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— With Pu4ay Mornlat Edition. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. WASHINGTON, D. C. TUESDAY.. -June 9, 1942 The Evening Star Newspaper Company. Main Office: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ava. New York Office: 110 East 4-nd St. Chieato Office: 435 North Michlaan Ava. Delivered by Carrier—City and Suburban. Regular Edition. Beetling and Sunday T5c per mo or 1 *r per week The Evening Star . 45c per mo. or 10c per week Tha Sunday Star 10c per copy Night Final Edition. Night Pinal and Sunday Star_R5r per month Night Pinal Star 00c per month Collections made at the end of each month or etch week Orders may be aent by mail or tele phone National 6000. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Maryland and Virginia. Daily and Sunday Evening. Sunday. 1 rear_Sio.oo $h.iio $500 0 months_ $5.0(1 $3.00 $; 50 1 month 85c 55c 5Uc Elsewhere in United States. 1 year _$12.00 ss.on $5 no « months_ $15 (in $4.00 $2.50 1 month _ $1.00 76c 60c Entered aa second-class matter post office, Washington. D. C. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use lor republication of all news dispatches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this caper and also the local news published herein All rights of publication of special dispatches herein also are reserved Housing Inspection The proposed legislation to author ize adoption by the Commissioners of a new housing code for the District of Columbia is of great importance in the municipal control of rooming and boarding houses in this congest ed city. As prepared by the Wash ington Housing Association, the iden tical bills introduced by Chairman McCarran of the Senate District Committee and Chairman Randolph of the House District Committee would empower the Commissioners not only to promulgate a more effec tive code of regulations for such es tablishments, but to co-ordinate the seven different inspection and regu latory services which now exercise varying degrees of control over use, occupancy, safety and sanitary con ditions of dwellings. As J. Bernard Wyckoff. president of the association, put it in submitting the measure to Congress, the room ing and boarding house industry in Washington has become "big busi ness” as a result of the steady influx of war workers from all parts of the country. More than 10.000 rooming houses have been registered at local rent control headquarters. Theo retically. all of these places are sub ject to inspection by building, health, fire, plumbing, electrical, rent and zoning authorities. Actually, because of the Inadequacy of Inspection staffs of these sundry agencies, inspections have been few and for the most part wholly Inadequate. It is the objec tive of the new legislation to bring about a consolidation of this inspec tion work under one responsible of ficial, the District Health Officer. This centralized Inspection, licensing and regulation of rooming and boarding houses would be more ef ficient administratively and would ■implify matters for operators of the houses, since they would have to deal with but one office instead of seven. Since the health and safety of thousands of Government workers are involved, Congress would be jus tified in giving prompt attention to the proposed housing code legisla tion. Catholic Resistance American diplomats and Journal ist* returning from Central Europe have cautioned their countrymen against the risk involved in suppos ing that the strength and the power of the Nazi regime have begun to crack under the strain of war. Spe cifically. they have warned against the temptation to believe that Ger man morale is ready to collapse. Advice of this character from such authoritative observers and inter preters of political, economic and social conditions cannot be ignored. It represents the considered Judg ment of men who are abundantly skilled In the appraisal of psycho logical values. Yet evidence of the gradual de velopment of opposition to Hitler within the Reich does exist. The latest symptom of growing resistance to his tyranny is a pastoral letter Issued by the German bishops of the Itoman Catholic Church on March 22. Taking into account the cir cumstances under which it was writ ten and circulated, it is a document of the very highest significance. Categorically, it charges Der Fueh rer's government with failure to keep the promises it freely made in the concordat of July 20. 1033, pledging protection of the functions of Chris tian churches, schools and other In stitutions. "The liberty of creed and worship.” the diocesan leaders’ de clare, has been denied. Instead, a campaign of oppression has been conducted by the Nazis to the end that Christianity may be destroyed in Germany "before the soldiers, whose Christian faith gives them the strength for heroic battles and sacrifices, return home.” The letter courageously protests against "every disregard of personal freedom.” It condemns the killing of insane persons and the proposal to kill incurables; expresses resentment against the forcible confiscation of property; complains against Gestapo spying uaon “priests and laymen who stand up for religious freedom.” and “demands juridical proof of all sentences and the release of all who have been imprisoned without proof, the return of seized property and the protection of all citizens against false accusations.” Particularly, the Catholic bishops reaffirm the spiritual principle against the expedient materialism of the Nazi party doctrine. Their “sacred creed,” they insist, they will defend “against all attacks.” The letter closes with the words: “Deci sively and firmly we refuse the sug gestion that we should Drove our patriotic faith through faithlessness toward Christ and our church. • • • God give an honest, happy, lasting peace to the church and the father land.” It will be noticed that nothing is said about ecclesiastical desire for a Nazi victory. The German bishops know full well that triumph for Hitler would mean defeat for the holy cause of which they are ordained servants. Sevastopol The Intensive pounding of Sevas topol. now in its fifth day, indicates a move by the German high com mand which military experts have foreseen ever since the German re capture of Kerch, which gave them a potential springboard across the narrow straits from the Crimea into the Caucasus. Before any such invasion is at tempted. however, the Germans must reduce Sevastopol, the strongly for tified Russian naval and air base on the opposite side of the Crimean peninsula. The siege of Sevastopol has been going on ever since the Germans overran the Crimea at the end of last October. At that time, i mass assaults were made upon the i fortress, but were repulsed with tre mendous losses. Sevastopol has proved as hard a nut to crack as it did in the Crimean War of almost a century ago. when it held out against Britain and its allies for over a year. Indeed, the task for the ! present German besiegers is in some i ways even more difficult, because I Sevastopol is still open by sea and can be continually reinforced with troops and supplies. This makes it all the more neces i sary for Germany that it be reduced. I One of the great handicaps to a German invasion of South Russia | and the Caucasus is overextended ! land communications. The only ! way that problem can be solved is by gaining command of the Black Sea, thereby making it possible to trans ; port men and supplies by water from Rumania and other Balkan bases. But hitherto the Black Sea has been dominated by the Russian Navy. Russia’s Black Sea fleet is, in itself, not expecially formidable, consisting as it does of one antiquated battle ship. a few cruisers, and sizeable flo tillas of destroyers and submarines. Yet Germany has virtually nothing to oppose it, and cannot directly do so, as long as neutral Turkey refuses entrance through the Straits to Axis warcraft. The alternative is to ‘'orphan" the Russian Black Sea fleet by depriving it of its indispensable bases. Last autumn, the Germans got two of these when they captured Odessa and Nikolaiev. Sevastopol is the only remaining first-class base with adequate dockage and repair facili ties. It is likewise situated about midway in the Black Sea, so that the Russian fleet can still command the entire area. If Sevastopol should fall, the Russian fleet would be reduced to the second-class base of Novorossiisk, on the Caucasian coast, which in turn is only 70 miles from Kerch and thus vulnerable to a German land thrust from the Crimea. With Novorossiisk gone, the Russian fleet could depend only on Batum. a commercial port at the extreme eastern end of the Black Sea, 500 miles east of Sevastopol. It could still be refueled and provis ioned there, but cdUld be neither docked nor repaired. Under such handicaps, it is hard to see how the Russian Navy could maintain its grip over most of the Black Sea, which thenceforth would become fairly safe for the transport of Ger man troops and supplies under guard of light craft, submarines and air planes. That is the larger objective at which the Germans aim in their re newed assaults on Sevastopol. There Is also the need of abolishing a dangerous threat to their flank in a drive across Kerch. Until the whole Crimea is in German hands, their land communications will not be secure. But the Russian resistance is stubborn and the fortress is very strong. The Germans have reason to know that they are engaged in a difficult operation. The Right Course It. is gratifying to learn that the President is gathering information with a view to making a report to the people on the facts of the Na tion’s gasoline and rubber shortages. Only through some such procedure as this is there hope for an end to the baffling confusion with which discussion of these questions has been attended. And not until the confusion and conflict of statements have been eliminated will there be substantial reason to expect effec tive public co-operation in whatever conservation measures may be neces sary. There is not, or should not be, any serious misapprehension as to the facts of the gasoline situation. The shortage in that commodity is due to transportation difficulties, and exists only in jfhose Eastern seaboard States where rationing has been ini tiated. There is no serious gasoline shortage in any other sectipn of the country, and, in many areas, there is a pronounced surplus. All sec tions of the country, however, are affected approximately alike by the rubber shortage, and the real ques tion is whether this shortage, actual and potential, is serious enough to justify national gasoline rationing as a means of conserving tires. On this latter question all manner of differences of opinion have arisen and have been given wide circula tion. According to one point of view, expressed most often hi political circles, the rubber shortage la a myth. At the other extreme lx the view, apparently held by most responsible officials having to do with the prose cution of the war, that the shortage Is so acute that It constitutes a very serious threat to the war program. It Is clear in these circumstances that the average citizen—he who will have to carry the brunt of any conservation program—cannot know what to believe or what to expect. To clear up this wholly unnecessary confusion, it is to be hoped that the President will deal with the subject as explicitly as considerations of sound military policy will permit. At the least it should be possible to tell the motorists of the country with reasonable accuracy what they can expect in the way of replacements for their tires and when the replace ments can be expected. If, as a result of such a factual showing, it is clear that national gasoline ration ing is the only feasible method of bridging the gap between the life time of tires now in service and the date when replacements will become available, then there is no doubt that the great majority of the people will willingly accept such a rationing program. It is idle to expect this co operation, however, until the real facts have been submitted to them. Overtime Ruling In upholding a wage agreement on the Dallas News, which the Govern ment contended contravened the Wage and Hour Act, the Supreme Court has sanctioned an application of the law which gives it a desirable flexibility. At issue was the formula used for setting an hourly rate for salaried employes when the law, granting time and one-half for overtime after forty-four hours, became effective. The company guaranteed weekly wages above the minimum pre scribed by the law, and then by agreement with individual employes set basic hourly rates which per mitted some overtime to be worked without exceeding the weekly guar anty. The Wage and Hour Division sought to upset this arrangement, contending that the regular rate should be established on the basis of hours actually worked, rather than by negotiation—a principle that would have raised pay. The lower courts ruled against the Govern ment. The Supreme Court divided flve to-four on the case, which Justice Byrnes reading the opinion in which he emphasized that the wage was fixed by bona flde contracts which the majority was unwilling to nullify. The majority conceded that the arrangement was designed to “per mit as far as possible the payment of the same total weekly wage after the act as befdre,” but Justice Byrnes said that “nothing in the act bars an employer from contracting with his employes to pay them the same wages that they received previously so long as the new rate equals or exceeds the minimum required by the act." Justice Byrnes made it clear that the court majority believes Congress intended that employers and em ployes should have broad discre tionary powers to adjust their re lationships under the Wage and Hour Act because of the complex factors that enter Into different cases. “Where the question is as close as this one,” he said, “it is well to fol low the congressional lead and to afford the fullest possible scope to agreements among the individuals who are actually affected. This policy is based upon a common-sense recognition of the special problems confronting employer and employe in businesses where the work hours fluctuate from week to week and from day to day.” While validating the News arrange ment, the court voided a somewhat similar plan followed by the Over night Motor Transportation Co. That case, however, appeared to turn on the fact that the company put a ceiling on overtime pay, without limiting hours correspondingly. Brian Bell Brian Bell's achievements and merit as a newspaperman were recognized two and a half years ago in his ap pointment as chief of the Washing ton bureau of the Associated,Press. For it Is an appointment which of Itself denotes distinction and honor, and its importance is recognized by newspapers and newspapermen the world over. His sudden death is a grievous loss to the newspapers of the Associated Press, for he was an unusually well-equipped and com petent executive. But his death means much more than that to his friends in and out of the newspaper world. He enjoyed the friendship of many people in many walks of life and in many places. Wherever he went he made friends and his work carried him into every corner of the Nation. To know him was to feel the warmly gracious charm of a true gentleman. As a two-fisted, hard-working re porter he learned to know the seamy and the sordid side of life. But it left him unmarked by cynicism or bitterness. A loyal and understand ing friend, he carried' wtth him a clean, refreshing wit that made him a delightful companion. Many hearts will share the loss of that companionship. Brian Bell’s death is peculiarly un timely, for there is great need these trying days for newspapermen of his character, discernment and sound Judgment. To his family and to the management and his colleagues of the Associated Press, The Star extendi tta vmpathy. Of Stars, Men And Atoms Notebook of Science Progresi In Laboratory, Field And Study By Thomas R. Henry. Astronomers have reweighed the moon. It is about 2,000,000.000,000,000.000 tons heavier than had been calculated In the past. Tlie new determination will become one of the fundamental constants in the astronomy of the solar system. It recently has been announced by Dr. H. Spencer Jones, astronomer royal of Great Britain, to whom the Interna tional Astronomical Union assigned the Job of analyzing the Immense volume of data gathered the world over In the autumn of 1931, when the tiny planetoid Eras made its closest approach to the earth in half a century. He and his associates at the Green wich Observatory on the edge of London have completed the task and a few months ago announced that the sun was more than 100,000 miles further from the earth than hitherto had been supposed. The new weight of the moon is the second result of their work. Eros is the earths nearest neighbor in space, except for the moon itself. It is a little ball of rock about 17 miles in diameter. It has an extremely eccentric orbit. In 1931 it approached within 18.200.000 miles of the earth, about 7, 000.000 miles closer than the planet Venus. The simplest way of measuring dis tances in the heavens is by means of triangulation, precisely the same as that used by surveyors in determining dis tances on the surface of the earth. The diameter of the earth—or. in the case of distant stars, the diameter of its orbit— provides the known base of an enormous triangle whose apex is the heavenly object. The nearer the object the larger the angles. Hence the lengths of the sides of the triangle can be determined with greater precision. The close approach of Eros offered an almost ideal opportunity for such a tri angulation. With the world at peace, almost every observatory on earth equipped with means of photographing the heavens took pictures of the tiny planet, carefully observing the time and their own positions. At the most favor-, able time the diameter of , the earth formed the base of a triangle which, to an observer on Eros itself, would have been half the length of the diameter of the full mean. Astronomers of every civilized nation— Including, at the time, Germany and Japan—agreed to turn their observa tions over to Dr. Jones. The weight of the moon can be de termined by its gravitational effects on the earth and the sun and these depend on distance. Changes in the hitherto accepted scale of distances in the solar system make the change in its weight a matter of course. Essentially the earth weighs about 81 times as much as the satellite, once a part of the planet itself, which is about 240.000 miles away. The weight of the earth, as determined most recently by gravitational measurements at the United States Bureau of Standards, is about 6.000.000,000.000,000.000.000 tons. The chief difference bi ought about by Dr. Jones' calculations, astronomers ex plain, will be In the so-called "nutation'' of the moon—the varying positions of its north and south poles through the years due to the gravitational pull of the earth, which is greatest in the di rection of its equator. This will make a fraction of a second difference in the prediction of the time of eclipses. It also changes the center of gravity of the earth system—which includes both the earth and the moon. This is im portant in astronomical calculations. It is somewhere near the center of the globe, but the new calculations move it a few miles nearer the surface. The calculations also make everything on the surface of the earth a trifle lighter than was supposed before. The weight of a man, for example. Is actually the gravitational pull upon him of the center of gravity of the earth-moon aystem. With the change in position of this center of gravity his weight changes, although not enough to be detected by any Instrument. Urges Appeal to President For National Day of Prayer. To th» Editor of The St»r: Millions of our people In thousands of our churches are praying that God will grant victory to our United Nations in the near future. This we should do. Pew, howeVer, seem to realize that God requires us to call upon Him nationally. He has said in His Word, ‘‘If My people, which are called by My name, shall hum ble themselves, and pray, and seek My face, and turn from their wicked way, then will I hear from heaven and will forgive their sin and will heal their land.” That means national repentance and prayer. The miraculous deliverance of hun dreds of thousands of troops from Dun kerque occurred the day following a na tional day of prayer In the British com monwealth of nations. Rescue of tens of thousands of troops from Greece was preceded by a national day of prayer called by King George VI. A prominent secular periodical has pointed out that each national day of prayer has been followed by a week of victory, and suggests that one be ob served every Sunday. ' May we suggest that those who read these lines ask their pastors to call upon their congregations to send telegrams to the President requesting him to name a national day of repentance and prayer in the immediate future? And when the united prayer is answered, as answered it will be, may we not fail to give God the honor and glory due Him and to thank Him for His mercy. MARTHA NICHOL. Comments on Movie Star’s View Of Public Taste In Pictures. To th» Editor of The 8t»r: Bette Davis has a "revelation,” ac cording ' to Ted Gill in your issue of June 1. ‘‘I used to think,” Miss Davis is quoted as saying, "it was the Hays office that was to blame for taking the sex out of pictures. Now I'm convinced It is the public.” 9o! The revelation is “the public be damned” again. If Miss Davis wears an escutcheon it might be emblaaonad: "Up Eros, down , Dameel” B, W. L THIS AND THAT By Charles t. Tracewell. "NEW HAMPSHIRE AVE. "Dear Sir: "I want to express my appreciation of your column In The Star. I seldom miss an issue. "I was amused at one paragraph In your article of recent date, however, when you gave the speed of flight of the sage hen at two miles an hour, and that of the woodcock at five miles per hour. "Were these typographical errors or did your typewriter slip? "Outside of the hummingbird'and the hawk, I can think of no birds that could maintain itself In the air at a speed of only two miles per hour, or even at five miles per hour. "A man can walk at the rate of five miles per hour for a limited distance. "If you have hunted woodcock you will probably agree their speed Is nearer 50 miles per hour than five. For a guess I would say it is around 35 miles. "Sincerely, D. J. O'C." * Si * A Our correspondent is properly ob servant, both in his reading habits, which we appreciate, and also as to his birds. We stand corrected on the sage hen, but not on the woodcock. The latter can fly swiftly for short distances, but its speed has been timed by authorities at from five to 13 miles per hour. The sage hen can do 40 miles per hour, not two, as we stated. The latter is the running speed, a far different thing. Shooting the sage hen is not regarded as a sporting proposition, since it is commonly held by sportsmen as too easy to hit. Woodcock are among the most beauti ful of all birds. Nature lovers will never understand how any one could shoot them. But then, nature lovers and sportsmen are two different species themselves, although the latter like to think of themselves as nature lovers. Perhaps one has to eat a woodcock to understand it. Connoisseurs rave about their delicacy. This is not difficult to understand, since almost the sole food of the bird is the earthworm. No matter what a human's ideas as to earthworm diet might be. one must admit that they are all meat, and probably tender. Any one who has fed small angleworms to aquarium fishes knows with what gusto they are eaten. The young ones, naturally, are the tenderest. As the worms grow, the segmented aspect of their bodies becomes prominent. The rings around them harden, and they are then devoured easily by only the largest fishes. The goldfish will manage any earth worm which happens to fall Into his pool. We will never forget the great sport which two goldfish, with bodies no more than two inches long, managed to have with some worms which we put into their small outdoor pool one day. Each fish seized the worm, one by the head and the other by the tall. They tugged and tugged, with no ap preciable results, until finally the living "rope" in their tug-of-war came apart. This was a large worm, however, and properly tough. The small ones are tender enough. Woodcock are said to be composed of scarcely anything else. In this way nature transmutes worm flesh into bird flesh, and the latter, in the shape of the woodcock, is held to be a rare delicacy by all who have tasted it. It is said that young woodcock eat their weight in worms every day. They become full grown on this diet in about three weeks. * a * a As beautiful a plate as we know of the woodcock may be found in "Bird Portraits in Color,” issued by the Uni versity of Minnesota Press. The painting is by Walter John Breckenridge. The long bill and the eyes of the creature give it an odd and interesting look which perhaps no other bird has. The eyes are so far back and so close to the top of the head that the wood cock can really look behind him. Protective coloration often saves the woodcock. It Is said that the mother bird will even permit herself to be stroked by the hand before she will leave the nest. The bill of the woodcock deserves a special note. It can raise the outer part of the upper mandible, without removing the bill from the soil, and in this way it can ease a worm out without letting go. ..What a gift this sort of bill would be for a robin! But he seems to be able to get along very well without it. Protective coloration of birds and animals gave man the idea of camou flage. We were noticing a wood thrush the other day on some earth from which a great growth of honeysuckle had been removed. Green and red and brown were mixed in the half bare earth, and on this a thrush, with his brown back and spotted chest, was walking. When he remained still, looking for worms and Insects in the freshly dis turbed earth, he was invisible. Even when we knew- where he wan, he could not be seen until he moved. While moving, he was easily enough spotted, so that the observer thought, "I will be able to see him this time, when he stops." But again he became invisible. It was uncanny.' Hunters tell us that the woodcock always manages to keep a tree or two between It and them. In order to re ceive the benefits of protective colora tion. Woodcock have been known to re main so still and .so close to dogs that tha|hunters have stumbled over them. The bird was using its camouflage to the limit. - I Letters to the Editor Advocate* Rule of Reason In Hospitals in Time of War. To th» Editor of The Star: Almost a year ago this Nation's Capital received its first grim warning of an in evitable shortage In hospital beds. A vigilant press publicized the Indisputable facts and demanded remedial action to no practicable avail. Now we authorita tively are Informed that this tragic sit uation will be further aggravated by a rapidly growing shortage of trained nurses. Thus time, the municipal ox Is gored and huge hospitalization in vestments are faced with certain bank ruptcy. so some formal and organized effort is made to provide a remedy, such as the four-point program recently spon sored by our lawryer Commissioner, Guy Mason. The present writer, while substan tially agreeing in principle with three of Mr. Mason's proposals, nevertheless raises the question of their sufficiency to do more than safeguard the public against a similar shortage of trained nurses in the future. Obviously, these proposals fail to take into consideration that the hospital bed shortage and the trained nurse shortage, so far as com munity welfare Is concerned are one and the same problem and to propose to solve the one without solving the other simul taneously is not common sense. Whereas delay and calculated procrastination may save a lawyer's client, the contrary is true of the clients of the healing arts. Upon analyzing these proposals it would appear to be far more sensible to wipe out the protested and troublesome wage differentials now existing between ’ equally qualified trained nurses doing comparable professional duty in mili tary and civilian capacities, by an equal izing Federal wage-hour decision, rather than to depend upon an ephemeral Fed eral subsidy as an economic corrective. With the present inordinate and increas ing levies upon the taxpayer, a Federal subsidy should be the last resort. Per haps a subsidy in some form eventually may be needed, but it. would appear to be far wiser to work out a formula of solvency equitably to be applied to the total deficiency resulting from the opera tion and maintenance of a satisfactory community hospitalization service, rather than to confuse the issue by applying an expedient to an isolated phase of the problem. Fortunately, an administrative tech nique already has been devised and is in actual operation, which with some modi fication equitably could be applied to our combined hospital bed and nurse short age. This writer naturally refers to the realistic administrative mechanism, known as the Committee of Procurement and Assignment, which under joint Fed eral and civilian control and co-opera tion, have catalogued and classified the total available supply of the Nation's qualified physicians and is Intended to use the rule of reason in rationing them according to existing military and civilian need. This, you will see, is the purpose ful application of the same common sense, realistic procedure, which costly trial and error has compelled us to adopt in respect to conserving and rationing other vital materials and services. Indis pensable to an all-out war effort but of which there Is a tragically limited sup ply Applying this realistic principle and ■toatototoattri H#in1rp» to gar «u>cv* Letters to the Editor must bear the name and address of the writer, although the use of a pseudonym fo. mblication is permissible. The serves the right to edit all lettt. •~>th a view to condensation. ous shortage In hospital beds and nurses, it would require a central plenary ad ministrative authority which would mo bilize the total available community re source, consisting of all the appurten ances of the healing arts, and allocate them according to urgent need, regardless of whether that need be military or civilian in character. Obviously, mili tary need would have unquestioned and Immediate priority. THOMAS E. MATTINGLY, MD. niwusses Popular Education In Nation Where Everybody Work*. To the Editor of The St»r: It Is contemplated to raise the stand ard of education of the general public In the United States to a point where a few, at least, will be able to think con structively for themselves on interna tional affairs, politics, etc., instead of blindly following a leader. By thus en couraging more people to seek a college education, a higher intellectual culture will be attained, and it is hoped this plan will be put into effect. At the present time, the masses are unable to think Intelligently on any of the higher subjects, having been edu cated solely along lines designed to help them to earn a living. They are trained for this purpose only and do "very well at it, advancing and getting ahead in the world financially as well. If not better, than the college graduate. Statistics show that only about 4 per cent of. the American people have re ceived a college education, which per centage Is remarkably low for a large and powerful Nation like these United States of America. This being a work ing man's country—a country wjjpre every one works—it is not to be won dered that the individual who does not follow some gainful occupation should have it held against him. Therefore, it is only natural that the curriculum in the schools is arranged along business lines to train pupils along commercial and mechanical lines only, giving little thought or time to the academic subjects, which are considered wasteful accom plishments. The percentage of college educated persons being so small, is it a wonder that the individual with a higher education should find himself, intellec tually, isolated and alone, unable to converse, pleasurably, with hi* daily contacts, who impress him as being of immature mind and, Intellectually, not of adult age? In the capitals of Europe the standard of education and culture is noticeably higher. More attention is paid to aca demic subjects, such as literature, philos ophy, ethics and the higher accomplish ments, music, art and travel. It is usual, abroad, for a young man to continue his studies until the age of 30 and his par ents encourage him to do so. There are the vast leisure classes, who have not been gainfully employed for centuries and leisure makes for an atmosphere of culture and refinement which can hardly be attained In a land where every one works for a living and tlje vast majority have been trained for and know nothing •to except to work. 1L R. REID. Haskin's Answers To Questions By Frederic J. Haskin. A reader can get the answer to any question of fact by writing The Eve rting Star Information Bureau, Fred eric J. Haskin, director, Washington, D. C. Please inclose stamp for neturn postage. Q. What Is meant by a record rot* in Congress?—G. P. A. A record vote is a vote in which the members of the House or Senate answer yea or nay to their names. Q. How many baseball leagues in operation in 1941 failed to start thia season?—W, A. Q. Ten. The Florida East Coast League started the 1942 season but dis banded after one month’s play due to dimouts on coast and gasoline rationing. ' Modern Manners—A 32-page summary of the rules of proper conduct. Arranged in chapters, this booklet gives the essentials of useful, practical, daily need ful knowledge about what to say and do on various occasions— from christenings to funerals. Answers over 500 questions. To secure your copy of this authori tative guide to correct etiquette inclose 10 cents in coin wrapped in this clipping and mail to The Star Information Bureau. Name Address Q. Why Is the pronoun "I" always capitalized?—L. G. A. A pronoun of the first person singular Is capitalized because, in the Middle Ages, it was ths custom to use a long *T" whenever the letter was used alone. Q How many greeting cards are sent In a year?—B. W. D. A. “The Greeting Card Industry" es timates the number of greeting cards that will be sent by Americans in the year 1942 at nearly 3 000 000,000. Q. Why is it said that a cat has nine lives?—D. C M. A. The idea is traceable to the ancient superstition that evil spirits were able to assume the form of black animals, par ticularly black cats, and that a witch could take on the body of a cat nine times. Among the ancient Egyptians, the cat-headed goddess Pasht. the mother cat of the witches, was said to have nine lives. _ Q When were the first 3-eent stamps issued?—K. D. J. A The first 3-eent stamp was issued on July 1, 1851, in honor of George Washington. Q Does an American woman lose her citizenship when she marries an alien?— T. R. A. Since September 22. 3922. a woman citizen of the United States who marries an alien does not lose her citizenship. Q. What fiber ia most widely used?— B. F. A. Cotton la used more than any other fiber in the world, Q. Who invented the mimeograph?— N. OD. A. The mimeograph was invented by Thomas A. Edison, patent number 180857, August 8, 1876. Q What is the moat common breed 'heep?—K. J. "he merino is the most widely distriw heep in the wrorld. Q. Where .... Arthur Sullivan living in the Unl„ ->tes when he composed the music oi . "Tates of Pfrnzance?"—R. T. R. A. He composed almost the score of the Pirates In 1879. whllp lous ing at 45 East Twentieth street. New York City. Q. Did the church ever exercise cen sorship over art?—G. V. A. In Europe, for more than 10 centuries, the church placed restrictions on artists. In 787 A.D. the Council of Nicea proclaimed that the "composition of pictures should not be the invention of the artist but the rules and tradi tions of the church." Q. Where are there mahogany for ests?—C. F. A. No mahogany forests exist since mahogany trees grow scattered through out the jungle with an average, usually, of one or two trees to the acre tn virgin forests. Q. Was Edward Lear's “Book of Non sense'' written for a special person?— C. C. D. A. Lear wrote the first “Book of Non sense" for the child Edward, who after ward became the 15th Earl of Stanley. Q. Which are the largest cities that have installed parking meters?—S. V, A. The largest cities with parking meters are Buffalo, Cleveland, Pitta burgh and Washington. Q Were there any Negro pilot* in the first World War?—L. R. B A. There was no Negro are in the first World War. A Negro pilot named Eu gene Bullard from Eugene, Ga„ served in the French Air Corps as a member of the Lafayette Flying Corps with the rank of corporal. Crab Apple Blossoms In all the world there is no lovelier thing Than this wild crab upon a sunny hill! Its pale-pink glory is so startling, The windless day is suddenly so still— I dare not breathe lest I should shatter quite This radiant mass of color and of light. I dare not touch one little clustered spray Lest some wild bee from out a blossom’s heart Should take his heavy-bodied, bun gling way And the delicate shaken petals fall apart. O wind be kind! O bees in hurrying past, Go softly that this loveliness may last. GRACE NOLL CROWELL.