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Put Blame on Washington Conflicting Directives Confuse Policy on Deferments By DAVID LAWRENCE. There is no question but that, the members of the local draft boards throughout the United States are conscientious and, without compen sation. are doing a hard job for which they de serve the thanks of the country— but these boards do not make the regulations and they do not formulate the policies. The lack of uniformity which gives rise to the com plaints of citi- Darid Lawrtncr. sens as to inequitable treatment by some draft boards comes from the confusing statements issued officially in Washington which seem to be wilder the local boards. Here is an excerpt of a letter from an out standing lawyer in Michigan who serves as a Government appeal agent for the local boards in his county. He writes: “I agree with you that there is a great deal of confusion and con siderable inefficiency and even un fairness in the working out of the selective service system. • • * I will ask you to consider certain elements in the selective service law and regulations which, it seems to me, are bound to produce the very effects of which you complain. If my posi tion is correct, and I believe it is, then the fault lies not with the local boards, but with the entire selective service system, and particularly the national headquarters. • • • “I would further call your atten tion to the fact that your statement that the ‘statements and new-s re leases from national headquarters' are ‘well-balanced’ is only half the truth. The rest of the truth is that IUaxa _I »«VUV »» u t V1VWJVVJ QilU 'directives’ are merely general state ments, which are constantly being modified or even nullified by subse quent statements. Inconsistencies Frequent. "For instance, national headquar ters issues a directive that in classi fying married men the board must not forget that the principal purpose of selective service is to get men for the Army. In a week or two another directive will come out which will instruct the local boards that although the prime purpose of selective service is to obtain men for the Army, the local board must not Induct married men if to do so will, in their judgment, work a hardship on dependents or tend to uuwu MIC AKUIU; BJ'OlCm. “In another two or three weeks a subsequent directive will come out about class in classification, offer ing further general advice about the lame, but being really Inconsistent In terms with directives I and II. And so it goes. The result is the local board does the best it can with each case. “In regard to deferment for in dustries connected with national defense, there has never been any sensible or workable program laid down by national headquarters. For Instance, the board has before it the case of an employe in an airplane valve factory working entirely foi the Government. Let us say the employe is a drill tender. The board knows without any informa tion from headquarters that gooc machinists are very scarce. How ever, in the case of a boy just ou of high school, with no previou: training, who is now making $7' a week to turn a machine off ant on so many times a minute, is he ai essential man in that industry?” Prom the chairman of a loca draft board in Iowa comes thi written comment: “Definitely it is not the fault o local boards if news releases do nc correspond with regulations. W have realized this from the begin ning and we have pleaded wit] thoee in authority for more specifi Instructions and less unreliabl press releases. Would you charg against the local boards as a fau] 6f theirs if the office of the nation: director enters into an agreemer to defer certain men of a certai faith End at the same time fails i Inform local boards of such clar destine arrangements? * * • Yc should at least place the blan where it belongs.” Prom Charleston, W. Va„ com this comment: "About a year ago my son was the middle of the first semester i 11m mmj Closed Saturday, August 29 Fine Footwear Since 1SKS ? $|4-oo j Salute the VALIANT New mellow coif skin—tan or black. Setting the stand ard for military-styled mas culine footwear! Open Til 9 P.M. Thursdays ! Snyder®,Little tNCARPQRhfl0 1229 6 St. N.W. Soldier Vote Bill Analyzed Senate Ban on Poll Tax Seen as Blow To One-Party System in South By JAY HAYDEN. “Political horseplay,” to use the phrase of Senator Barkley, probably has killed the soldier vote bill as applied to this year's election, but j currents have ! been set going by this lcgisla t i o n which may have pro I found political consequences. By voting to remove the poll tax quali fication for ab sentee service men and wom en and to make the Jay H»yd»n. 1 whole bill applicable to primaries as well as final elections, the Senate struck at the two main ; pillars of the one-party system in inr ovum, ovuiiiein oppo.siTion to these provisions is expected to prevent final passage of the bill in time for the November elec tion. but having been passed overwhelmingly by both houses, it almost certainly will find its way to the statute books even tually with these controversial amendments included. In this measure, for the first time. Congress will have asserted the right to prescribe rules for both nomination and election of Federal officers. And final adju dication of this action will rest with the Supreme Court, which already has asserted, in the case of the United States vs. Classic in 1940, that congressional author ity over selection of Federal offi cials extends to primaries as well as to elections. How Poll Tax Operates. The poll tax Is one of several , devices employed in the South to keep colored persons from voting, but more important from the 1 standpoint of maintaining Demo I cratic domination in that section l is the authority which the party has exercised over its own pri maries. Any voter who opposes Democratic nominees is read out of the party forthwith in at least some of the Southern States. An instance was the expulsion of former Senator Heflin of Ala bama because of his open opposi tion to Alfred E. Smith, 1928 Democratic presidential candi rifltp Rpnntnr Wrflin nrac harvaH ! from running in the Democratic primary in the succeeding elec tion year and in consequence lost his Senate seat. The attack on the poll tax, in itiated by a Southerner, Senator Pepper of Florida, obviously was duck soup for the Republicans, but applied, as in this instance, to soldier voters, it plainly was em barrassing also to Southern mem bers. Senators Stewart of Tennessee and Reynolds of North Carolina joined with Senator Pepper in voting for the amendment, and Senator McKellar of Tennessee, wnne ne voted against it. prophe sied that the next Legislature in his State would abolish the poll tax. The States other than Ten nessee which now have it are Vir his senior year in college when called for Army service. He asked a deferment to the end of the se mester, which was denied, and he reported for service. At the very same time a classmate attending the same classes and enrolled in the same course was called. He | asked for a deferment, which was | granted—not only for the semester, ! but for the entire year. Two sep ; arate boards acted in these cases.” The present system permits a lack ' ; of uniformity and even discrimina- j ’ J tion, however unintentional—as be- j l tween citizens of the same age j I group or occupational group and of 1; the same marital status—due to the ! varying interpretations placed on the regulations by local boards and 5 the failure to make national the policies issued in the official news releases from national headquarters. 1 (Reproduction Rights Reserved.) D _ - ■ .. - Archeological Treasure c: Of Toltec Era Unearthei e ■ Bi the Associated Press. e i MEXICO CITY, Aug. 27.—Ric t 1 new archeological finds, including pyramid, a fortress and parts of t statue 18 feet high, all dating froi 1 ! the mysterious Toltec era of tl n 7th to" 11th centuries, were ar ° ; nounced yesterday by the Nation; - i Institute of Anthropology and Hii u i tory. ie The treasures were unearthe near Tula, 50 miles from Mexii ,s City, where the Toltec civilizatic | flourished. ginia, Alabama, Mississippi, Ar kansas, Georgia, South Carolina and Texas. One result of the debate has been to bring home to leaders of both political parties the pos sible effects of absentee .voting or non-voting in this year's elec tion. Not only are about 5, 000,000 eligible electors now in the armed services, most of them ! far from home, but other mil lions, who have migrated to jobs in war industries, are likely to lose their votes. Qualification Varies Widely. j The residence qualification for voting, under State law, varies widely. Alabama, Rhode Island and South Carolina require two years; Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Michigan. Min nesota., Nebraska, New Hamp shire, Nevada and Oregon re quire only six months. The rule in other States is one year. But even a six months' specifi cation will bar many of the re cently moved factory workers from voting where they now live. Most of the States permit ab sentee voting, but particularly as applied to men in the armed services tnese laws will oe cui ficult to operate. Kentucky, Mis sissippi and New Mexico permit no absentee voting. New Hamp shire restricts such voting to presidential electors. Pennsyl vania, Maryland and New Jersey allow no persons excepting those in military service to vote by mail. Pennsylvania alone among the States has provided machinery for voting of men in the armed services at their stations, as was done by many States during the later years of the Civil War. In nearly all of the States the voter first must register and in several of them this can be done only by personal appearance be fore the election board. Then the soldier voter must write for an application blank, on ivhich he certifies that he is necessarily absent and requests a mail ballot. When the ballot is received and voted it must be certified before a notary public. Kansas Tightened Law. Because the 1940 gubernatorial election in Kansas turned on ab sentee votes, mostly from rural ii/i'O nmui ic^uacu i*u tration, the law of that State has been tightened. Now every appli cation for absentee voting in Kansas must be received in time to be posted for nine days to en able a challenge. In some States no vote is count ed unless it is received before the polls close; in others as long as 30 days is allowed, after the election, for the absentee vote to arrive. There are few if any State laws which allow sufficient time for the hundreds of thousands of voters now overseas to cast ballots. Barring passage of the Federal law to facilitate voting of men in the armed services, the con sensus of party officials is that not more than 10 per cent of them, the country over, will vote. * (Released by North American Newspaper Alliance. ) Curtin Appoints Page To Advisory War Group Bj the Associated Press. CANBERRA, Australia. Aug. 27.— Prime Minister John Curtin an nounced today that Sir Earle Page had been appointed to the Advisory War Council in Australia and would sit in on meetings of the Australian war cabinet to give it the benefit of knowledge he gained as special minister to London. I RESORTS. OCEAN CITY. MD. AA1 Alll I T Boardwalk. Moderate f llllllUIAI rates. Amer. or Euro lULUni AL iziipistruz.''' EAGLES MERE, PA. 1 WHY SIMMER - SUMMER? | TAKE TO A MOUNTAIN-TOPI 1 Here** a bree*e-conditioned haven (1200-ft. a alt.) from Munmor heat for all the family! o Creetmont Inn’* modern hospitality work* wonder* on war-nerve*. NO MOSQUITOES. ^ Water Sports on Lake of lagles • Rid* e i Ing • Hiking • Seven tennis court* ■ • 11-bole golf course • Dancing. lasy to reach by rail or road. Trained Kinder* 1- partner. Superb Cuisine. Write for folder. ; CRESTMONT INN n EAOLES MERE, PA., Wa. W.odi, Pr.p. •r “Aik Mr. f.«l.r" Tr.»./ I.rvic. )f BUY WAR BONDS AND STAMPS SAILINGS—AVGUST—SEPTEMBER Sailings from Washington at 6:30 p.m. • on odd dates in August • on even dates in September. Sailings from Norfolk at 5:45 p.m. • on even dates in August • on odd dates in September. CITY TICKET OFFICE 1427 H St. N.W. NA. 1530 DI. 3700 J*HE opinions of the writers on this page are their own, not necessarily The Star’s. Such opinions are presented in The Star's effort to give all sides of questions of interest to its readers, although such opinions may he contradictory among themselves and directly opposed to The Star's. Can Nazis Pierce Caucasus? Maj. Eliot Tells How Foe May Try To Cut Off Russians in West Bv MAJ. GEORGE FIELDING ELIOT. There are some indications that the German Army is beginning a penetration on the formidable Cau casus Mountains. Russian com muniques begin to mention Ger ma n Alpine troops, and the Germans them selves make the rather startling claim of having unfurled the swastika on the summit of Mount Elborus, the highest- moun tain in the Cau casus, and in deed the highest Mai. Eliot., mountain in Europe—18,463 feet. However this may be, the Germans appear to have reached Prokhlad road leaves the Rostov-Baku railway and swings southwestward through the main range of the Caucasus to Kutaisi on the Baku-Batum railway. As pointed out in my article of August 8, we must not altogether discount the possibility of a German penetration of these mountains, or at least an attempt to do so. If the Germans should be successful in reaching Kutaisi, they would* be within easy striking distance of Ol-Ulll OMU WU1U V/UlllJJiCbCl.V vuv v>u the Russian forces now fighting in the Western Caucasus and in the front of the port of Novorossisk. Nazis Skilled in Attack. The Germans have shown great skill in mountain warfare—in Nor way, in the Carpathians and in Macedonia. It is a commonplace to say that a mountain range is par ticularly easy to defend, but as against an attack by skilled and hardy troops, properly equipped and possessing some knowledge of the terrain, there is very little in mil itary history which bears out this view. Certainly, operations in moun tainous terrain are likely to be slow, because of the great difficulty of movement. But this again may well depend on the skill and de termination of the defenders. X/Tnnntflin nrarfara ie lienallir on affair of small columns, each fight ing its own little war and making its way forward or defending itself, as the case may be, with its owrn re sources. Mutual support between columns is often difficult Because move ment in general will be through the valleys and there rarely exists good lateral communication between them. Strategy Outlined. But while strategical movement and supply is dependent on the val leys, and while the road and rail lines and centers and the main passes are almost the sole objectives of military importance, these are almost always commanded by higher ground so that tactical movemeni is likely to take place on the heights, under conditions of very great difficulty. The attacker will seek to occupy heights covering the route of ad vance of his main body or to dis lodge the defender from such posi tions. Frequently the dislocation of a de- ! fensive position will be better achieved by another column moving j in a parallel valley some distance away, which may be less strongly . opposed and thus be able to turn the flank or rear of the defender. Mountain warfare requires a par ticularly high proportion of well equipped infantry, supported by | pack artillery and engineers. Oppor- 1 tunities for the use of armored trnnrvs arp fpw anri pnnftppH tn thp roads; a bold dash sometimes may j take an armored column through a i pass, but against a well organized j and determined defense which un derstands the use of obstacles, dis- I aster is likely to result, as the Ital ians found out in Epirus. Use of Planes Limited. Flying hazards restrict the use of aviation, though air reconnais sance is of especial valu* because of the difficulty of ground reconnais sance ; and because the roads are few, the blocking of an important road junction by bombing attack may prove of great value. In the Caucasus the Russians, possessing large numbers of tough infantry well accustomed to the terrain and knowing every foot of the mountains, may well balance this advantage against German! superiority in equipment. In any case, the number of Ger- I man specially trained mountain troops is not large, so that these could be used only as the spear heads of a serious German attempt to invade the mountains in force. It is to be added that in case British reinforcements should be | sent to the Caucasian regidfi, the ! British possess in their Indian Frontier Force a small army thor oughly seasoned and experienced in mountain warfare, which should be of the utmost value in defending ■ the Caucasian passes and probably superior on the whole to any moun tain troops that Germany possesses.; Thus the outcome of a German attempt to penetrate the Caucasus is by no means a foregone conclu sion—either that this mountain barrier is far too formidable an ob stacle to be broken through or that the German Alpinists can proceed with the ease and dispatch with ; which they conquered the moun tains of Norway or of Macedonia. (Copyright, 1942. by New York Tribune. Inc.) War Information Board Established by Canada Ej the Associated Press. OTTAWA, Aug. 27.—Prime Min ister W. L. Mackenzie King yester day announced creation of a pub I licity directing body to be known as the Wartime Information Board, which will be responsible for dis tribution of Canadian war news. The board, which will be headed I by Charles Vining, Montreal news | print executive, will have offices in Ottawa, New York, Washington and possibly other cities. The board will not supersede or i exercise authority over existing de ! partmental information services, the i Prime Minister said, but will con j fine itself to war news and informa tion. FRIDAY CDCfllAI I ON SALE 8:30 A.M. TO 9 P.M. OrLulnL!tomorrow only... BARREL BACK LOUNGE CHAIR SORRY, NO MAIL, C. 0. D., OR PHONE ORDERS A well made, extremely comfortable choir with spring seat cushion, nicely tailored in .durable Tapestry. Adaptable enough for almost every home, and offered for one day only at a very great saving to you. We urge your prompt inspection. WM.B. fVA/JMBHRHIVUM CO Since 1900 W W w W' ml Your Home It What We Make -lt 8th & PENNSYLVANIA AVE. S. E. - BIW W W W WWW This Changing World I Japs Know They'll Have to Go On Defensive If They Lose Battle for Solomon Islands By CONSTANTINE BROWN. Although Navy officials voice no exaggerated optimism about the progress of the battle for the Solomon Islands, there is every reason to expect another Amer ican victory far more important than the one we won when the Marines established their landing there. Vice Admiral Robert Lee Ghormley has at his disposal an adequate number of ships and land-based planes. Prom the day we took those important Jap anese - conquered outposts all preparations had been made to meet the counter-attack. The Japanese high command's delay in seeking to win back the Solomons positions was obviously the result of its heavy initial losses when the Americans moved In and the enemy had to gather reinforcements, either from his home force or from detachments in the Southwest Pacific before attempting to dislodge the Amer icans from the key positions they conquered three weeks ago. The Japs certainly did not go into the present battle in fool hardy fashion. They were fully aware that a second defeat, which would cost more irreplace able men-of-war, might put an end to all their plans for the near future in the Indian Ocean, where they are supposed to Join hands this fall with the Nazis. Most Important U. S. Battle. In some military and naval quarters the new battle of the Solomons is considered the most important we have fought in this war. All the actions we have fought in the Pacific since De cember 7—except the attack on the Solomons earlier this month —were defensive and in the light of what we know now the odds were heavily against the Allies. The struggle in the Philip pines auu on vorregiuor was an epic in the military history of the United States. But the de fenders of those islands had no more chance of holding them than the Dieppe raiders had of reaching Paris. In some quar ters the Pacific operations are considered even more important than the battle in Russia, al though millions of men and thou sands of tanks and planes are involved on the eastern front. Plans to meet the Japanese counterattack were carefully drawn by Admiral Ernest J. King, commander of the United States Fleet, and Admiral Ches ter W. Nimitz, commander of the Pacific Fleet. Even though the distance between American and Japanese forces was too great to permit adequate scout ing, the Navy high command took it for granted that the Japanese must come back unless they were to resign themselves to purely defensive strategy, and this seemed out of the question. It is safe to assume that Wash Ington has not been niggardly ^ with Admiral Ghormley in the matter of reinforcements - The Government is fully aware that i we have too much at stake. May Change Entire Strategy. While the composition of our fleet, which is now in action must remain a military secret, there is no doubt that it is ade quate to cope with the Japanese forces, even though they have received important support. tunc is iuj n^^icucnoiuu j naval quarters about how the Navy will acquit itself. If there is a certain reticence for the moment, the reason is that in modern warfare a few lucky torpedo shots might change the face of the battle when it looks best. The Japanese know that if they lose this major engagement they will have to alter their en tire strategy from the offensive to defensive. Their former su periority in land-based planes has now disappeared. While j they have important airdromes in the vicinity of the Solomon . Islands, Admiral Ghormley also has land-based planes available for support. It is no exaggeration to say mu ii, as is expected, me uatue turns in our favor, the entire strategy of this war may change, regardless of what happens in Europe. While it is improbable that the Japanese have put all their eggs in one basket in the Solomons, there is little doubt that a defeat will mean a further drastic Curtailment of their naval strength, particular ly in plane carriers. Moreover, if the Japanese Navy is com pelled to break off the battle after heavy losses, as was the case at Midway, the American Australian offensive against oc cupied New Guinea will be re sumed with more than a fair chance of cleaning up the South Pacific, at least as far west as Borneo. High-ranking American naval officers for several months have been advocating a second front in the South Pacific. They have felt confident that the combined American-Australian naval, air and land forces could do the job if they were provided with the necessary weapons. Such an of fensive might not have an im mediate bearing on the theaters of operation in Russia and the Near East, but a successful of fensive against Japan, leading eventually to disruption of Ja pan's communications with the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean, will have tremendous re percussions in the entire strategy of the war. I DAIRY and II CNEESE DEPT._I CHIPSO & 22c CUSCO J~67* Wheaties ,4.37* WHEELBARROW SPREAD (Gruyere Type) Each 11-— INGLENOOK INGLENOOK INGLENOOK NAPA DRY NAPPA VALLEY California VALLEY 7ivciiinci SHERRY SEMILLON 5»*M* 54h?*1-25 - 1* I f.-.-..11 FINEST JUICY CALIFORNIA ORANGES doz. 22® Fresh, Green LIMA BEANS 2,b* 15° TO FINEST SEEDLESS GRAPES -17* Young, Spring TURKEY i HOME BAKED SMITHFIELD i a Buy Daisnst STAMPS aml STAMP Oat tha Axis! * • McLemore— Subway's the Place To Train Rangers By HENRY McLEMORE. NEW YORK—The Army may be iverlooking a good bet in not itiliztng the facilities of the New fork subway system in the train , ing of its Ranger Commando troop* This is doubly true of the sub ways at the mo ment. which ara dimmed out as part of the city * p r ecaution against glare, which would aid enemy sub marine raiders in the nearby H«nrr Atlantic. The oeacetime subway, with all its lights urned on full blast, was hazardous ■nough, but a ride on the wartime one, with its lights at half mast, 'omoines the rigors and excitement of a trip to the moon in the day :oach compartment of a rocket. There is quite an argument raging over the dimmed-out subways here in New York. The intrepid riders of these electrified moles are all for having the lights dimmed when the car occasionally emerges from its tunnel and operates on the surface, but they cannot understand the danger of having the lights on when the train is rumbling along underground. They Just don’t be M_— 4U.4 4V.A rtiipnoana nan gain much help from the glow of a 50-watt bulb deeper underground than the basement of the Empire State Building. Rush-Hour Technique. But to return to the training that Ranger troops could get in riding the subways. There isn’t a great deal of difference in the technique used for getting aboard a subway during the rush hours (the rush hours being those hours between midnight and midnight) ancj the technique involved in storming an enemy beach. Both make the same demand for sound bodies, the same willingness to carry on no matter what the obstacles, and the same ability to hand it out as well as take it. Of course, no one uses live ammu nition in getting on a subway, but .1.A ikl- 4m .AMAMAkAW Tm a Commando raid a man is accom panied and aided by his comrades, but when you start to board a sub wav you are on your own and sur rounded by enemies. Sometimes as many as 500 have their eyes on the one vacant seat and in order to get to it first will flirt with the laws dealing with mayhem, manslaugh ter, assault and battery. No Turning Back. There is another similarity be tween Commando raids and board ing a subway. Once started, there is no turning back. A man might just as well try to swim up Niagara ! Falls as to attempt to reverse his field in a subway crowd. No mat ter if he suddenly discovers that he has lost his wallet, or is being swept toward a train that goes to Brook lyn when he wants to go to the Bronx, he must go on. To try to beat an escape would result in his getting trampled and left on the platform until a kindly guard (and the (25,000 reward that was offered in 1914 for the discovery of one has never been collected) gave him succor. rinoa Incite • enhnrav tVta *%*m*4ma Ranger would be enabled to get in invaluable practice in hand-to-hand fighting and grappling with the en emy at close quarters. This is par ticularly true of the dlmmed-out subways, with their lights so low that passengers cannot tell whose feet they are standing on, or whose elbows have taken riparian rights on their ribs, or whose eyes are at- . tacking their thumbs. The Rangers would find the aver age subway rider to be a foeman worthy of his steel. Years of swing ing and swaying and lurching has taught him to be as light on his feet as a cat, and he knows a thousand and one tricks of defense and attack. Without seeming deliberate about it, he can put a knee in your back, a fist in your neck, slap you with a newspaper, whack your shins and generally give you a physical beating in defense of the 2 square inches nf T.hp rnr flrwvr Ha Viaw #*•«» fa. his own. AU-out Effort. Getting off a subway is a Job that calls for the same all-out effort as getting on. Not the smallest hazard are the subway doors, electrically controlled contrivances which will close only when a victim is stuck In their path. They will snap at you like a mean-tempered dog. opening and shutting until a guard steps in like a referee in a prize fight and waves them away and shoves you out into the clear. There is no record of a passenger ever having won a de cision from one of the doors. They all retire as undefeated champions. A few weeks of boarding and rid ing the subways would give our Rangers something that no other Commando troops in the world would have, because there are no other subways in the world like ours. The Russian, British, French and Ger man subways are for children. (Distributed by McNaurht Syndicate, Inc.) 40-Year Prison Terms Of Germans Canceled ‘ F> thi Associated Press. VICHY, Aug. 27.—A special decree today canceled 40-year prison sen tences assessed 22 years ago against Robert and Hermann Roechling, German steel magnates charged with pillaging and moving factories across the border when German ’troops evacuated occupied Saar ter* rltory after the World War, Available records indicate that the Roechlings did not serve any of the French sentences. Hermann Roechling was named chairman of a new Nazi steel trust last June In Germany.