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l With Sunday Morninf Edition. » - ! THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. “ WASHINGTON, D. C. MONDAY_May 18, 1942 The Evening Star Newspaper Company. Main Office: 11th 8t. and Pennsylvania Ave. New York Office 11(1 East 4'lnd Bt Chicago Office: 4'15 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—City and Suburban. Regular Editinn. Evening end Sunday ?Sc per mo. or 1 Re per week The Evening Star 45c per mo. or l"c Per week The Sunday Star l(lc per copy Night Final Edition. Night. Final and Sunday Star_Roc. per month Night Final Star __ HOc per month Collections made at the end of each month or each week Orders may be aent by mail or tele phone National 6000. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Maryland and Vlrrinia. Daily and Sunday. Evening. Sunday. 1 yea r _ $10.00 Srt.On $5.00 6 months_ $5.On $3.00 $,’ 60 1 month 85c 65c 60c Elsewhere tn I'nited States. 1 year $12.00 $8.00 $5.00 n months_ $8.00 $4.00 $2.50 1 month _ $1 00 75c 50c Entered as second-class matter post office, Washington. D. C. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use for republication of all news dispatches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this Taper and also the local news published herein. All rights of publication of special dispatches ftgrein also are resened. Recreation Fund The urgent request of Chairman Frederic A. Delano of the National Capital Park and Planning Commis sion for restoration to the independ ent offices bill of the $700,000 fund earmarked for purchase of land for certain playgrounds is thoroughly justified. The Senate eliminated this Item on recommendation of its Ap propriations Committee, although the fund had been voted by the House after approval by the Budget Bureau and the Commissioners. While the desire of the Senate to ecdftomize in appropriating money for non-defense purposes is under standable and commendable, the fact should not be overlooked that the money sought in this instance will be a charge against the District of Columbia, not against the Federal Treasury, and that, for the most part, it is to be used to protect an Initial investment in playground sites. As Mr. Delano explained in a letter to Senate and House conferees, most of the fund is needed to com plete projects already started and which would be seriously imperiled if private construction were to be permitted on the adjacent land. Moreover. It is far cheaper to acquire these properties while they are un improved than to wait until build ings have been erected on them. Consideration also should be given to Mr. Delano's additional argument that the acquisition of these poten tial recreational sites will contribute to the well-being of a city whose population Is growing by leaps and bounds, while the shortage of play grounds and parks becomes more and more acute. With juvenile de liquency distressingly on the Increase in recent months, no reasonable effort should be spared to provide .more adequate facilities for super vised play and recreation. Here is another reason for hoping that the Senate conferees will agree to the restoration of the playground pur chase item. Patriotism Defined H. L. Mencken, in his “New Dic tionary of Quotations,” recently pub lished. brings together twenty-one definitions of patriotism which, col lectively, are worthy of notice at the present moment. A casual glance over the assembled excerpts will suf fice to show that they are subject to classification under “negative'’ and “positive” headings. For example, the editor could not overlook Dr. Samuel Johnson's fa mous remark to James Boswell: “Patriotism Is the last refuge of a scoundrel.” But the reader is ex pected to understand that it was a pretense of patriotism, not patriot ism in any honest application of the word, that the Grand Cham had in mind. Thus interpreted, the maxim should be listed with the constructive expressions. On the other hand, George Bernard Shaw's decision that: “You’ll never have a quiet world till you knock the patriotism out of the human race” has a perverse significance, and for that reason must be appraised as dysgenic. Associated opinions are Thorstein Veblen's: “Patriotism may be defined as a sense of partisan soli darity in respect of prestige.” and Stanislaus Leszcynski’s “Patriotism is nothing more than a feeling of wel fare and the dread of seeing It dis turbed.” President Calvin Coolidge, It would seem, was in dangerous com pany, more or less, when, in 1923, he suggested the practical but uninspir ing theory: “Patriotism • • • means looking out for yourself by looking out for your country.” A basically sounder conception is that of Ralph Waldo Emerson, who had the natural genius to realize that: “Any relation to the land, the habit of tilling it, or mining it, or even hunting on it, generates the feeling of patriotism.” Of the same order is W. E. H. Lecky’s: “Patriotism is * • * to most men. a moral neces sity. It meets and satisfies that desire for a strong, disinterested en thusiasm in life which Is deeply implanted in our nature,” and Ben jamin Disraeli’s: “Patriotism depends as much on mutual suffering as on mutual success, and it is by that experience of all fortunes and all feelings that a great national char acter Is created.” Possibly the noblest interpretation Offered by Mr. Mencken is the logical and beautiful doctrine of Friedrich von Schlegel, set forth in 1794, to the effect that “the highest bliss of the human soul” is love and “the noblest .love’’ is devotion to one’s fatherland. Patriotism, by any accurate defini tion, certainly is a passion of en thusiastic affection and loyalty. It j a may not be amenable to perfect ex position, yet millions feel it, are gov erned by It. willingly sacrifice for It and, If need be. die for It. Out of Axis Europe Like a ray of light out of a dark cave comes the sheaf of dispatches from American newspapermen in terned with our diplomats since Ger many and Italy declared war on the United States last December. For more than five months the American public has had almost no reliable information on conditions and senti ments in the Axis nations, which have been hermetically sealed from the outer world. We have had to content ourselves therefore with what could be picked up from occasional neutral travelers, eked out by sur mise and deduction from the few European listening posts which re main. Now. however, we have the first hand impressions and analyses of highly trained American observers, most of them long resident in Axis lands. To be sure, they were prompt ly sequestered in more or less polite custody after the outbreak of formal hostilities, but they could read Ger man and Italian papers, and they had certain personal contacts from which their skilled faculties could learn a good deal. They thus have much that is worth while to tell us. And most of it is not only revealing, but also distinctly encouraging. Both Germany and Italy are por trayed as under great and growing war strain, with public opinion de pressed and anxious about the fu ture. As might have been expected, Italian popular psychology is much the more disheartened. Mussolini is depicted as having lost all his former popularity, with the whole Fascist regime a hollow shell—ineffi cient, corrupt, and kept functioning chiefly by the Nazi grip that has fastened upon the unhappy country. In Germany, the Nazi regime is not yet so generally discredited, but Hit ler is shown to have made several bad mistakes in his handling of the German people, and Propaganda Minister Goebbels has likewise pulled some bad boners. What keeps the German people rallied to Hitler and his henchmen is chiefly fear—fear of the Gestapo and fear of what might happen to a Germany defeated and disarmed by vengeful enemies. One of the most interesting phases of these inside stories is the lack of genuine hostility toward America felt by the average Italian or Ger man. combined with respect for this country's power and apprehension at what it may eventually accom plish in the war. The Italians are described as ready to welcome an American invasion, though they dread the consequences of a Russian victory. Fear and hatred of Com munism are shared by Italians and Germans, and similar sentiments in cline French conservatives toward some measure of Axis collaboration. All this is extremely heartening by showing us that our troubles are much less than those which our foes are enduring. It likewise reveals possible breaking points in Germany and Italy as the war strain becomes more severe. Yet we should not delude ourselves into imagining that either of the Axis peoples is likely to revolt spontaneously and overthrow the Nazi and Fascist regimes from within. All the reports of our lib erated correspondents stress the ruthless power of those tyrannies and the helplessness of disarmed ci vilians to do anything positive so long as the armed might of their oppressors remains unbroken. The enemy is still strong, and the armies, navies and air forces of the United Nations must first do their work. But once severe defeats and attendant hopelessness have shaken the Axis armies, the “inner fronts" may crum ble in surprising fashion. The dis integration of Axis popular morale obviously has begun. Plea for Insurance Roswell Magill, professor of law at Columbia University and a former Undersecretary of the Treasury, has added his indorsement to proposals that life insurance premium pay ments in limited amounts be treated as a deductible expense for Income tax purposes. Speaking in New York last week, Mr. Magill pointed out that existing tax schedules make it almost impos sible for a man in the middle class to assure protection of his family except through the purchase of life insurance. At present there are about 65,000, 000 life insurance policies in effect in the United States, representing insurance to the face value of $125, 000,000,000. Premiums on this in surance are fixed charges, however, and, with much higher taxes in pros pect next year, it seems inevitable that much of this family protection will be dropped unless relief- is granted by the Government. Should this come to pass, as Mr. Magill pointed out, it might well mean that the American tradition of individual provision for one’s own dependents would be broken down, with great loss to the Government and to the country as a whole. The former Treasury official also called attention to the fact that the Government logically ought to en courage investment in life insurance because it tends to reduce the danger of inflation. “Like the purchase of War savings bonds,” Mr. Magill said, “the money that goes into life insur ance premiums is not used for con sumption, but for investment (by in surance companies) in government and industry. As a matter of aid to the country’s war effort, It is about as good an expenditure as could be made.’* The eorrectaae* »f this reasoning * already ha* been recognized In Oreat Britain and Australia, which grant credits or exemptions to taxpayers for life insurance premium payments. It is to be hoped that Congress, in drafting the new tax bill, will give full consideration to the desirability of permitting a limited credit for life Insurance premium payments in this country. Pardon for Browder In deciding to pardon Earl Browder, former leader of the Communist party, after he had served fourteen months of a four-year prison term for a passport fraud, the President must have known that his action would be severely criticized In some quarters. During the 1940 presidential cam paign, Browder indulged in the most extreme criticism of the President and the administration’s foreign policy. That was before the German attack on Russia, when the policy of the Communists in this country, fol lowing the party line, was to do everything in their power to aid the Axis and hinder the Allies. In the minds of the American people, Earl Browder cannot live down and will not be forgiven for the utterly cyn ical part he played in that effort. But the fact remains that his sentence for falsification in obtain ing a passport—four years in Jail, a $2,000 fine and the loss of his citizen ship—was not in keeping with the gravity of that offense. In a meas ure, at least, the severity of the sentence was Influenced by Brow der’s thoroughly undesirable political background. During the fourteen months that have passed since Browder went to Jail, however, the international pic ture has undergone a profound change. We are now fighting with Russia as an ally, and the, Russians are bearing the brunt of the battle. Certainly, under these conditions, there would be little point in keeping Browder In Jail because he is a Com munist. And since he has already been adequately punished for the passport oifense, the ends of Justice, in the strict sense at least, have been served. The President may or may not be correct in his expressed belief that the liberation of the Communist leader will promote national unity. But, the facts being what they are, it may be worth a trial. Ardent Communist that he is, Browder prob ably can be depended upon to pro mote the war effort for the present, without regard to what he has done , In the past or may do In the future. Foreign Trade Week This is national foreign trade week, designated annually for emphasizing the Importance of International com merce. The 1942 observance finds all energies in this field concentrated on the movement of goods indispensable to the winning of the war, with no need for stressing the obviously im perative nature of this task. It af fords opportunity, however, to give some attention to the type of world trade system that will be needed after the war to help build a lasting peace. Secretary of State Hull has seized upon this opportunity to point out that something more than "wishful thinking" will be necessary to achieve the objectives of the Atlantic Charter for establishment of International economic relations on a basis of fair treatment and mutual benefit. Por example, he says we must get en- j tirely away from policies of narrow economic nationalism, such as our "extreme and disastrous tariff policy after the last war,” and demonstrate by positive acts of collaboration with friendly nations "that we are pre pared to shoulder our full share of the responsibility for building a better world.” There is little time to spare now for post-war planning. The primary Job Is to win the war, but since keeping in mind the sound principles ' itllned by Mr. Hull may help us to oe better prepared for peace than we were for war, we should not lose sight of them. And as he points out, our war effort itself will be Immense ly strengthened if we and the peoples of all the United Nations make sure that one of the principal things we are fighting for Is a fair deal for all In distribution of the world's goods. Important Letters Even before the war the Govern ment was becoming largely alphabet ical, beginning with AAA and going no one knows how far, but heretofore the letters applied to vague agencies that were always somebody else’s responsibility. Now three of the let ters. A, B and X, are every one's affair. In times past A. B-l, B-2 and B-3 referred to vitamins, while X marked the spot. Now they are gasoline letters and sub-numerals and are far more important. The A’s and B’s still function somewhat like vitamins; their presence is necessary to keep life in the old bus. Neither car nor driver can get along without at least an A, which is barely sufficient to maintain existence; and for really going places, B-3 is highly desirable. The cream of the crop is X, the great unknown—the letter designed for taxi and truck drivers. In algebra it represents a variable, but on a ration card it represents an amount fixed only by the holder’s ability to pay. X has been appropriated by some Congressmen, on the not unreason able theory that a Congressman needs plenty of gas not only to get to Congress, but to stay there. Other members of that legislative body, however, remembering their A con stituents, have refused X cards, on the principle that V for votes is more important than X for Xtra piollna ft Advocates Recognition Of Russia by Dutch Writer Tells How Holland Was Friend of Czars Without Approving Serfdom By A. J. Barnouw. Holland Is an ally of Russia and rec ognizes in the U. S. S. R. the most valiant champion of her freedom. The news of Hitler's setbacks on the eastern front kindles the flame of hope in all Dutch hearts. Still, the Netherlands govern ment in London persists in its pre-war policy of withholding official recognition from the Soviet Republics. There is no minister plenipotentiary representing Holland at the Kremlin, nor has an envoy from Moscow been accredited to the Netherlands government in London. The Dutch weekly Vrij * Nederland, which is published in London, has been vigorously advocating a reversal of this attitude of aloofness. Before the attack of Japan on the East Indies, Holland was able to play the part of a real ally by supplying Russia with products from Sumatra and Java that were essential to her war effort. But now that Holland has lost this means of condoning for her lack of diplomatic courtesy, she finds herself in the unenviable role of a sulking and ungrateful beneficiary who does not, and cannot, offer any benefit in return. That the Dutch government Itself is beginning to see it this way is inferred by the London editor from a congratulatory telegram sent by the Minister of Foreign Affairs to the Rus sian ambassador in London on the anni versary of the Red Army. One does not publicly congratulate a man and tell him in the same breath that one does not wish to know him socially. With Hitler s regime, in spite of the blood purge, of pogroms instigated by the government, of organized massacres in Poland, -the Dutch government maintained diplo matic relations up to the day of the attack on Holland. In the face of that record it has small excuse, it would seem, for persisting in its diplomatic disapproval of bolshevism. The rulers of the Dutch Republic, 300 years ago, were mors realistic in managing their relations with the out side world. The free burghers of Am sterdam and the other cities of Holland did not admire the Muscovite regime that held the entire Russian nation in serfdom. But their abhorrence did not prevent them from exchanging diplo matic courtesies with the tyrant in the Kremlin if these could benefit the com mercial Interests of Holland. The Eng lish and the Dutch were vying with each other for the good graces of the Czar. An English writer of the period, Dr. Samuel Collins, for nine years court physician to Czar Alexei and author of "The Present State of Russia" (1671), charged that the Dutch carried on a vicious anti-British campaign in Russia by means of scandalous pictures and libelous pamphlets. But they did not put their only, nor their chief, trust in propaganda of that sort. The Dutch merchants had powerful helpers in high places, amongst others in Jan van Sweeden, a Hollander who had organ ized the postal service in the Czar's do mains, and in another countryman called Gerrit Claessen, a descendant, no doubt, of Arent Claessen, who. In the previous century, had been the Emperor’s apoth cary and a favorite of the imperial fam ily. And now and then, when difficulties arose, the States General would send a special mission to Moscow that would reinforce the weight of diplomatic ar gument with a load of magnificent presents. Such an embassy, headed by Jacob Bo reel, sailed from the Texel on Septem ber 18, 1664. In the ambassador's suite was a young man who had just finished his law studies at Leyden. He was not a member of the mission, but went along at his father's expense to gain experience, to see the world, and perhaps to make personal contacts that might prove profitable to the family fortunes. For Nicolaus Wltsen's father and grand father had carried on for more than half a century a lively trade with Muscovy ind Persia. The Calvinist merchants of old Amsterdam did not believe In the search of pleasure for Its own sake; they approved of the quest only if an Increment of profit lent an air of solidity to the pleasure. Young Nleolaaa was an earnest, studious boy, on whom the cost of the long Journey was not wasted. He collected data about the Tartars and the Kalmuks which he afterwards turned to good account in his famous book on "Noord-en Oost-Tartarije.” a descrip tion of land and people not based on personal experience but on oral infor mation and the study of books and maps. He kept a diary of his visit to Moscow which unfortunately no longer is extant. But an untidy copy of It has been pre served in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris. It has never been edited, as far as I know. My knowledge of its con tents is derived from a report made on it by Dr. A. Kluyver to the Literary Sec tion of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Amsterdam. The Dutch embassy was lodged in the posolskl dvor, or envoys’ palace, where they were practically Imprisoned. For they were under the never-relaxing sur veillance of two pristafs, or commis saries. without whose company neither the ambassador nor any member of his suite were allowed to go out. The pris tafs would not even permit young Witsen to receive a visitor who had undertaken to teach him Russian. Nor could he get permission from them to inspect the rich collection of maps in the Imperial Library. "Being uneducated themselves," Witsen wrote bitterly, "they will not let any one else study either.” They be haved, and had to be treated, as children. Witsen accompanied the ambassador to court when he was received in audi ence. "The Emperor,” he wrote, "sat almost in the comer of the room, on a small dais which one mounted by three gilt steps. He wore a caftan and over It a robe with sleeves still with gold and jewels. On his feet he wore yellow boots. All his fingers, except the thumb and the middle one, were covered with rings set with diamonds, rubles and other precious stones. One of the Czar’s children was Peter, who was to succeed Alejtel and to earn for himself the epithet The Great. His father's anxiety to keep Western In fluences away from him were of no avail. For it was Peter who Invited the aid of Western science to build up a new Rus sia. He came to Holland to study ship building In the year 1897. By that time young Nicolaas Witsen had become one of the most powerful men in Amsterdam. Be «u a burgomaster of hie ettjr and an & THIS AND THAT 1 By Charles E. Tracewell. I .. .... ■ “SILVER SPRING, Md. “Dear Sir: “Is It not rather unusual when a robin nests so near one's front door that It Is possible to stand on the doorstep and look Into the nest? "When the nest was under construc tion in an evergreen by my door I de stroyed it, thinking that only r sparrow would attempt to build so near a door. But the birds persisted and a few days later I saw the completed nest with one blue egg in it. One by one they were laid until there were four. “And four birds were hatched last Thursday and Friday, and now they are beginning to get their feathers. "The parent birds have gradually got ten more confidence, and sometimes thpy stay on the nest when we go in and out the door. “My three children are greatly inter ested in watching the birds feed their young. “Very truly yours, E. M.” * * * * Robins are likely to build their nests almost any place. Several years ago a builder called up to tell of a pair building in the hole in the wall of the bathroom of a new house. This hole had been cut to allow the insertion of the medicine cabinet, but a mother robin selected it first, and built her nest. The builder carefully removed the nest to a selected site over the front door. There the mother bird went ahead laying her eggs. The fledglings were hatched and brought up over the front door. "Pros pects” brought by salesman had a good view of the proceedings. It is always a red letter day in the life of any suburban home when some bird builds a nest so that it may be easily watched. Many persons have called up this column to tell of wrens and rotins building in such positions. Often a nest will be constructed by a catbird, or any other of the species spending the summer here, in such a position in a tree that it may be easily looked into from an upper window. Catbirds often build their nests in shrubs close to porches. These are easily watched by humans, and. alas, by cats. Cardinals like to build on fences, in thick rose vines, but their babies are open to marnuding birds. They also like snowball bushes for sites. One of the worst marauders is the purple grackle. This is a handsome creature, but if handsome is as handsome does, as the old saying has it. then the grackle is really a hideous fellow. Several years ago a cardinal pair set up housekeeping in the fence, and there raised four fine youngsters. The first morning the babies came out and sat in the vine, a grackle discov ered them. This was Just after daylight on a Sun day morning, a favorite time, evidently, for marauding. The grackle killed all four cardinal babies by biting their heads off. Then it completed its work of destruc tion by tearing off their legs. All this was done before human aid could come. The frantic parents sent up the alarm, but there was nothing they could do against the fiendish cruelty and power of the much larger bird. * * * * Robins are among our friendliest birds. It is a wonder that they do not build close to habitations more often. One thing they will not use, accord ing to our experience, and that is a robin shelf. This shelf is recommended by all persons who have bird houses to sell. Several years ago we purchased a very fine one, made out of cedar, according to the best specifications. These call for the shelf to be open on three sides. This, we are told. Is to enable the birds to fly in and out at will. They would not occupy any other sort of place, the man said. * if * * Well, If we can believe our own ex periences, robins do not take kindly to such shelves. Although there have been scores of these birds in the yard since, not a one of them has ever looked at the “robin shelf," so-called. Certainly none has ever built In It. We would appreciate hearing from any one who ever built or purchased a “robin shelf" and has It occupied by a robin. The only thing we ever have had In ours was a squirrel, and he looked highly disgusted at finding no food in it. * * * * There Is no doubt that robins are the favorite birds of children. And robins, as If knowing this, often build their nests where little ones may watch them. There is no sight prettier than a robin In its nest, and none which more inter ests the young child. America's robin is not a "robin" at all, but belongs to the thrush family. The English robin, from which we borrowed the name, is a much smaller bird, with a really red breast. Our robin’s breast is rusty, even orange. The young robins have very spotted breasts, showing their relationship to the thrushes. Letters to the Editor Defend* British Government Of India Against Critic*. To the Editor of The S:»r Two recent correspondents took ex ception to your editorials on India which had seemed to me admirably Judicial in tone and conspicuously wise and mod erate in outlook. Margaret Wragg. for all her assertion that she “has made a comprehensive study of India's problems for over 13 years,” makes statements which any mi nor agitator would hesitate to make: “The atrociously brutal misrule forced upon India by her British landlords”; “in the First World War India was prom ised dominion status < manifestly inac curate since dominion status did not ex ist till 1931); she was double-crossed in the most heinous manner, the Hindus being subjected to the most horrible bru talities that the mind of man could In vent.” The same correspondent speaks of the “slavery of the Indian masses” (slavery was abolished throughout the British dominions at least 50 years earlier than in the United States of America' and says: "The British draw the heart's blood of the Indian people for their own bene fit" and that: "As Ion/ as the wealth of India Is there, the British are going to grab while the grabbing 1* good.” Just what does all this rhetoric mean? Does Mrs. Wragg know that England does not receive one penny of tax or tribute from India: that the money Eng land has invested in India—to that country's great advantage—Is less than she has in the Argentine, and that the rate of Interest she earns on this specu lative investment averages less than 5 per cent, and that nearly all these in vestments can be bought and sold in the open market Just like the stock of General Motors or American ’r“legraph & Telephone? Does she know that, though a few maharajahs can dress from head to foot in precious stones. India is not a wealthy, but a very poor, conn- ! try? wo responsiDie autnority would accept Constance Truell's assertion that but for Gandhi's pacifism there would have been revolution. India has been at peace since 1857 and never before in her his tory has she enjoyed such prosperity as under British sovereignty. The mere fact that her population has increased by 100 millions in the past 40 years Is sufficient evidence of this. Transporta tion. irrigation, medical services, educa authority on the history of ship archi tecture. He had written a voluminous book on the subject and illustrated it with drawings from his own hand. Wit sen. therefore, was the very man to act as Czar Peter’s adviser when he came to Holland. At Zaamdam. a busy shipbuilding cen ter, they still show sight-seers the little house where Czar Peter lived as a ship wright's apprentice. The fabulously wealthy despot who came to Holland to live and work among ship’s carpenters soon became a legendary figure. He was the talk of the country and the hero of various folk tales. The Asiatic despot cannot have ad mired a social order that permitted a servant girl to scold him and would not let him cane an impertinent valet. Nor could the Amsterdam burgomaster ad mire a despotism that created equality by degrading all subjects into slaves. Still, the two men and the policies they represented could exchange courtesies and maintain diplomatic relations with out fear of detriment to either system. Nicolaas Witsen and his fellow burgo masters. while dealing amicably with Czar Peter, never forgot to reject the dogmas and practices of despotism. 1 Letters to the Editor must hear the name and address of the writer, although the use of a pseudonym for publication is permissible. The Star reserves the right to edit all letters with a view to condensation. tlon, have almost eliminated famine and plague which formerly took a terrible toll of Indian lives. Whatever Gandhi s Intentions toward them, the “untouchables” still are un touchable to the overwhelming majority of his supporters. Their chief benefac tor, again, has been British rule which has made all men equal under the law. Previously it was no crime to murder an untouchable; today it is the same crime as to murder the most exalted personage in the land. Of the breakdown of the Cripp's ne gotiations, Miss Truell says; "Let us rather blame the clay feet of a laissez- j faire imperialism 'what is laissez-faire 1 imperialism?) which, in its own way as vicious as the militant Fascist imperial ism of the Axis powers, for 180 years has kept India in political bondage, a victim of economic exploitation.” So America has as her chief ally in her life and death struggle against the Axis a people who are “as vicious” as Hitler, Mussolini. Tojo and the rest of that international criminal gang? Will Miss Truell supply some of those “readily accessible statistics” to demon strate “political bondage.” “economic ex ploitation” and the "vicious laissez faire imperialism”? Incidentally, there nowhere seems to be refugees from this bondage and exploitation. It was by no means “silly" of The Star, as she says, to suggest that some of the Indian leaders are moved by personal ambitions. Indeed, they would be the first imper sonal politicians in all history if they were not. England Is an advanced democracy. As to that I quote Price Collier, the emi nent American journalist, who knew England Intimately: "Again I repeat England Is the most democratic country in the world: where the rights of the individual are more respected, where the individual has more of personal free dom and where the Individual is less trammeled by barriers of birth or class in his efforts to rise than anvwhere else in Christendom.” ANGLO-AMERICAN. Bristol, Tenn. Suggests Plan For “Moving” Materials. To thr Bditor of Tht Star: The following is a plan whereby sur plus material or supplies now on hand may be utilized to relieve the shortage in critical vital metals: Manufacturers, wholesalers and re tailers acting as an overall industry or a group in certain localities should be requested to list their surplus materials in a common pool or clearing point. Needed materials would be quickly se cured from such agency or location, thereby saving new metal and time to manufacture new items, transportation, delay, reduction of stock of slow-moving items and a conversion of slow-moving inventories into cash. Such a plan could be successfully op erated with the basic idea that vast quantities of strategic materials lying idle for the duration could be used for the war effort. Many items o' heavy brass, large-sized copper fittings and valves, are carried in stock for years and years because they are too valuable to be Junked. The owner of such items would be glad to dispose of same much below eoet JOE HIGH. Haskin's Answers To Questions By Frederic J. Haskin. A reader can get the answer to any question of fact by writing The Eve ning Star Information Bureau, Fred eric J. Haskin. director. Washington, D. C. Please inclose stamp for return postage. Q. How do the present-day American soldiers compare in height and weight with those of the First World War?— S. L. A. The average soldier of the United States Army today is more than a half inch taller and nearly 10 pounds heavier than the men who Joined the colors in 1917. Q. What bird is said never to light upon the ground?—U. S. H. A. The chimney swift or chimney swallow. These birds even eat and mate on the wing. Q. Where is the largest man-made hole in the world?—M. W. D. A. The Open Mine at Kimberley, South Africa, is reputed to be the largest. Q. Are the days growing longer or shorter?—S M. A. The friction of the tides acts as a brake to slow down the rotation of the earth. The days are, therefore, getting longer. It takes 100 years to lengthen the days one-thousandth of a second. Q What is the story about angels appearing to soldiers on a battlefield during the First World War?—L. T. A. A. The legend of the Angels of Mons was based upon a story sent to a London paper by Arthur Machen. It told how, at a critical point in this great battle a soldier invoked the help of St. George, Britain’s patron saint, whereupon the saint brought up the spirits of the bow men of Agincourt in battle array, to fall upon the Germans and completely rout them. Q Can you tell me where Is the origi nal painting of "The Angelus,” by Mil let?—C M. W. A. This famous painting is in tha Louvre in Paris. America's Favorite Poems— Poems that will live forever in the hearts of Americans. The old-time favorites from Long fellow, Tennyson and Bryant predominate, but there are some of the newer poems, including Kilmer, Kipling. McCrae and others of our time. The finest sentiments of the race are ex pressed in its poetry. This col lection has been printed In an attractive *8-page booklet. To secure your copv Inclose JO cents in coin, wrapped In this clipping, and mail to The Star Informa tion Bureau. Name Address Q What language did Jesus speak?— T. R. L. A. Scholars believe that the language of Jesus was Aramaic. This was a Semitic tongue used in Babylonia, Mesopotamia and Syria, and spoken by the Jews during and after the Baby lonian exile. Fragments of the Old Testament and the gospel of St. Mat thew were written originally in Aramaic. Q Why did A. E. Houseman return the check sent to him by an American publisher for a series of his poems?— N. N. D. A. Houseman explained that he never took money for poetry. Q What does the word “mikado" mean?—D. D. U. A. It means "exalted door nr gate" Mikado is the popular title used by foreigners to refer to the Emperor of Japan. Tenno. meaning "heavenly sovereign." is the official designation. Q Is the place In Chesapeake Bav where "The Star Spangled Banner" was written still marked by a buoy?—M. A. A. The United States Coast Guard says that the red. white and blue buoy in Chesapeake Bay which formerly marked the spot where "The Star Spangled Banner” was written by Francis Scott Key is no longer there, having been re moved on November 2. 1914. Q. What Infantry regiment Is called the "Rock of Chlckamauga"?—B F. A. The 19th Infantry. It was organ ized In 1861. The regiment gained it# sobriquet In the Civil War. Q Is there any place In the world where the air is free of dust?—H N. O. A Dust-free air does not exist any where in nature. Near the earth's sur face the dust is mostly blown up from the soil by the winds. Also every great volcanic eruption spouts up enormous quantities of dust to great heights. Moderate to strong winds blowing on soil that is loose and dry raise clouds of dust in the lower air. When great areas become very dry, atmospheric dis turbances produce dust storms, which may do a great deal of damage. Q. What is the inscription on tha Rushmore Memorial in South Dakota?— T. S. D. A. There is no inscription on the Rushmore Memorial, and it is not con templated that there ever will be one. Partners Always in spring they plow a patch of ground For early garden. Often we can hear him Speaking to his horse; his gentle "Whoa” Is scarcely needed. Old Ben knows the fence Forms the far boundary, and the apple trees Are on the south. He walks with careful tread. While cultivating soil and seldom steps On growing plants. It seems the old horse knows He is intrusted with a worthy plot. They work, the two of them, with many thoughts Passing between them. Now and then a word From man to beast; and old Ben shakes his head Sedately, proud to be the chosen one When there is careful labor to be done. BILLY B. COOPER.