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With Sunday Morning Edition. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. “ WASHINGTON, D. C. TUESDAY...June SO. 1942 The Evening Star Newspaper Company. Main Office: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. New York Office 110 East 42nd 61 Chicago Office: 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. Collections made at the end of each month or each week Orders may be aent oy mail or tele phone National 6000 Regular Edition. Evening and Sunday 75c per mo. or 1 *e per week The Rvenmg Star___46c per mo. or 10c per week The Sunday Star 10c per copy Night Final Edition. eight Final and Sunday Star.. 85c per month tght Final Star _ _tsoc per month Outside of Metropolitan Area. Carrier or Rural Tube Delivery. The Evening and Sunday Star—$1 on per mon'h f he Evening Star ... _ Hoc per month The Sunday Star- - 10c per copy Rates by Mail—Payable In Advance. Anywhere tn lotted Statea. Daily and Sunday. Evening. Sunday. 1 year _$12.00 $8.00 $3 no 6 months_ $8 on $4.00 $2.50 1 month _ $1.00 75e SOo Entered aa sernnd-eltss matter cost office, Washington. D. C. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press Is exclusively entitled to the use for republlcttion of all news dispatches credited to It or not otherwise credited in this paper and alao the local newa published herein. All rights of publication of apecial dispatches herein also are reserved 1 ‘ .. ~’ra Wartime Wages The report of the War Labor Board's panel in the "little steel” case raises once again the question of wartime wages, an issue which has been successfully sidestepped to this time, but which now must be faced and settled. No specific recommendations were made by the panel. It is plain, how ever, that the report, in effect, was an argument for granting a wage Increase to the steel workers, and the panel agreed that the "little steel” companies were well able to meet the full $l-a-day increase de manded by the union. In this form the dispute now goes to the full board, which must make the final decision. In addition to the assertion that the steel companies are able to pay the increase, which undoubtedly is correct since most of the added cost would come out of excess profits that otherwise w’ould go to the Govern ment in taxes, the panel made two principal findings of fact. One was that the cost of living in steel towns has advanced 13.3 per cent since the workers last received a general wage Increase. The $l-a-day now' sought would raise wages by 12.5 per cent, a fraction of 1 per cent less than the advance in living costs. The other was that the steel workers are not as well off today, In comparison with workers in durable goods industries, as they were a year ago. What is meant by this is that last year earn ings of the steel workers w'ere greater than those of durable goods workers. At this time, however, the weekly earnings in durable goods, largely as a result of time-and-a-half paid for overtime, are greater than those in eteel. although the hourly rate still Is less. If this be construed as an Implied argument for the steel in crease. then it follows that the panel believes that steel workers. In rela tion to other workers, should be guaranteed proportionately higher weekly Incomes, even though they work fewer hours per week. If the board, following this line of reasoning, should grant the Increase In whole or substantial part, two ob vious conclusions would follow. First, that the pinch of wartime living costs Is not to be felt by steel workers and other similarly situated workers in the same proportion that It will be felt by other elements of the popula tion. Second, that all workers, with out regard to the number of hours worked per week, are entitled to have their relative earning power main tained at pre-war levels. There is one further point to be considered. In his fireside talk nt April 28, dealing with living costs, the President said: “Are you a busi nessman. or do you own stock in a business corporation? Your profits are going to be cut down to a reason ably low level by taxation.” They are being cut dowm, and. Indeed, thousands of small businessmen have been driven to the wall. To labor, he said: “Do you work for wages? You will have to forgo higher wages for your particular job for the duration of the war.” This latter statement was in ampli fication of the President’s “wage sta bilization” policy, and the language seems clear and explicit enough. Whether the words mean what they appear to mean, however, will be de termined by the final outcome of the “little steel” case. Gasoline Supplies While the gasoline shortage is be ing felt with increasing force on the Atlantic seaboard, there are indica tions that the situation is easing, according to the New York Times, which reaches this conclusion on the basis of a check of present and pros pective supplies in the rationing area. The situation, it is reported, began to Improve around the middle of May, when the Navy decided to con voy tankers up the coast, and by June 15. stocks on hand amounted to 16.000,000 barrels, or enough for thirty-one days on the rationed rate of consumption. Passenger cars, ac cording to the Times survey, are using approximately 350.000 to 375.000 bar rels daily, which is about 150,000 be low normal for this time of year, and this lag, it is contended, is susceptible of being made up. Greater use of t convoys, it is pointed out, will in crease tanker deliveries, while rail, barge and pipe line transportation are capable of being accelerated to Offset in large measure the drain on •hipping facilities that has resulted trom the Axis submarine campaign. Tba 2.5-cent Increase in the price •f gasoline granted by the Office of Price Administration also Is expected to offer an Incentive for heavier de liveries, as oil has been moving into this area at an estimated loss of two cents per gallon. The same factors which are ex pected to improve the gasoline situa tion would operate to increase the delivery of fuel and other oils, and even the optimistic newspaper survey emphasizes the seriousness of the pinch in this direction. For example, while a month’s supply of gasoline was on hand in mid-June, the amount of other oil products in stor age was barely above the necessary working level, running from 30 to 50 per cent under a year ago. This plainly calls for attention. It is far more important to start laying up oil supplies against future needs at the earliest possible moment than to take advantage of whatever im provement is effected in transporta tion facilities to seek relaxation of the gasoline restrictions. Matruh—and Beyond The abandonment of Mersa Matruh eight days after the storming of Tobruk reveals only too clearly the terrific power behind Marshal Rom mel’s latest drive. Mersa Matruh was the main British base in the border region of Western Egypt, It is the only spot between Tobruk and Alex andria with an abundant water sup ply. Thus, one of Rommel’s chief transportation difficulties has been solved. Besides, it has a small harbor usable for light craft such as the Axis is reportedly employing for running in supplies from Crete, less than 400 miles to the northward across the Mediterranean. This small town, with its perennial springs giving life to a seaside oasis, has been a trading center since an cient times; the starting point of caravan routes to the inland oases and across the further desert. Alex ander the Great stopped there before Journeying to visit the celebrated oracle of Jupiter Ammon in the Siwa Oasis, and Cleopatra took Mark An tony thither for a secluded holiday. Its ancient prosperity revived with the coming of the railroad and motor highway from Alexandria, which made Mersa Matruh the western bulwark of British military power. It is probable that Mersa Matruh had been fortified, but no attempt was made to hold it, as shown by the fact that the Axis claims the capture of only 6,000 prisoners. This means that the British fought merely a de laying action, the bulk of their Eighth Army retiring to avoid encirclement. But this, in turn, reveals British in ability to hold the 70-mile defense line between Mersa Matruh and the edge of the Qattara Depression. Cairo intimates that another de fense line exists about 75 miles farther east, where the Qattara Depression comes within 50 miles of the coast. But this may not be more than a last-minute im provisatlon. The topographic map shows no natural line of defense short of the Nile, which lies well east of Alexandria, Britain’s great naval base and Egypt’s port metrop olis. Unless the British can meet and defeat the Axis army in open battle somewhere west of Alexandria, the outlook is dark indeed. Heavy reinforcements are said to be on the way from Palestine and Syria. It is to be hoped that they include plenty of tanks and mobile artillery. Mere masses of infantry will be of small avail, since in desert warfare the tank has proved to be the queen of battles. In the air, the British seem to be on more even terms, but the Axis has numerous air fields in nearby Crete and the Dodecanese, while from those same air bases clouds of paratroops can also be sent at the right moment. While black pessimism is out of place, Irrational optimism is equally unwarranted. The hard fact must be faced that Britain’s Eighth Army has suffered a series of bad defeats and seems at present in no condition to meet the axis invaders in a stand-up fight. Although the British are still some 150 miles west of Alexandria, distance in the desert means little, by itself. In eight days Rommel has covered the 230 miles from Tobruk to his present outposts east of captured Mersa Matruh. Furthermore, once beyond the Qattara Depression, he can operate almost anywhere across the open desert toward the Nile. The next few days should tell the story. Desert of Libya It would be difficult to imagine a more bitterly inhospitable territory than that of the Libyan Desert, where now the forces of the United Nations are Joined in battle with the Germans and Italians under Marshal Erwin Rommel. An ancient Roman road constitutes the path over which the Axis forces are moving toward Egypt. So long as they can keep to the highway, their progress is likely to be rapid. Driven from it, however, they would find themselves In what not unreasonably has been described as "hell on earth.” Geographers speak of the country as “an immense, monotonous and stony tableland” with "neither mountains nor valleys nor even isolated hills of any considerable height.” The "surface of the desert rises in gradations, each preceded by a broad girdle of mounds which obviously have been formed by ero sion, the materials having been washed down from the adjoining plateau.” Desperate cultivation un der the management of the Italian colonial administration has de veloped a narrow fringe of verdure along the seacoast, the principal crop being barley; but only by titanic processes of irrigation could “the southward-stretching stony plain* be made to yield sustenance for any considerable population. Occasional depressions, like that which on modern maps bears the name of Qattara, are deceptive “basins” In the vast expanse of orange, brown and yellow sand. Some are salty marshes, others con tain salt lakes such as the soldiers of Napoleon vainly imagined to con tain water to quench their raging thirst. The authentic oases are few in number and limited in area to the shade of small groups of date trees mostly barren of fruit. Americans played a part In the history of Libya as early as 1801, when the Pasha of Tripoli declared war on the United States. One of the heroes of the ensuing campaign was General William Eaton of Con necticut, an intrepid Yankee, who, in 1804, organized an army of 400 Greeks, Italians and Arabs, and, having marched through the desert from Alexandria to Derna, trium phantly planted the Stars and Stripes there—only to be disavowed and recalled by his own Government back home. Funds for OPA In reducing the recommended ap propriation for the Office of Price Administration to $75,000,000, the House Appropriations Committee has brought into the foreground an issue which is of the greatest importance to the people of this country. Leon Henderson, the price admin istrator, originally estimated that his office would need $200,000,000 to carry on its work during the coming year. This estimate was cut to $161, 000,000 by the Budget Bureau. An Appropriations Subcommittee re duced this figure to $95,000,000 and the full committee now has pared another $20,000,000 from the sub committee’s total. Assuming that this last figure of $75,000,000 is not further reduced in Congress, which is by no means certain to be the case, it follows that Mr. Henderson will have 37.5 per cent of the funds he esti mated would be needed for the job confronting him, and about 46.5 per cent of the Budget Bureau's estimate. To say the least, it is difficult to rec oncile the wide discrepancies in these estimates of what will be needed by OPA. The committee submitted no detailed reasons for its decision to cut the budget figure by more than half. It was suggested that OPA might place “greater emphasis’’ on volunteer and part-time workers, and it was pointed out, although the relevancy is not clear, that even with the reduced fund OPA could employ a larger working force than that re tained by the War Production Board and the Office of Censorship. In the absence of any specific showing of OPA needs by either Mr. Henderson or the committee, it would seem that the public must draw one of two conclusions. The first possi bility is that Mr. Henderson’s original estimate and that of the Budget Bu reau were grossly inflated. The other is that the committee, for whatever reason, has imposed an arbitrary cut which will make it impossible for Mr. Henderson to do the Job assigned to him, and this to the ultimate detri ment of the public. In this latter connection it should also be noted that the price-coptrol program is seriously threatened from other directions. From the begin ning Mr. Henderson has insisted that prices can be held down only in con junction with a program to keep wages and farm prices from getting out of hand, plus an adequate tax bill. As yet, neither Congress nor the administration has devised any formula for imposing real restraint on wages or farm prices, and the tax bill as approved by the Ways and Means Committee will fall far short of raising even the relatively modest total of revenue requested by the Treasury. If the result of the action of the Appropriations Committee is to im pair the administrative functioning of OPA, and if to this there be added the failure to deal adequately with wages, farm prices and taxes, it seems rather futile to hope that the cost of living can be held anywhere near its present high level. Dogs of War At Camp Holabird. Maryland, no longer will ring out the picturesque cry of the sentry—“Halt! Who goes there? Advance and give the coun tersign.” Instead, the trespasser on the camp’s stores will be greeted by a growl and a bark, for at Holabird the Army has gone to the dogs, at least for sentry duty. Lieutenant Colonel Smith says one dog is worth half a dozen human sentries for efficiency. His super sense of smell enables him to detect saboteurs that could sneak past humans. Other advantages of canine sen tries readily occur to the analytical mind. They are the taxpayers’ sen tries. The do£ grows his own uni form and incidentally and fortu nately makes a better job at having it fit than the average supply ser geant. The dog grows his own arma ment, too—his teeth. He never grows careless and lets out military secrets. His pay is a few bones a month, and he never pledges any of it in advance by signing vouchers at the canteen for part of next month’s allowance. Mess sergeants rave about these dogs, insisting that they are the only cus tomers they ever had who do not growl and bark at the chow and threaten to bite the mess sergeant’s head off if it does not improve. And privates like them, too, welcoming the addition to the Army of some thing lower in rank than they are. Wouldn’t it be nice if the value of the dollar doubled on June 13, along with the value of the gasoline cou pon? Of Stars, Men And Atoms Notebook of Science Progress In Laboratory, Field And Study By Thomas R. Henry. Pre-selection of white men to colonise the tropics, somewhat as air pilots now are pre-selected by physiological tests to determine their reactions to high alti tudes, probably will follow the war. This is the prediction of Dr. Robert O. Stone, Harvard University meteorologist, In a report to the Department of Agri culture. The possibility is of exceptional Inter est In connection with the refugee problem. It long has been known, Dr. Stone points out, that some North Americans and Europeans adjust well In tropical lands—although they seldom do much physical work there—while others go to pieces rapidly. There probably are, he believes, certain deep-seated physiologi cal differences. One is the ability to swMit. A beginning of this sort of test has been made, he says, in some “hot box” experiments at Harvard. Consid erable differences are found among in dividuals. Probably the man who sweats easily can adjust to a hot climate much more readily than others. A white man in the tropics often be comes a victim of alcohol. He may have been* an abstainer at home. The reason is not necessarily weak will or innate depravity, it is suassed in the report, but lack of the normal stimulation brought about in temperate climates by frequent changes in weather. The monotony affects both the mind and the body. This tendency might be overcome, Dr. Stone points out, by vigorous sports—but these in turn call for a good "sweater." The tests. Dr. Stone points out, remain for the most part to be worked out. "The ideal type of man for the tropics," he says, “must do more than sweat. He should have nervous and emotional sta bility. no trace of hyperthyroidism and no abnormally high metabolism. He must tolerate regular doses of quinine and other prophylactic drugs. "Research is needed on the various constitutional factors, such as the flex ibility and efficiency of the co-ordina tion between metabolism, circulation, muscles and nervous system, before any satisfactory procedure of selection can be applied. When it can be it will save great sums of money and many broken lives." Tropical physiology. Dr. Stone declares, still is far from an exact science. It is generally agreed, he says, that there Is a slight lowering of the blood pressure. This probably results from a slight ex pansion of the capillaries with heat. The volume of blood increases slightly to fill them. This makes possible Increased sweating and a further dilution of so dium, calcium, potassium and chlorine from the body. Muscular activity produces a large amount of body heat, only 30 to 40 per cent of which actually is used by the muscles. The rest must be stored, or given off to the environment as surplus, unless the environment is so cold that it is needed to maintain body tempera ture. The disinclination to work or en gage in any physical activity in the tropics probably largely is due to an ticipated discomfort of this heat surplus. The amount of oxygen is less In a cubic foot of hot air than in a cubic foot of cold air. Oxygen is a vital require ment. Its restriction in small amounts over a long time either may diminish the effectiveness of all bodily functions or force the body to learn to use oxygen more effectively. There is some indica tion that both effects probably occur but their full significance for tropical acclimatization remains to be explored. Most effective mechanisms of physical heat regulation under warm conditions— sweating and dilation of the capillaries— have a tendency to produce deleterious effects on the blood chemistry and the general tone of the internal organs, with the result of lowered resistance to In fection. Thus the human body's de fenses against heat do not seem to have been well designed by nature for more than short exposures. * * * * O&laxiee of stars—plate-shaped forma tions 300,000,000,000,000,000 miles from rim to rim and each containing billions of stars—combine in pairs, one revolving about the other, or even form clusters, as a result of the same gravitational force which keeps the moon spinning around the earth at the relatively puny distance of 238,000 miles. Evidence for this theory is presented by Dr. Erik Holmberg, Swedish astronomer of the University of Lund, in a report to the Astrophysical Journal. He bases his claims on research using a novel type of apparatus, simulating two galaxies by means of sets of electric light bulbs. Astronomers have thought that gravi tation is not strong enough to account for the capture of one galaxy by an other, since it will not even cause two much smaller bodies, such as stars, to adhere to each other. The mutual at traction between the sun and a comet, for example, is too weak to do more than merely deflect the comet from its path. With his model, however, Dr. Holm berg showed that when two galaxies meet at close range, violent tidal distortions occur, draining energy from both and thus permitting one to capture the other. Dr. Holmberg explained that, since the same physical laws govern both the transmission of light and the interplay of gravitational forces, his model which substituted light for attractive pull demonstrated accurately the conduct of two converging galaxies. Each galaxy was represented by 37 light bulbs arranged in concentric cir cles, the light from each of which, meas ured by a photoelectric cell next to each bulb, was assumed to be proportional to the mass of several stars or star groups in the galaxy. ‘The result,” he say*, “was that the two galaxies not only would greatly de form each other, causing a tendency to develop spiral arms, but under favorable conditions one would actually capture the other, and form a binary galaxy. The loss of energy caused by the deforma tions was found to be great enough to prevent the galaxies from escaping the mutual gravitational pull which tends to keep them together. “It is found that the tidal deformations cause an Increase in attraction between the two objects, the increase reaching its maximum when they are separating, after the passage. The capture theory aeenu to bt able to account not only for double and multiple nebulae but also for lM99 THIS /AND THAT By Charles E. Ttacewell. “NATIONAL PARK SERVICE. “Dear 81r: “I am grateful for yow kind and un solicited publicity regarding the bird walks sponsored by the National Cap ital Parks. You have done us a great favor by placing our activities before the public through your column. “In regard to the early morning hours of these bird walks (7:30 to 9 am.) I thought that you would be interested to know that a recently completed class in bird study which I Instructed met twice weekly for over four weeks at 6:30 a.m. at various pa.'ks in and around Washington. This gioup of 30 people presented a record of almost perfect attendance despite the fact that the majority of the member.' found it nec essary to get up at 4:30 am. in order to reach the meeting places via public transportation. “On our regularly scheduled Sunday trips, too, often as many as 100 people participate despite the early hour. Through the co-operation of .the Audu bon Society, these large groups are broken up into small parties, each with an experienced leader. The warblers and other beautiful woodland birds not ordinarily seen about homes provide the incentive for this excellent attend ance. "I am glad to be able to state that of all the people with whom I have come in contact In my work here, only a very few fall to read your column regularly. I consider your series of articles one of the most Important con tributions to popular bird study in Washington. “Sincerely. G. A. P„ “Junior Park Naturalist.1' *r * * * To see the warblers and some of the rarer of the smaller birds there Is noth ing which can take the place of bird walks In the woods. « Trained leaders are necessary, for the amateur observer Is so busy trying to note points of Identification that he falls to see the birds. This Is not to say that warblers do not come to home gardens. They do, but they come so unex pectedly. and fly away so soon, that it is good fortune more than anything else when even an ardent home student of bird life manages to see one. The warblers which come to Wash ington and vicinity are many, as given here at various times. But few of us who stick to the back yard will ever see more than a few of them. Yet this small number will be highly rewarding. Warblers and sparrows are two groups which many bird observers are content to accept as groups; that is, they And the difficulties of identification so many that they merely talk about “warblers” and “sparrows,” and not about some particular warbler or sparrow There are. of course, several excep tions. Every one knows the English sparrow, and most persons who really enjoy watching bird life in time come to know the song sparrow and the white throated sparrow. And the spring day a Maryland yellow-throat peers out of the shrubbery at you gives even the least Inquisitive observer something to remember. He knows a warbler at last! * * * * There are about 19 species of spar rows which come to Washington. They, too, are difficult of identifica tion by any but a trained ornithologist. Let us not be at all down-hearted, however. After all, the ornithologist is the only one who is required to know them all! (And we may wonder, at times, if he really does.) A bird is a bird, whether you know its name or not. Knowing the name is Interesting, but we feel that the crea ture there in the shrub is much more Interesting. “The play’s the thing,’* said Shakes peare, and in bird study, the bird’s the thing. “Study” is a hard word. It suggests to too many minds a difficult process. There are some persons, undoubtedly, to whom study comes naturally, but to most human beings it means hard work. Now there is nothing difficult in watching the birds. It is, and it ought to be pure pleasure. Now, more than ever, we need simple and inexpensive means of entertainment. Bird watching is at once a simple study and a good recreation. It enables the woman in her home, the invalid (though even in bed), the famous man of the house, and the maid and the gardener as well, to have a little recreation and pleasant study, too. The one necessary thing is to have the seeing eye. The famous "seeing eye" dogs have a wonderful name. In regard to bird study or recreation, the seeing eye means to look at what you see and to really see it. Too often, in everyday life, we all tend to go around in a sort of daze, without really seeing what we look at. All of us know how this is. Bird interest automatically snaps into focus at the sight or sound of wings. On the bird walk, or in the home gar den, this sort of seeing eye means that mind and vision are teamed up for good purposes. How fascinating this may be, many people have found out, and more will find it out as the years pass. Any interest which can get a city man or woman up at 4:30 o’clock in the morn ing is a compelling interest. But whether one is that much inter ested or not, it is always possible to watch the birds at home and to help them when they need food and water. Watching the birds is a way of forget ting the things you do not like, and of remembering the things you cherish. It brings light and speed and color and. yes, even glamor or glamour, into any life, however drab or quiet. A bird is. at the same time, the perfect model for the bombing plane, and the very essence of love and protection in the home. Be tween these two extremes a whole world lies ready for us, whenever we choose to look out the window. Letters to the Editor Believes in Crusade Against Satan. To th« Editor of The Star: I believe it would be safe to say that, if a world poll could be taken now as to the desirableness of deciding on an immediate program of world governance, and the using of every known means military, naval, aeronautic, diplomatic, spiritual, moral, economic -speedily to bring it about, the earth's hosts would vote almost as a unit in favor of the same. As in the 1100-1200*. A.D., humanity was called upon to rescue and reclaim the Holy Land, land and people, from intolerable bondage, so at this moment our whole earth, our only home, Itself holy land < though astronomically but a speck of dust) I believe but waits the call to march, build, toil and fight in a crusade to preserve what still remains of Eden, and to obliterate as far as possible the tears and traces of the handiwork of Satan. W. DANA. Explains Reasons for Buying War Bonds in Defense of Freedom. To tho Editor of Tbt Star: Last year our Government—for the purpose of raising money to supply the implements of war so desperately needed now by our armed forces and gallant Allies—put on sale War bonds. We now are being asked to invest 10 per cent of our salaries in these bonds. A slogan I have heard mentioned is: "Ten per cent now or 100 per cent later.” This sounds pretty good to me, but I find that so many people consider the buying of these bonds as a matter of giving. We must wake up to the fact that when we purchase bonds we are not giving at all but we are making an in vestment that not only pays dividends in dollars but also in that God-given right of ail men—freedom. Never since the signing of the Declara tion of Independence have we been in such grave danger of losing that priceless heritage of all Americans. Any student of American history knows at what great price this heritage was purchased. We must remember that the men of Lexington and Concord and Valley Forge were fighting for that one precious thing —freedom. There was no promise of interest on their investment except the accomplishment of that purpose for which they struggled. They gave every thing they had to that end. We do not have to make the sacrifice they did. We are asked to buy these bonds, but we will get our money back In good American greenbacks. For $18.75 we receive a bond that matures 10 years from date of issue and it will be worth $25—one-third more than it cost. Is not that an attractive offer? All of us cannot take up arms against the enemy, but we are a part of that great army of citizenry whose solemn duty it is to see that our soldiers and sailors want for nothing in this struggle. Many of these boys are buying bonds out of their service pay besides giving all their time to Uncle Sam. We cannot afford to be delinquent in this our greatest duty. Too much de pends upon its success. Should we fail, it would certainly bring disaster, the realities of which are too terrible to con template. Once aroused, we American people have always arisen to meet the demands upon our patriotism, but in this drive we have not become awakened Letters to the Editor must bear the name and address of the writer, although the use of a pseudonym for publication is permissible. The Star reserves the right to edit all letters with a mew to condensation. i to the urgency of the situation that con fronts us. We must remember that our foes have been preparing for many years, hoping that we would remain in such a state of lethargy that they could overwhelm us by force of arms before we would pre pare. This should be ample evidence that our preparation must be quick, efficient, and with the greatest outpour ing of military energy the world has ever seen. Our Government, like all other de mocracies, does not impose upon the citizen by taking what it needs. Our Government feels that the moat neces sary’ quantity of an efficient war effort is that the citizens give willingly and without stint. But before this drive can be carried to a successful conclusion it is going to be necessary’ for us to put forth our maximum effort. V JS. KEMPER. Complains About Lack Of Air-Raid Equipment. To tht Editor of The 8t»r: Washington, a city well organized for the protection of its inhabitants against the dangers of air raids? True, indeed, as to civic organization! We have all the necessary officials, from defense co-ordi nator through chief air warden, down to the many street wardens, all functioning according to regulations. The machinery is well oiled, actuated and propelled by line patriotism and excellent efficiency. But are we protected? A chain is as strong as its weakest link. If a house-to-house, and, above all. an apartment-house-to-apartment-house Investigation should be made, a shocking surprise would open the eyes of our offi cials. There are numerous homes, the house hold protection of which embraces only a set of blackout shades or curtains. No sand, no long-handled shovels, no pumps; nothing for fire emergency. I personally know of a very large apartment house to which such equip ment has long been promised for its many hallways; but should incendiary bombs start falling on Washington this minute, the tenants of that enormous building would be wholly unprovided against fire destruction. Neither has that apartment house any blackout curtains or shades on the many hall windows throughout the building. Tenants have supplied their own apart ments with blackout shades or curtains, but of what protection are these to the building when lights In the hallways must necessarily bum all night during black outs (or air raids), and can certainly be seen by aircraft through hall windows which have not been blacked out? Assuredly It is high time that a thor ough house-to-house investigation be made, including a close scrutinization of every apartment house in this city and every rooming house, as to the installa tion of blackout curtains or window shades throughout hallways, and tha pro vision of fire-fighting equipment In hall wan. EDNA BISHOP DANIEL. Haskin's Answers To Questions By Frederic J. Haskin. A reader can get the answer to any question of fact by writing The Eve ning Star Information Bureau, Fred eric J. Haskin, director, Washington, D. C. Please inclose stamp for return postage. Q. How many executive orders have been Issued by President Roosevelt?— O L. A. President Roosevelt had issued 3,367 executive orders up to June 15, 1942. The total number of executive orders issued by all the Presidents is about 10,000. Q. Has the Japanese government worked out a diet for the people?— P. P. R. A. The Institute of Nutrition of Japan has worked out a standard diet that costs very little. Bills of fare are broadcast regularly over the radio and, it is said, even the Emperor lives on this "national diet.” Appetizers—In the season of lighter lunches and suppers, out door meals and picnics, this col lection of 300 tested recipes for salads, sandwiches and appetizers will prove especially useful. You will be surprised how many de lightful things, suitable for the season, can be economically made from materials usually on hand in the kitchen. Make the hot weather menus attractive, di versified and appetizing by giving them the variety suggested in this 64-page publication. To se cure your copy inclose 15 cents in coin, wrapped in this clipping, and mail to The Star Informa tion Bureau. Name Address Q. Do birds often break their wing? —M. M. A. Broken wings are fairly common among birds. Often they .are able to set their own bones and by remaining quietly in position, allow them to knit. Q. Who invented lobster a la New burg?—G. C. D. A. It was Invented during the Civil War by a fruit importer, Ben Wenberg, who frequented Delmonico's. First named in honor of its creator, it be came Newburg after a quarrel with the restaurant owner when the first three letters were transposed. Q. Which is the older building, the United States Capitol or the Houses of Parliament in London?—M. R. E. A. The Capitol is older, dating from 1793, when the cornerstone was laid. The Houses of Parliament burned in 1834 and. with the exception of West minster Hall, were destroyed. The pres ent House of Lords was opened in 1847 and the House of Commons in 1852. Q. What does the abbreviation U. S. A. F. F. E. mean?—S. A. A. United States Armed Forces in the Far East. Q. Who is the author of the saying that this world is merely a bridge?— J. K. F. A. “The world is merely a bridge; ye are to pass over it, and not to build your dwellings upon it" is from the I Agrapha or Unwritten Sayings of Jesus. Q. How should one go about getting a job in a war industry?—A. N. J. A. The War Manpower Commission says that application should be made at the nearest United States Employ ment Service office. Q Who was the youngest Pope?— R. D. A. In many instances birth dates of the early Popes Rre traditional only. John XI is reputed to have been 21 years of age when elected, and John XII, son of Alberic, succeeded his father as patrician of Rome when only 16 and was elected Pope when either 17 or 18 years of age. Q. Does a warrant officer rate a salute?—R. D. G. A. The Navy Department says that a warrant officer in the United States Navy does rate a salute. Q. What is the minimum height re quirement for a commission in the United States Army?—S. H. A. The minimum height requirement for a man who wishes to apply for a com mission in the United States Army is 5 feet. Q. Where is John Paul Jones buried? B. B. A. The body of John Paul Jones, buried over 100 years ago in France, was returned to the United States and interred at Annapolis. Although some disintegration had taken place, his fea tures were recognizable and it was possi ble to unake microscopic slides to de terminer the cause of death. Q. Is there any difference in the weight of objects at the earth's surface, and their weight above or below?— Y. N. D. A. The weight of a body either above or below the surface of the earth is less than at the surface. The force of gravity is greater at the surface than above or below. Postscript for Summer Rain There are, of course, The roses’ clean-washed faces, The lawn, a newly lacquered Square of green, The waiting look Of porch chairs for their places, And scraps of scuttled rainbows These are seen, First figures on a Blue and golden curtain Stretched out to dry in new Unbolted sun, Whose border any August day Is certain, Before the first leaf dries Or colors run, A border quick as rain And loud as thunder That splits the rain-wrapped quiet Of the street, As children rediscover The cool wonder Of rushing gutters On enchanted feet. Guam miuie.