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TEA HITS THE SPOT AFTER COLOGNE RAID—Returning to
their base in England after taking part in the giant raid on Cologne, the Canadian crew of this Halifax bomber stopped for ■. -A- _ a spot of tea. They were served from a mobile canteen sent from the United States. —A. P. Wirephoto via radio from London. Nazis Not Prepared Mentally for Raids Of Cologne's Size Press Has Been Informed Regularly Not to Stress Horrors of Big Attacks (As a member of the former Associated Press staff in Berlin, Edwin Shanke knows what it means to be on the receiving end of an R. A. F. raid. Assigned to London after the German-United States diplomatic exchange at Lisbon. Mr. Shanke tells in the _ following story the possible effect of Saturday night’s mightiest raid of the war, in which Cologne was the big target.) By EDWIN SHANKE. Associated Press War Correspondent. LONDON. June 1—The monster R. A. F. raid on Cologne Saturday night served notice on the German population of what they had feared and for which they had been pre paring since the United States’ entry into the war—the increasing de structive force of the Allied air power. German people have a healthy re spect for production in America. When Hitler declared war on that great industrial giant, they immed iately had visions of their skies darkened by attacking bombers. They feared they would have to endure such blitz raids as London and other English cities experienced. Now the people of Cologne know what Britons went through—and then some. Actually. German uneasiness about air raids dates back to a year ago. The R. A. F. in heavier raids than usual on Berlin were using what the Germans then described as a “mystery bomb.’’ Nazis Frankly Worried. Its effect was a puzzle to the Ger mans and frankly worried them. They found, for example, that a bomb dropped in Adolf Hitler Plaza had effective force in a radius of 1,650 to 1,800 yards. Some German air experts confidentially admitted that In the long run such bombs dropping on Berlin could cause de struction similar to London’s. One of the more immediate results was the program of strengthening basement air-raid protection in apartment houses. At the same time, the Germans began to build public fortress-type air-raid shelters with walls at least a yard thick in the squares of Berlin's crowded residential districts. A propaganda campaign was in tensified to urge parents to send children into the country. Propaganda Minister Goebbels was so uncertain of the psychological effect that descriptions of British sufferings from Nazi raids would have on Germans that he never dared give too detailed reports. The press, in fact, was instructed reg ularly not to stress the horrors of all-out bombing raids. Not Prepared Mentally, The people, therefore, were not prepared mentally for attacks as intense as Saturday night's thou sand-odd plane assault on Cologne. Muenster may be taken as an example of the effect a really hard R. A. F. bombing can have on the German people. After five successive nights of bombings last summer the town temporarily was deserted. People fled in panic into the fields. Stores were closed. There was no food, no gas, no lights, no urater. Hundreds suffered nervous shock and break downs. No report ever appeared in Ger man newspapers on the Muenster raids aside from curt high command references to them. But letters from Germans who experienced them spread the story pretty well through the country. And their reactions struck fear into the hearts of those who still had to experience their first air raid, for the latter knew that Ger mans in the Rhineland and west generally were tougher and less prone to become upset and unnerved unless there were a real cause. The raids on Berlin—pinpricks compared to those on London— always depressed Berliners. They left them with nasty tempers and put working efficiency on the to boggan. And there always went up a loud cry from Berliners for "re taliation.” German trouble-shooting and cleanup squads work frantically after each raid to remove signs of damage as quickly as possible. In this manner the Nazis attempt to check chances of demoralization spreading beyond the narrow circle affected by a bomb hit. Cologne (Continued From First Page.) was “proof of the growing power of the British bomber forces” and also “a herald of what Germany will receive, city by city, from now on. The British radio told the Ger man people it was but “the first step” and reminded them that "the Yanks are coming” to add their might to Britain's bombing strength. That the Yanks may be coming very soon was suggested in an ex change of messages between Lt. Gen. Henry H. Arnold, chief of the United States Air Forces, and the R. A. F.’s bomber commander in chief. Air Marshal A. T. Harris. Although Britain’s huge bombers stayed home last night, informed sources said they were held back solely by bad weather over the con tinent. Despite the scale of the Cologne raid, they said, the bomber command was set to attack again had the weather been favorable. (The Germans said “single” British planes were over Germany, presum ably scouting). United States Officers Observe. Some United States air officers, flew as observers in the raid but air sources emphasized that the ac complishment, which the Air Minis try called "highly successful,” was the work of British forces alone. Joined by American planes, they said, Allied air fleets may deliver blows three times as great. Well-informed experts agreed that a succession of such raids, increas ing in scale as United States air forces become available, might bring Germany to her knees by autumn. This echoed a recent contention of Air Marshal Harris that “if I could send 1.000 bombers over Ger many every night it would end the war by autumn.” Marshal Harris sent his flyers off with the admonition to “press home your attack on this night's objective with the utmost determination and resolution in the full knowledge that if you individually succeed, the most shattering and devastating blow will have been delivered against the very vitals of the enemy.” Would Facilitate Invasion. Once the task of smashing Ger man industry had been achieved, the air experts predicted, it would be relatively easy for Allied armies to invade the continent. “The German army would be short of all types of equipment and its troops shaken by steady attacks on their homes,” one commentator observed. “Sooner or later, German Indus trial w-orkers, especially those con scripted from Allied countries, would rebel.” These sources said the R. A. F. aim probably would be at an aver age of 1,000 planes on e^ch night'of attack but that it would be neces sary. at times, to send over 3.000 bombers—all great, four-engined weight-carriers. Such a force could drop 10.000,000 pounds of high explosive and in cendiary bombs. Some of the R. A. F.'s biggest, newest four-engined bombers each bear a greater load than a whole squadron of the smaller Blenheims. Will Try to Erase Cities. Some British air authorities have contended that bombing alone is insufficient to win the war,* but there is reason to believe that the government and the air council have chosen it as the best method of punishing the Germans until ships are available to transport an Allied expeditionary force to the continent Aviation sources said future oper ations probably would try to erase cities as yet undamaged by the R. A. F„ as well as to complete the destruction of such already-bat tered centers as Kiel, Mannheim and Muenster. Listed by them as targets for the future were Vienna, Chemnitz, I Graz, Erfurt, Linz, Hindenburg, ! Gleitwitz and others—all industrial centers scattered across greater Germany from Upper Silesia to Austria. Connally Calls Bombing Of Cologne a Foretaste By the Associated Press. The Royal Aiir Force’s gigantic raid on Cologne “gave the Germans a taste of what the United Na tions can do,” in the opinion of Chairman Connally of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. The veteran legislator termed the raid "a forerunner of things to come,” but added he didn’t believe the attack necessarily meant? the immediate opening of a second front in Europe. Berlin (Continued Prom First Page.) that the raid was directed against civilians and that the bombing was “indiscriminate.” Dealing at great length with the subject of how many planes were in the raid, the radio said: "It is pointed out that with avail able installations the number of at tacking planes may be registered fairly accurately. • • * The figures given by British and American re ports concerning the number of planes which allegedly took part in the raid are described as fantastic by military quarters here." The radio said that "according to military quarters here," about one third of the 70 planes which reached Cologne were shot down. Another 20, it was said, were shot down be fore they reached Cologne. The high command put the figure at 47, including those shot down over the German-occupied lowlands. (The British acknowledged loss of 44.) High explosives were dropped and fires were started, the communique added. Nazi night fighters and ground fire were said to have de stroyed 36 bombers, and another was brought down near the European coast by naval artillery. Ten other British planes were claimed shot down off the Dutch and Channel coasts. Statement Unprecedented. The residential sections were heavily hit, the communique said, listing “several public buildings, in cluding three churches and two hospitals." (The German statement of “great damage" was unprece dented in Nazi communiques. Tacitly, it attested to the thor oughness of the 9C-minute raid.) The German account said a night fighter squadron commanded by Lt. Gen. Kammhuber scored its 600th victory over Cologne. Warren Holds N. R. B. Personnel Loan Illegal By the AssocUted Press. Controller General Warren today declared that the National Labor Relations Board exceeded Its author ity by a recent loan of personnel to the Senate Committee on Small Business Problems. The order was expected to set a precedent under which loan of per sonnel by Government agencies to Congressional investigating commit tees would be recognized as legal only when done under the sanction of a formal congressional resolution. Mr. Warren, a former member of the House from North Carolina, said in a formal opinion: "It is only in rare instances that the appropriations for an executive agency may be regarded as intended to require or authorize the executive agency to use its personnel for in vestigations for the purpose of ad ditional legislation or of obtaining information relative to the opera tions of such agency under existing legislation or otherwise.” Mr. Warren said the N. L. R. B. should not have lent employes to help Investigate something as un related as small business problems, and it was outside its authority in hiring extra employes, as he indi cated was done, to help the Senate committee. Air Marshal A. T. Harris, who directed the raids over Germany. —A. P. Wirephoto. Government Worker Held by Police in Criminal Attack Case Victim Employed in Man's Office; Date Was Her First Here A 24-year-old man identified as a Government economist was lodged in a first precinct cell today, charged with criminally assaulting a 20-year old clerk employed in the Office of Price Administration. The girl, police said, was criminally attacked before daybreak Saturday , behind the clubhouse of the Rock Creek Park golf course. She had been invited out Friday night on her first date since she came to Wash ington from the Midwest four months ago, they reported. The man held gave his name as J. Frank Huber, 5100 block of North Capitol street. The girl worked in the same office with Huber, police said. Huber formally was accused at police headquarters this morning. Police said the girl accepted an invitation to go dancing. He took her first to a downtown restaurant, where he drank several beers and she sipped part of one, the girl said. When they returned to the car the girl’s escort drove to Rock Creek Park Instead of the dance, stopped the car and made advances. The girl jumped out of the machine screaming and started to run, but tripped and fell. Police said she was “roughed up” during the attack, but was not seri ously injured. She permitted her companion to take her home, and then she telephoned police. Later, an examination at Gallinger Hos pital confirmed the assault, police said. Detective Sergts. H. H. Hodge and Roy Blick arrested Huber in his rooming house yesterday. Adolph, Benito and Hirohito—the three blind mice. Make them run with War bonds. Weather Report • Furnished by the United States Weather Bureau.) District of Columbia—Mild temperature tonight with gentle winds. Maryland and Virginia—Tnunderstorm in west portion early tonight; cooler in central portion tonight. Report for Lost 48 Hours. Temperature. Saturday— Degrees. 4 p m. _ £9 8 p.m. - 84 Midnight_ <7 Sunday— 4 a.m. - 73 8 a.m. - <2 Noon _ 87 2 p.m. - »1 4 p.m. - 92 8 p.m. - 75 12 midnight_ 70 Today— 4 a.m. - Si 8 a.m. _ 25 Noon _ 08 Record for Last 24 Honrs. (Prom noon yesterday to noon today.) Highest, 93, 3 "P.m. yesterday. Year &£0. 81. Lowest. 85, 8:26 p.m. today. Year ago, 59. Record Temperatures This Year. Highest, 94, on May 1. Lowest, 8, on January 11. Humidity for Last 24 Honrs. (From noon yesterday to noon today.) Highest, 90 per cent, at 8:30 a.m. Lowest, 50 per cent, at 2:30 p.m. Tide Tables. (Furnished by United State* Coast and Geodetic Survey.) Today Tomorrow. High _10:37 ajn. 11:29 a.m. Low _ 4:48 s'®. 6:42 a.m. High _11:08 p.m. 12:03 a.m. Low __ 6:30 p.m. 8:21 P.m. River Report. Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers elear at Harpers Perry; Potomac muddy at Groat Palls today. r— The Sun and Moon. Rises. Sets. Sun, today__ 6:44 8:27 Sun. tomorrow_ 6:44 8:28 Moon, today_11:02 p.m. 8:10 a.m. Automobile lights must b« turned on one-half hour after sunset. Precipitation. Monthly precipitation in lnchea in tha Capital (current month to date): Month. 1942. Aver. Record. January _ 2.47 3.65 7.83 ’37 February _ 2.03 3.27 6.84 ’84 March_ 6.96 3.76 8.84 ’91 April _ 0.54 3.27 9.13 ’89 May _ 3.93 3.70 10.69 ’89 June _ ... 4.13 10.94 ’OQ July _ ... 4.71 10.63 ’86 August _ 4.01 14.41 ’28 September __ 3.24 17.45 ’34 October _ 2.84 8.81 '37 November __ 2.37 8.69 '89 December _ _ 3 32 7.56 01 Weather In Various Cities. . Precipi * High. Low. tation. Albuauerque. N. Me*- 88 54 _ Atlanta. Ga. - 89 67 - Boston, Mass._ 62 54 - Buffalo. N. Y- 64 52 Chicago. El. - 88 63 1.27 Cleveland. Ohio —-- 88 62 - Denver, Colo.- 77 60 Detroit. Mich. - 81 57 .66 Port Worth. Tex.- 93 71 — Kansas City. Mo.- 84 87 ... Louisville. Ky. - 90 64 - Memphis. Tenn.- 90 88 Miami. Fla. 86 70 w— Mpls.-St. Paul. Minn- 68 64 _ New Orleans. La.- 85 71 - New York. N. Y---- 76 57 — Philadelphia, P»--- #1 60 Pittsburgh. P».- 87 86 .46 St Louis. Mo.-1. 87 67 - Washington, D. C.- 93 66 — ► General view of Cologne, three-fourths of which was report ed in flames after bombing by more than 1,000 R. A. F. planes Saturday night. The Hohenzollern Bridge, which handles vital rail traffic over the Rhine, is shown at right. Center is the Cologne Cathedral. - Map showing how the huge raiding armada of planes took off from all corners of England to smash at Cologne and other points in the Ruhr and Rhineland with 6,000,000 pounds of bombs. —A. P. Wirephoto. - 4 20 Population Centers Get Rent Cuts Today By the Associated Press. It was rent-reduction day today for thousands of residents In 20 population centers. The Office of Price Administration put the reduc tions in effect in areas in which some 9,000.000 persons live. There were no exact figures avail able on how many tenants will get rent cuts, but it was regarded as cer tain that in the near future similar procedure would be ordered for oth ers of the nearly 400 “defense-rent al'’ areas now designated. In 14 areas rents return to the April 1, 1941 levels; In four others the rents of January 1, 1941, will govern, and In Cleveland and Wichita, Kans,.the rates must be reduced to those of July 1, 1941, The areas affected are: Columbus, Gi.; South Bend, Ind.; Burlington, Iowa; San Diego, Bridgeport, Hart-1 ford-New Britain and Waterbury, Conn.: Schenectady, N. Y.: Birm ingham and Mobile, Ala.; Wilming ton, N. C.; Hampton Roads, Va.; Detroit, Akron, Canton, Ravenna and Youngstown-Warren, Ohio, and Puget Sound, Wash. Arlington Women to Meet Edmund D. Campbell, chairman One of the narrow streets in Cologne. Berlin admits “great damage” was done by the British bomber armada which raided the city. —A. P. Wirephotos. of the Arlington County Board, will discuss defense problems before the June meeting of the Arlington County Women's Democratic Club at 8 o'clock tonight in the Rucker Building. Clarendon, Va. * ■ _ ■ § B ■BkT^H B • I ^^MkT • ■ ^M ^BV^B f HERE ARE THE ADVAHTAGES • FUMIGATION Every garment is placed in the latest fumigation chamber before storage killing any moth life present. • REFRIGERATION Temperature in our brand new storage vaults is thermostatically controlled at 45°—no moth life con survive at this temperature. • BURGLARPROOF The only entrance to the magnificent vault is a two ton York Safe and Lock Door. • FIREPROOF The'steel and concrete construction of the vault makes it absolutely fireproof. WARNING— BE CAREFUL! We are etie ef the few laaniry and dry cleaning taftitatteni in Washington that hare far and garment esalte leeated right en the premises. Tear ineaeetien is INVITED. WASHINGTON C JaufiJfy U Phone RE public 1020 and a banded driver will pick up your garments. HERE ARE THE PRICES Fur Garments S2s00 Up to $100 Valuation Cloth Coats, Suits, etc. S I >50 Up to $50 Valuation 01 “You Bring It” .. Save 20% At One of Our 20 BRANCH STORES OUR HUGE NEW STORAGE PLANT ON OUR PREMISES WASHINGTON LAUNDRY Main Office and Plant 27tfc and K Streets N.W.