mail or tele phone National 5000. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Maryland and Virginia. Daily and Sunday. Evening. Sunday. 1 year _Sin.on SO.on $5.00 6 months_ $5.00 $3.00 S'.’ 50 1 month S5r 65c 60c Elsewhere in United State*. 1 year _$12.00 $S.0ll $5.00 0 month*_ $0.00 $4.00 $2.60 1 month _ $1 00 15c 60e Entered a* second-class matter post office, Wa*hington. D. C. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use for republlcation of all news dispatches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this paper and also the local news published herein. All rights of publication of special dispatches tierejn_^lso_Rre_rcscri e 6 __ Civilian Defense Lag The first “progress report” of Civilian Defense Director Landis under provisions of the $100,000,000 Appropriation Act of last February is far from encouraging to communi- j ties which have been awaiting delivery of gas masks, fire hose and other air-raid protective facilities. The report discloses that much equipment is "on order” but little has been distributed. Nor is there j any Immediate prospect of early I fulfillment, of orders already placed, i Mr. Landis attributes the bogging down of the air-raid protection j program to priority difficulties ' encountered by the O. C. D. in seek- j lng supplies authorized by Congress, i It is disturbing to learn of this lag ! in the civilian defense effort, but it ; is not clear, under the circumstances, \ how it could have been avoided. Since there is a growing shortage of strategic and critical materials, it has become necessary for the War Production Board to make the best j possible use of supplies which may be i available. That involves a weighing ! of needs of our forces on world-wide j fighting fronts against the needs of civilians on the home front. At the moment there can be little doubt that the needs of soldiers and sailors : on combat duty are of paramount Importance. As the requirements of the fighting men are satisfied, the t allotment of materials for civilian defense needs can be increased. Part of the delay in the gas mask field is ascribed to a restudy by the i new Civilian Defense Board of the | whole gas mask program, with a view to ascertaining specific needs of the civilian population. Although $19, 000.000 already has been turned over to the Chemical Warfare Service for | gas mask production, $10,000,000 is ; being withheld pending completion } of the board’s study. It is to be J hoped that this inquiry will be expe- ! dited, so that this important phase of civilian defense can go forward at top speed. The job of manufacturing millions of masks is a big one, requir ing development of greatly expanded production facilities. No time should be lost in achieving this expansion. Where Next for Japan? There is no use blinking the fact that the end of organized resistance In the Philippines with the fall of Corregldor, coming as it does Imme diately after the collapse of the Anglo-Chinese defense In Burma, gives Japan a two-fold Initiative which presumably it will quickly exploit. There are some indications that the Japanese will continue opera tions against Southern China. They have already penetrated some fifty miles beyond the Burmese border along the famous Burma road. ; They are thus half way to Yung- i chang, the first important town in Yunnan Province. By taking Yungchang, the Japanese would block all hope of escape for the trapped Chinese armies still in Burma, which are now retreating on the border town of Bahmo. From Bahmo, an ancient caravan route j parallels the Burma road and con verges with it at Yungchang. Those Chinese forces, aggregating some 40.000. are first-line troops who have given a good account of themselves, but they are short on mechanized equipment and shorter still on planes, while the Japanese are operating on interior lines. So it is doubtful whether they can make good their escape ahead of the Jap anese drive. The trapping of this large Chinese force would alone Justify a Japanese advance to Yungchang as a purely tactical maneuver. However, there are indications that the Japanese high command has other strategic ends in view. Japanese bombing planes are ranging far and wide over Yunnan. Kunming, the provincial capital, has been heavily punished from the air. A glance at the map shows that Yunnan can be attacked not only from Burma on the west but also from Japanese-occupied French Indo-China on the south. Such an invasion could proceed up several valleys and a railroad line. The ter rain, though mountainous, is similar to that of the Shan country of Burma through which the Japanese mechanized spearheads drove with ease. If a large-scale Invasion of Yun nan is not immediately on the cards, the Japanese have an alternative towards India. Japanese forces are rnw pursuing the tired remnants of the British Imperials up the Chind win River Valley toward Assam, the border province of India. This oper ation canY tut, considered merely Wctical until it develops into greater proportions. Any estimate of future Japanese plans must be sheer guess work. however, until the true signifi cance of the great battle now being fought in the Coral Sea becomes clear. Coral Sea Battle The official report of a great naval battle in the Coral Sea. which washes the northeastern shore of Australia, probably signals the beginning of a fateful struggle for control of the approaches to the land “down under,” if not for control of the continent itself. In or skirting the Coral Sea are vital island outposts—the Solomons, New Caledonia, just recently occu pied by American troops; the New Hebrides and the Fiji Islands. There, too, in New Guinea at the mouth of the Torres Strait, is Port Moresby, just 300 miles from Cape York and deemed vital to the defense of Australia. If Australia is to play its expected part in the war of the Southwestern Pacific, Japan must be denied control of these outposts. Should the con trary be the case, it would become a relatively simple matter to cut the supply line from the United States and effectively blockade the Domin ion. Indeed, once in command of the Coral Sea, Japan might consider an actual invasion of Australia feasible, and the presence of troop transports in the attacking force suggests that a landing at some point is in contemplation. There has been as yet no informa tion concerning the strength of the Japanese invasion fleet. But the in dications are that it must be in con- j siderable force. In the first place Japan would hardly risk her naval units against the powerful Allied air forces in Australia unless she had a major objective in mind. The only sound inference is that the enemy, playing for big stakes, expected to take losses and had mustered her strength accordingly. Secondly, the ; magnitude of the Japanese losses specified in the official communique from General MacArthur's head- | quarters clearly indicates that the enemy was encountered in great j force. j According to this communique, the Allied forces sank one Japanese air craft carrier, one heavy cruiser, one light cruiser, two destroyers, four gunboats, a transport and a supply vessel. In addition, another enemy aircraft carrier was heavily hit and is believed to be a total loss, and severe damage was inflicted on a heavy cruiser, a light cruiser, a 9.000 ton seaplane tender and a cargo vessel. These figures, it was said, include the enemy losses reported yesterday by the Navy Department as a result of the engagement off the Solomon Islands Monday. As yet, there has been no report of Allied losses beyond the three planes admittedly shot down in the Solomon Islands fight. It Is hardly j to be expected, however, that our forces, in inflicting such great dam- j age on the enemy, could have come through unscathed. Berlin, attributing its information to Japanese imperial headquarters, says that two American aircraft car riers of the Yorktown and Saratoga classes and a battleship of the Cali fornia class were sunk. It was also claimed by the Nazis that a British battleship of the Warspite class and a cruiser (Australian) of the Can berra class were damaged. Pending an official announcement from this Government, the Japanese claims can be discounted, but it would be well nevertheless to anticipate losses on our part. In an engagement of this kind; ! however, our own losses are not the most important consideration. What ! is important is the toll taken of the enemy’s ships and the extent to which Japan’s invasion plans were thwarted. As Australian Premier Curtin expressed it. this battle is of “crucial importance.’’ If Australia and its approaches are held, and the enemy battered and driven off, the Navy and the air units will have performed their function, regardless of losses. The battle is still going on, and until the facts are known— probably a matter of several days— we can take comfort in the certain knowledge that our men. both on the sea and in the air, are fighting to the best of their ability. Peruvian Guest The President of Peru is doubly welcome in the Capital of the United States. Dr Manuel Prado represents a country whose traditions of civil ization trace back to a date long anterior to the discovery of America. His people are the descendants of the Incas of remote antiquity. In the veins of many of them also runs the blood of the companions of Pizarro and Almagro. the intrepid pioneers who laid the foundations of the most important viceroyalty of Spain in the Southern Hemisphere. The in dependence of their country was achieved by San Martin and Bolivar and has been maintained with gal lant courage since 1821. In the pre vailing world crisis they recognize “the supreme duty to safeguard the moral patrimony of our young na tionalities” including "the right to think, to feel and to labor in accord ance with legitimate requirements and with collective aspirations.” Washington’s honored guest like i wise is esteemed for his own qualities and achievements. Endowed by in heritance with talehts of the highest | order, he is a scientist, a soldier and a statesman. His family has been eminent in Peru for generations. He was trained for public service by his father, one of his predecessors in the presidency. Conservative in the charades of his mind, he personifies what properly may be regarded as a moderate philosophy of popular gov ernment. His pan-Americanism is above question. He has been and undoubtedly will continue to be a “good neighbor" in the best sense of that title. President Prado, it has been an nounced. will visit New York. Boston. Detroit and other cities before re turning home. He is said to be the fourth Latin American chief of state to come to the United States while in office. The others were: Dom Pedro II. Emperor of Brazil. 1876; General Porfirio Diaz. President of Mexico. 1910. and General Anastasio Somoza, President of Nicaragua. 1939. With such names he will be remem bered. Meanwhile, paraphrasing the words of President Roosevelt, his hosts assure him that they are glad he is here. Scrap Rubber The disclosure by E. G. Holt, in an article in Domestic Commerce, that there is a vast reservoir of scrap rubber in the United States that has not yet been tapped directs attention to the need for a Nation-wide sal vaging campaign and an intensifica tion of efforts to recover, for use in the war program, every pound of scrap that can be collected. Though old rubber is now being gathered in the more thickly populated parts of the country for treatment by recla mation plants, no thoroughgoing campaign to salvage worn-out rubber products has yet been instituted in the Mountain and West North Cen tral sections, and in an inland belt extending across the country north of the Gulf of Mexico. This area, it is estimated, contains from 500.000 to 1.000.000 tons of scrap rubber. Even if the lower figure is the correct one, the supply available would be large enough to take care of the country's normal needs for nearly a year. Due to the long dis tances between population centers and the resulting high transporta tion costs, the expense of collection, in the past, has prevented a sys tematic salvaging campaign. In view of the present shortage of rub ber and the need for increasing the reserves available for the armed forces, whatever expenditures are necessary to tap the scrap rubber reserves in this area would seem to be fully justified. Collection of ruDber scrap is an important part of the war program, ' and it is one to which most Ameri- ; cans can make some contribution. \ For diligent search will reveal scrap in nearly every household. Efficient collection drives in every community will greatly increase our rubber stock pile, and thus strengthen the military frontiers of the United Na tions as they prepare to take the offensive against the Axis. New Credit Curbs The Federal Reserve Board, in tightening its consumer credit regu lations, has taken action that is plainly needed to help curb the in flationary elements engendered by the current rise in the purchasing power of the American people and the resulting increased competition for scarce civilian goods. In addi tion to bringing retail charge ac counts under control for the first time, the new rules require larger down payments and restricted terms for installment purchases. The board has broadened the field of merchandise covered by its earlier consumer credit regulations, and with the exception of food, drugs and cosmetics, the new rules govern the installment purchase of nearly every household item. Though the volume of consumer credit outstanding has been sub stantially reduced in recent months, it is essential, as*part of the program to combat inflation, that it be further contracted, and that installment buying, during the war, be kept at a comparatively low level. By curtail ing excessive buying, consumer credit restrictions should also encourage the payment of debts, and make a greater part of the earnings of the American people available for in vestment in War bonds. National income in 1942, it is esti mated, will exceed $110,000,000,000, a gain of nearly $20,000,000,000 over last year. Federal income taxes will tap only part of this increased pur chasing power. Credit curbs, al though inadequate as a substitute for a proper tax program, should help somewhat in bridging the gap be tween civilian buying power and the restricted supply of consumer goods. A Dog's Life Sugar rationing has brought up the question—what is a family? Father, mother and children are ob viously included. After that it becomes more difficult. Visiting mothers-in-law and week-end guests are out. Also, by a recent decision of the New York sugar rationing board, dogs do not qualify, even though they may in every respect be better be haved and more generally desirable than any other members of the family. This board cruelly denied a sugar card to a pet poodle, in spite of the tearful pleas of his mistress that he drank tea at least three times a day, and liked it sweet. At first the board politely suggested that he use lemon, but this did not satisfy the lady. The next suggestion was that he do without tea entirely, and this was even more indignantly refused. The poodle, she insisted, was con structed somewhat along the lines of the British Empire, and would slowly and painfully perish without tea. The final suggestion was adopted; it was that she share her own sugar with the dog. move on, and give some other human a place In the lln«. Urges Conscription Of Younger Soldiers Writer Argues for Training Of Boys in Physical Toughness And 'Mutual Confidence' ] To the Editor of The 8?tr i That, three year* and 10.000.000 men will be necessary to win is the thought of most of those who are qualified to ! face the real facts of the world conflict in which our country now is engaged. 1 A most essential factor in war is the necessity of the civil population, and especially the women, to adapt them selves to reality. After a week of con sultation with those in Washington who should be in a position to make an esti mate, this writer definitely has reached the conclusion that the minimum length of the war for which Americans must be prepared is three years. This was the thought of those who were opti mistic. The more realistic students ex pressed the opinion that it might take at least three years to beat Hitler and five years to regain complete control of the Western Pacific which, since December 7. 1941, the United Nations have been losing step by step. If these premises be correct, and, of course, the future always is problemati cal, we can conclude that by the end of 1945 there will be not less than 10,000,000 Americans in the service. The Army will require at least 7,000.000; the Navy, including the Marines and Coast Guard, another 1.000.000. and the Air Force, in cluding those in the ground service, ultimately may require at least 2.000.000. In an extended war the minimum gross casualties which can be anticipated will be at least 10 per cent of the entire num- ! ber called up. iBy net casualties is meant those who are permanently out of the line; that is. dead, prisoners, missing, permanently ineffective for military service. By gross casualties is meant those who become ineffective for a month or more, many of whom may ultimately return to duty.* In the last war, the figures ran much higher, the Russians suffering nearly 50 per cent, the British between 30 and 40 per cent, while the French losses were probably equally as high as those of the British. The losses of the Central .powers possibly were even greater. It therefore seems necessary for Americans to reconcile themselves to the calling up of at least 10.000,000 men. The problem which must be considered is how our country may recruit that large number with the least possible impair ment to the social, economic and in dustrial life of the Nation. In the opin ion of many of those who are best quali fied to judge, the conscription law should be amended to apply to those down to and including the age of 18. It, of course, Is sad that any of our youth should be sacrificed in battle. But, unfortunately, there is little room for sentiment in war and this subject must be approached unemotionally. All observers who have been with troops in the field, I believe, will agree that boys between the ages of 18 and 23. if they be physically fit, make the best soldiers. The reasons are obvious. Few in the lower age bracket* hare yet been absorbed in the industrial and economic system of the country, and few have any dependents or are«married, and for this reason enter battle with far leas reservations for their own safety than those who are thinking of relatives who will be left without support In case of their becoming casualties. Regardless of the strain on emotions ; and sentiment in having youth taken for the service, all those who have dear l ones who have been or will be called ' up. should realize that their chances of surviving the war are in a large meas ure based on their training and fitness for service. It should require two years to train a man physically for combat. Any soldier who has studied troops will realize that untrained men are like sheep led to slaughter. This writer has seen the Russian troops march 30 miles j a day and the Japanese 36 miles with packs ranging from 70 to 90 pounds. It i is obvious that unless a boy be physical- 1 ly tough, he cannot stand the strain on | his physique. If those who are trying to keep their youth at home had seen splendid bovs collapsing on the road from sheer ex haustion. as I have, they would realize the importance of their being tough ened for at least a year before they are called on to face the hardships of war. In addition, troops should be trained and disciplined with the same officers and non-commissioned officers and with each other so that when they finally are called into action, they act as a unit and their morale is high, based on the mutual confidence of each in the other and In their officers. Hard disci pline and long training teaches men to take cover when they come under heavy fire and it has been the obser vation of this writer that the casual ties of untrained and undisciplined troops are twice that of those who have had from one to two years service with the colors. . As far as I know there is no thought at present to rush untrained troops into combat, but every effort is being made by all branches of the service to pre pare the younger men to meet the physical hardships of war. If. as we have assumed, the war is to last a minimum of three years, it will be the boys who are now from 18 to 20 w’ho will be the shock troops of 1944 and 1945. Under the present law, the minimum age is 20 which means that, before they really are fit for active service they will be 22 years of age or older. It always mu t be re called that those who are taken from essential industries are a loss to the country as a whole, tragic as it may be and great as is the human loss, the younger men who must be sacrificed do not so vitally affect the future life of the country. It always must be kept in mind that this war must be envisaged, not by ' the sacrifice of the next few years, but by 1 what is best lor the interest of our national life in the next decade. Other reasons which make it neces sary for extended training of youth when physically they are in a plastic state is that they must be taught to take care of themselves in rain, snow and sun. At least a year should be necessary for this process and failure to realize this means that every soldier is a poor risk for diseases of all kinds, and when. as. and if they fall victim to germs, they are far less conditioned in face the struggle for survival. If those who possess natural and humane sentiment! had seen the boys trying to ward off the Ilia at human frailty In . .._. EAST PALLS CHURCH. V*. ‘Dear Sir: This morning I actually saw some thing I have often heard of but never hoped to see. An albino robin! My young son has been telling me about a white robin he has seen several times since the robins came, but like a lot of other wise' parents I thought it was a figment of his imagination because I hadn't seen it.. "But this morning I saw it with mv own two eyes on my neighbors lawn, just as busily engaged in looking for worms as any other regular robin. "He is not pure white, rather a dirty white, I would say, but his breast is distinctly red. "I had imagined that, to be a real albino he would be white all over. * * St * "We live about 5 miles out of the city limits of Washington in quite a wooded section and we have all the native birds in large numbers. "All of our neighbors are bird lovers, too, and we do everything we can to attract and keep 'our birds.’ "It seems to me that all of the birds have arrived for the summer except the yellow-billed cuckoo tl know he hasn't come because of the great numbers of undisturbed fuzzy caterpillar nests in the wild cherry and apple trees* and our beloved catbirds. "I wonder why the catbirds are so late. I know some folks do not like ihe catbird, but he is one of our favor ites. "He Is such a friendly, inquisitive fellow and I don't even mind his car call, because I think his song makes up for that. Usually his cat call means danger of some sort, anyway. "This part of our world is ringing with song this morning as the birds are so appreciative of an April shower, even if it ia only a sprinkle. “I enjoy 'This and That’ so much and could not resist the temptation of writ ing you my particular ‘bird thrill.' "Very truly yours, Z. P. R." ■V ^ ^ Our correspondent's favorite, the cat bird will have arrived by this time. The first one in our yard came on April 30. He gave a few plaintive mews, but, did not sing. It is too bad that many persons never go any farther in listening to the cat bird. They never hear, In other words, any thing except the meowing sound which gives the bird its popular name. They never realize that the magnifi cient song they hear from the tree is the catbird singing. They think it is a mockingbird! * * * * The mocker too often gets the credit for the catbird s musical efforts. The brown thrasher also sings in the same way, and his song, too, is often put down by listener's to the credit of the mockingbird, so great is the publicity which the latter has received as a musician. There are many respectable observers who will be willing to sav that, bird for bird, the catbird Is the best singer of them all. The next time you hear a •mocking bird," be sure it is a mockingbird. It, may be a catbird. Take a good look In the branches. Use a pair of binoculars. If necessary, to identify the singer. This will be all the more important if you distrust the catbird, for it will be doing justice both to it and to yourself. In a world where injustice seems to reign, it is vastly Important that the indivioual, so long as he may, render justice to all creatures * * * * Mabel Osgood Wright, in “Birdcraft," says: “It. seems strange that there should be any difference of opinion about this merry, friendly bird." Mrs. Wright wrote “The Garden of a Commuters Wife." recommended in this space recently. The catbird is a favorite of all persons who take the time to investigate it. The misconception about this species is a popular one, based upon prior prejudice and lack of investigation and understanding. So many popular impressions are similarly faulty. It is impossible, we believe, for any one to really dislike the catbird, once he watches it, over a period of time, and understands that the beautiful wild song he Is listening to is from the throat of this bird. * * * * Carefully observed, the catbird reg isters as one of the sleekest, most beauti ful of all the summer songsters. Its combination of black and grays is not showy at first. The observer must look carefully, and long, perhaps, before the beauty of the combination sinks in. I Then he will realize that this Is. after all, one of the real beauties of . blrdland, a prince in his own right, and a real American. The catbird is about an Inch shorter than the robin or the mockingbird. ^ ^ w ¥ It nests close to houses, preferring a shrub of some sort, in which it places its loose nest, often not more than 4 feet from the ground. Raisins and ground beef are excellent foods to put out for them. The latter is particular acceptable at nesting time, helping the parents sup ply the hungry bills awaiting them. A catbird's mewing cry Is not always ! an alarm or warning. Often it is given by way of greeting to its human friends. There is a subtle difference, however, in this meow and the one which it gives to warn of danger to its nest. Letters to the Editor * Readers Discuss India's Claims For Freedom From "Imperialism.” Your recent editorial in regard to India refers somewhat ambiguously to the • weasel-worded’’ resolution of India to resist aggression by non-violent non-co operation. For 25 years I lived in India, working as a missionary in various prov inces and thus had opportunity to ob serve at first hand conditions under which Gandhi's satyagraha policy de veloped, beginning with Amritsar. In the nrst place, the ''pacifist fanati cism’’ of the Mahatma is the one thing the British raj has to thank for the fact that for the past 20 years British authorities have not had an armed revo lution on their hands in India. The English in India know this and value the Bapu. In the second place, your reference to the revolt of the untouchables is mis leading. Gandhi is the greatest friend of the untouchables, is himself their stanchest defender, calls their present status a Totten excrescence" on Hindu ism and has stated, “I would far rather that Hinduism died than untouchablism lived.” Gandhi’s great mission is to help these unfortunates; at present he lives in a mud hut in the midst of an un touchable settlement and devotes his whole life to raising their state. He calls them Harijads, or “Children of God.” The daily newspaper published at his community is the Harijad. Gandhi works unceasingly in their behalf. Your statement that the “all-India Congress party had the effrontery to blame Britain for breakdown of negoti ations” is also open to challenge. Let us rather blame the clay feet of a laissez faire imperialism which—in its own way as vicious as the militant Facist imper ialism of tne Axis powers—for 180 years has kept India in political bondage, a victim of economic exploitation. The facts are accessible to any one who wishes 10 go to a public library and gather statistics. India today has the same psychology as Ireland. Tremendous dynamic forces which will not be stemmed are rising in the Nationalist movement. Gandhi, Nehru and C. R.—as well as the Con gress leaders—are aware of this rising tide. To accuse the.se men of being members of a “Brahmin oligarchy with uncompromising ambition” is silly. No serious person can accuse any of the leaders of the Congress party today, on minute examination of facts of their lives, of anything but the same passion ate and burning desire for India's na tional unity and freedom as stirred the farmer-patriots of America in 1776. makeshift field hospitals, casualty clear- * ing stations, and finally in base hospitals, they would be only too glad to acquiesce in an effort to have their boys physical ly fitted at the earliest possible moment. Readers who love their sons, broth ers and sweethearts must realize that the greatest help they can give them and the greatest chance they can pro vide for them to survive is to see that they are in the best possible condition, so that when they are called to combat, j there will be much more probability of their returning home physically tough, | disciplined and healthy, none the worse for their service. Though It is an un doubted hardship to Interrupt the edu cation of youth, we never must forget that If we lose this war no education in the world will be worth having, nor will any of our lives be worth living. COL. STANLEY WASHBURN. Lakewood, N. J. [ Letters to the Editor must bear the name and address of the writer, although the use of a pseudonym for publication is permissible. The Star reserves the right to edit all letters with a view to condensation. If we of America are fighting a true war for freedom, it must be for free dom of all peoples everywhere on earth. If India were made to feel that, like the Chinese, she is fighting as a free country of free men in a common cause for free dom, the United Nations will have no stancher ally. So long as India—pas sionately aware of her growing unity and nationalism—cries out for freedom and ia denied freedom—the objectives of our global war are mere phantoms. India is the test case; the problem of i India is the crux of what America is ! fighting for in this global war. We of the West must alter our con cepts of •ruler” peoples and “subject” peoples. We must realize without equi vocation that the day of imperialism— that is, the exploitation of the masses in Asia—is at an end. CONSTANCE TRUELL, ' I To thf Editor of The 8t«r: Those who really know something about India and the atrociously brutal misrule forced upon her by her British landlords may well ask your editorial staff just what the Hindus are supposed to use for weapons in the face of aggres sion? Their rulers do not allow them to possess even wooden staffs—perish the thought that they might be allowed the use of firearms! In the First World War the Indian people were promised dominion status if they co-operated with the AHies. They co-operated and alter the war were double-crossed in the most heinous manner, the Hindus being subjected to j the most horrible brutalities, individual and collective; that the mind of man could invent. The famous Amritsar massacre is one example among many, and I feel sure, after making a com prehensive study of India’s problems for over 12 years, that no aggressor j besides Britain could make India more ! miserable than she has already been made by her original aggressor—Britain. I am excluding Mohammedan aggres sion because the Moslem aggressors made India their home and did not rule from afar and draw the heart's blood of the people for their own benefit. I am sure that by now the old hypocritical chestnut about English rule in India being necessary for the good of the ■’natives" is recognized for what it really Is. i We all know what a valuable jewel India has been in the British crown. Were India s riches and resources—as yet practically untapped—to vanish overnight, It does not take an over intelligent1 mind to surmise that Britain gladly would relinquish the ‘‘white man’s burden” without a murmur of protest. She no longer would mention, with crocodile tears, the many “problems" in India, the untouchables, the “deep religious gulfs,” the "minorities” and the myriad other things mentioned as an excuse for her imperialism. But as long as the “wealth of the Indies” Is there for the grabbing, the British are going to grab while the grabbing is good. And as far as the Indian masses are concerned, slavery is slavery, and to a slave, the identity of the master is of no great Import. MARGARET WRAGG. Haskin's Answers To Questions By Frederic J. Haskin. A reader can get the answer to any question of fact by anting The Eve ning Star Information Bureau Fred eric J. Haskin. director. Washington, D. C. Please inclose stamp for return postage. Q. How many naturalized members of Congress are there at the present time?—S. T. S. A. Thirteen members of the present Congress are naturalized citizens. Q Is the rank of sergeant major still used In the Army?—G. O. A. The War Department says that there Is no so-called grade ol sergeant, major In the United States Army at the present time. The term "sergeant ma jor" Is a descriptive one applied to a non-commissioned staff officer In the grade of master sergeant, technical sergeant, or staff sergeant who performs clerical duties. Q Which is the largest of the con stellations?—^ M A. Hydra Is the largest constellation. In ancient mythology it was a mon strous serpent with many heads. Slip Cover* for Furniture— Dress up your home for summer with fresh, light-colored slip covers. Make it cool, restful and inviting by covering that dark, warm-looking upholstery with a bright, cheerful color. Slip Covers for Furniture, a Govern ment publication, includes chap ters on uses of slip covers, choosing fabrics for service, dec orative features, estimating yard age and construction. To secure your copy of this practical book let, inclosp 10 cents in coin, wrapped in this clipping, and mail to The Star Information Bureau. Name Address Q What causes hair Lo “stand on end"?—M. N. C. A. This is a sensation produced by the contraction of tiny muscles that run out in a slanting direction from the hair follicles. These muscles contract when sudden fright or shock are experi enced. Q. Is honey less fattening than other sugars?—T. R. L. A. Honey is said to be less fattening than most other sugars. Because of the strong flavor, a smaller amount satisfies. The ancients considered honey an excel lent remedy for obesity. Q. How did Shakespeare spell his own name?—B. L. W. A. The name Shakespeare is spelt in an astonishing variety of ways, the number being 4.000 according to one au thority. The author himself generally wrote •Shakspere'' In full or in an ab breviated form. Q. Who is the author of the hymn, “Stand Up. Stand Up tor Jesus "?—D. D. A. It was written by Dr. George Duf field (.1818-1888), and based upon the dying words of his young friend Rev. Dudley Tying, "Tell them, ‘Let us all stand up for Jesus.' ” Q. How does a pretzel get its shape?— B. B. A, The dough comes from the machine in a long thin strip to women who quickly snatch up the length of dough, tie it into the conventional knot and place it on a tray. Q. Are there any underground streams in the Sahara Desert?—C. I. G. A. There are numerous underground streams in the Sahara and fresh fish , may be obtained by digging down to these subterranean waters. t Q. What was the name of the group of islands that did not hear of the end of the First World War until years after- 1 ward?—M. W. A. The inhabitants of Tristan da ' Cunha, lying in the south Atlantic mid way between Africa and South America, received no word of the war's end until 1922. The islands have no regular com munication or steamship service and often cannot be approached because of fogs, fierce gales and mountainous seas. - « Q. Did Joyce Kilmer write any poems while he was in France?—B. C. D. A. Kilmer wrote five poems in France, the first being “Rough Bouquet" and. , the last “The Peacemaker.” He vu. killed in 1818. Q. Is Montecristo a real or imaginary place?—M. V. W. * A. It is an island about 40 miles west of Italy. Montecristo Is the private property of the King of Italy who has a shooting lodge there. Q. Who was the first composer of : operas?—A. D. N. A. Christoph Gluck, German composer (1714-17871, established the principles of present operatic form in his operas of ! which Alceste. 1766; Iphigenie en Aulide,' 1774; and Orphee, 1762, are the finest. Blue Heron Not less a part of evening on this ‘ shore Than dusky rose light over dune and sedge Or laggard ripples from a distant oar, The great blue heron at the river’s edge. A dreamer in the twilight, rapt, in tent, A bird of shadow in the failing light. He seems to brood on ages old and spent And wait with stoic calm the lonely night. • V What disillusionment! A sudden gleam, .C A thrust of wings that bear him on his way— The deep philosopher forsakes his dream, His long beak closed upon hie writhing prey. A sage unmasked whose trancehk§ thoughts conceal No theme more urgent than his eve ning meal. i "•» INEZ BARCLAY KIRBY.