Newspaper Page Text
Editorial Page Civics
Features Resorts TEN PAGES. * WASHINGTON, D. C., AUGUST 30, 1942. ? __ __ _ Allied Offensive in Pacific Could Upset Axis Schedule Nazi and Japanese Attempt at Pincers Through Mideast Seen Thwarted if U. S.-Australian Forces Strike Heavier Blows at Nipponese By Constantine Brown The Mediterranean Basin, the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific are likely to be the scenes of the most spectacular air and sea battles yet fought in this war when the Nazi-Japanese offensive In those areas begins, probably within the next few weeks. Unless the American-Australian forces In the South Pacific succeed by drastic steps in holding back the Japanese, the much-feared synchronized offensives of the two principal Axis partners will be a fact, with the Japs launching their main attack on India and the Nazis at tempting to join hands with them through the Near East. It seems doubtful, from available re ports, that the Russians can prevent the Germans from reaching their ob jectives—the Caucasian oil fields, the Caspian Sea and Stalingrad. The best the Russians can do is economize their forces and remain on the defensive until fresh war material arrives to enable their vast manpower to start anew their fight against the enemy. Hope lingers in some quarters that Marshal Semeon Timoshenko's forces will be able to stop the Nazis short of their objectives, but high-ranking military experts do not seriously believe this will happen. They hope for the best and fear the worst. Nazi preparations for a campaign against the Suez Canal and the Near East are nearly complete. Egypt’s torrid temperatures are now subsiding some what. The Nazis have already begun to move large numbers of planes and im portant army units to Greece and the Islands of the Aegean and important re inforcements have reached Field Mar shal Erwin Rommel. The Nazi-controlled ports of the Black Sea are humming With activity. Could Repair Novorossisk. Although the Russian Black Sea port ©f Novorossisk will unquestionably be heavily damaged by the time the Ger mans march in, the Nazis probably will be able to repair the worst parts of it within a few months. Marshal Rommel has managed to get his reinforcements across the Mediter ranean In spite of the determined at tacks of the American and British air force and British cruisers and sub marines. Moreover, it is expected that when “der tag” arrives the French gov ernment will not object to the Nazis using French bases on both sides of the Mediterranean. French Chief of Government Pierre Laval la pledge^ a policy of collaboration with Berlin and' would do apyijiing in his power to please his Nazi masters* provided they let him keep his office, It is not easy to determine how many men and how much war material and other vital supplies the Nazis have gotten aoross the Mediterranean, but Allied military men are worried. The reinforcements which the United Na tions are sending the new commander in chief, Gen. Sir Harold Alexander, must travel 14,000 miles before they reach the Red Sea, while the Nazis are only a few hundred miles from the future theater of operations. The danger to Egypt is not under estimated, neither is the importance of retaining possession of that territory, regardless of the price. The Allies will spare no effort to prevent Marshal Rom mel from advancing further and the test of whether powerful aviation really can check the progress of an army only supported by aviation will be applied. New Strategy Foreseen. We already have a powerful air force In that area and more planes are being ferried across every day. But it is doubted that Marshal Rommel's army will be used as a single steam roller, as was the case a few weeks ago. The Nazis probably will allow their desert general to open the attack, while other drives develop against Syria and Turkey, where the Allies are less well supplied with modem war equipment. The Near East is regarded in Wash ington as the paramount front in the entire East. No effort is being spared to make the Nazis’ task impossible, but dis tances are against us. The actual strength of the United Nations in that area is not known, however, and may be greater than most people imagine. While everything humanly possible is being done now to defend the Near East, an equally serious situation is expected to arise in the Indian Ocean. The monsoon rains wall end some time early next month. Before our reconquest of the Solomon Islands the Japanese had been sending large reinforcements to Burma, where they now 'rave an imposing force at the gates of India. Planes, tanks and men have been gathered in that area ever since the British defense collapsed in Burma. The political situation in India plays into their hands. Few reports of what is going on in that vast country reach the outside world, but it appears that the civil disobedience movement, led by Mo handas K. Gandhi, is progressing. Censorship is stringent and news gatherers cannot be everywhere through the length and breadth of that land. Settlement Outlook Poor. For the moment there does not appear to be any prospect of an understanding between the British and the Indian Na tionalists. The Indians charge that vested British interests have obstructed Whatever good intentions the British government might have had. The Brit ish government accuses the Indian Nationalist leaders of being frankly pro Japanese and of desiring to obtain im mediate independence in order to open the gates to the Japanese. The exchange of recriminations is not wery important in itself. What is im portant, however, is that the Japanese are smiling over the situation and nc one will be surprised if, within the next few weeks, they issue a manifesto telling the Indian people that they are coming to ‘liberate’’ them as they “liberated’ f . * i Indo-China, the Netherlands Indies and Burma. The only solution for the problem seems to lie in the chance that the British will have such a strong force in India as to crush any insurrection by the Indians and defeat any Japanese effort to break through the British de fenses. It is doubtful whether the British have such a force at their disposal. Fear of possible Nazi invasion of the British Isles has compelled the government to keep at home a large majority of its fully-trained forces. The desire to open up a second aerial front in Europe also compels the British high command to maintain a large air force in the isles. Since the British do not have facilities for producing an unlimited number of planes, and since the bulk of the best trained forces has had to be kept In England not more than 25 per cent have been sent to the Near East—the assump tion is that American-British forces in the Indian peninsula are not sufficiently strong to deal with both a heavy Japa nese attack and a possible insurrection. The picture would be ugly, indeed, if it were not for the presence of an imposing American force in the South Pacific. Japs Losing Advantages. The Japanese do not possess the same facilities as their Nazi allies for moving troops and war material to theaters of operation as much as 5,000 miles away from their main bases. So long as United Nations forces were on the de fensive, occasionally raiding a Japanese convoy, Emperor Hirohito’s fighters had everything their own way. If, however, the Allies continue their offensive which began in the Solomon Islands, the position of the Japs will de teriorate rapidly. After the first news of the success of the Allied forces in the South Pacific became known one mem ber of the Pacific War Council said the solution of the Indian problem is now in the hands of Gen. Douglas MacArthur and Vice Admiral Robert Lee Ghormley. ljeauing naval ana military strategists In the United States have maintained for many months that the Japanese, with their extended communication lines and limited raw materials, are vulnerable if a determined offensive should be con ducted against shipping lanes between Japan and the South Pacific. It took us several months to recover from the initial Japanese blows at Pearl tj£alrb<5r and in the Pacific. The Japa nese general staff lacked the necessary At A time when the Australians were almost defenseless. The situation has changed since then. Between January and May we reinforced the commonwealth, making it relatively safe against Jap invasion. Since July American naval, air and military forces have been increased in such numbers that we are able to begin an offensive which may have compelled the Japanese to abandon plans for immediate attack on Siberia. Foe Not Underestimated. If the speed at which we are strength ening our forces in the South Pacific is maintained, there is every reason to be lieve that within the next few weeks American-Australian forces will be in position to pound the defenses of the islands the Japanese occupied between last December and June of this year. No one in Washington is disposed to minimize the military qualities of the Jap high command and its fighting men. Hitler’s plans for a gigantic pincers movement from East to West can be thwarted by a determined offensive on the part of the American-Australian forces in the Pacific, provided such a military operation is well sustained. Duluth Gets Out the Ore Area Produces 83 Per Gent of Nation’s Iron By Sigrid Arne The Big Pit, where 60 miles of railway bring iron ore to the top for shipment to ihe hungry steel mills. —Wide World Photo. A/UUU All.- A UV OvA ullgl 1 All I/U1UVU has a difficulty. It’s hard to get sleep. It's practically a one-street town. So the stores, movies, office buildings, hotels string along one avenue, and that ave nue strings along the harbor. The harbor churns day and night with the dogged, noisy fight to get iron ore out for the war machine. Day long the great ore boats slip by. Night long they toot in the dark. Fog horns puncture the night and ore trains scream into town from the iron ranges. Just one person’s attempt to get some sleep—mine—will give you as good an idea as any of what goes on here. It was like this the first night: Awakened just after midnight, Some boat moaning, “Whoo-whoo!” in the har bor, practically under my window, she cut past the breakwater, a great, gray giant of the lakes. She “whoo-whoo-ed" a good-by and vanished into a fog bank. I checked on her the next morning, just to get a notion of the speed up here. She docked at 10 p.m. The dock master knew exactly when she’d arrive because her captain had radio telephoned irom tne soo locus. Tne oock nanas i were ready. Floodlights bathed the dock and the work crews. There was a train waiting, loaded with the rusty-gray iron ore. Her hatches rolled back and she took 12,000 tons of the stuff into her big, squat belly. In exactly 2 hours and 15 minutes she cleared the docks and was on her way, full steam ahead. That happened again at 2:30 a.m. Again at 4 a.m. At 6:30 a.m. I gave up and went down for coffee. Proud of Shipping Rate. I went down to meet men spouting statistics like so many adding machines. They’re so proud of their production and shipping rate up here, at the west end of Lake Superior; they charter mil lions of tons, hundreds of locomotives, miles of ore trains, hundreds of steam shovels and ore trucks. There are six great fields of iron up here in the scrubby hills around Lake Superior. Three in Minnesota. Three in Michigan. The ore is dug on the range, hauled by rail to the docks and then siphoned out through six huge harbors for the trip down to the Pitts burgh area, where steel is made: Steel for ships, guns, subs, tanks. This area produces 83 per cent of the Iioiiuii o Ail'll. lino jcai tti u uao aoncu the area to get out 90,000,000 tons; by far the largest on record. WPB will get it. But it’s hard to visualize. That much ore would fill a hotel of 450,000 rooms. That's hard to see. The biggest hotel in the world has only 3,000 rooms. These ore men have a peculiar prob lem, compared to other war industries. Their peak working season is limited to the shipping season. In winter, the Great Lakes fill up with ice and the ships stop. The mines go on stock piling ore, and repairing—but the 90, 000,000 tons must be out by the-last week of November. That adds plenty to the nerve strain. Last year ships moved 245 days. This year is a guess. But shipping opened this season the earliest on record— March 26. Boats fought through late blizzards, stuck in ice jams. But the ore moved. Ice Breakers Ordered Out. This iron kingdom is so much a No. 1 concern right now that Washington, via long distance, is shoving through a small fleet of ice breakers in the hope of keep ing the water lanes open later than ever before. Right now, in Washington, other men are talking of putting $30,000,000 into a plant that would double check the safety of Lake Superior ore. The purse would reinforce a railroad across the Michi gan peninsula, and put in new docks. There’s a curious element in these war busy acres out of Duluth. Compared to other war-industry areas there is no housing problem. There are scarcely any new people here. That’s because the mines, the railroads, the docks, the ships have been so carefully fitted together that the operation takes a surprisingly small number of workers. It takes big money to run this iron business. And the big money has been here for years: Oliver Iron Mining (a United States Steel subsidiary), Pick ands-Mather, M. A. Hanna, Republic Steel, the Great Northern Railway, and the Duluth, Mesabl it Iron Mountain Railway (another United States Steel sideline). Their officers saw the handwriting on the wall some time back. So they began spending money—for locomotives, ore cars, new tracks, steam shovels. They’re separate companies but they’ve fitted to ftcuici uicu uycxowwua a jjvmii, umt reminds me of a jeweler putting together a watch. The ore cars are Just the right length to spill into the ore bins on the railroad docks. The ore bins are just the right width to spill into the ore boat hatches. Steam shovels are just the right size to fill an ore car with two or three scoops. The most dramatic sight in the whole area is the “big pit.” It’s an iron mine that's just a big hole in the ground—some 65 miles northwest from Duluth. The pit is 2't miles long, 365 feet deep and from a half mile to a mile wide. ^ Sixty Miles of Track. The whole pit is just iron ore. Steam shovels churn over the floor, chew up the stuff and dump it into ore cars. It’s so big there are 60 miles of railroad track threading its floor and sides. It shades from rust to gray to blue-gray. Actually it looks like the Grand Canyon. It started out as seven separate mines, seven holes in the ground. But they grew until they finally joined. You can’t see where one mine stops and another begins. , But the operators have an easy agree ment that helps rush the ore out. Sup pose oof operator, by mistake, takes out some ore on his neighbor’s brine; he phones, they swap and no hat'd feelings. There are two huge, complicated time saving devices that mean much to the war. rney re not new out it’s plain lucky they’ve been worked out. Both stem from one fact: The ore can’t be shipped like so many potatoes. It has to be a certain “mix,” depending on to which steel plant it’s going. So the mixing is done en route—by the rail roads. Just as the ore cars leave the mines, chemists hop aboard and take samples: As many as 100 samples from five ore cars. The train chugs out tor the docks, 65 miles away, and on the way, the chemists make their analyses and phone them ahead to the docks. The train ar rives at the docks and the dock master knows just how much iron, silica, phos phorus and so on is in each car. That’s a spectacular show at the Great Northern yards, where they have tracks for 7,200 ore cars at one time. They use 44 locomotives just to shunt those cars around for mixing ore. They say they’ve made 80 different mixes at one time or another. Consumer Goods Weakest Link In Russia’s Capacity to Resist She Can Stand Loss of More Territory, but Clothing and Shoe Supply Is in Peril By Felix Morley. It Is now just three months since the German army turned bafck the abortive Russian thrust at Kharkov and thereby paved the way for the offensive which has carried the troops of Marshal von Bock deep into the Caucasus Mountains and almost to the banks of the historic Volga River. Actually, it is less than two months since the Nazi legions, having reduced Sevastopol and thereby secured their rear, began to move forward with a clockwork precision which since July has increased Russia’s territorial losses by an area larger than that of England and Scotland combined. Kharkov, whence the drive started, is almost 400 miles due west of Stalingrad. And from Kursk, the northern support for the advance, it is 750 miles southeast to the penetration now approaching the Grozny oil fields. Even on a small-scale map of gigantic Russia the magnitude of the bite taken by the Germans this summer is all too apparent. And the summer is not over. At least two more months of fighting weather re main before the approach of winter can force cessation of hostilities anywhere along the 3,000 miles of curving battle line from Lapland to the Caspian. For this winter, moreover, the Germans will be better prepared, and the Russians less well supplied, than was the case a year ag9. There is nothing gained by mini mizing the staggering loss of industrial, agricultural and mineral resources which the Soviet has suffered. So far nothing has availed to stop, nor even materially to check, the German advance. Neither the gallantry of Rus sian resistance, nor the munitions sent by this country and Great Britain; neither the mass bombing of German cities, nor the threat of a second front—■ none of these factors have rendered Hit ler’s Russian campaign of 1942 any less formidable than that of 1941. So it is not surprising that people everywhere are asking whether the Soviet govern ment, for all the superhuman courage and endurance demonstrated, can be ex pected indefinitely to maintain a losing struggle. The Facts Are Grave. Various grim facts indicate a negative answer to that position. At Stalingrad the German troops are something over 900 miles inside the Rus sian frontier which they crossed on June 23,1941. The occupied territory contains most of what was, until very recently, the economic heart of Russia. In spite of German withdrawals last winter Leningrad is still closely beleaguered and ofBnteratt^ck* have not removed the latent threat to Moscow. Outside supply lines to Russia are only precariously maintained, whether via the Barents Sea in the far north or over the com plicated Caspian route in the south. The losses of Soviet manpower are ad mittedly enormous and proportionately as disruptive to the war effort as is the sweeping dislocation of both production and transportation. If the Russia of 1942 were the same as the Russia of 1917 no objective and in formed opinion would give any central government there a chance to survive the chaos, the suffering and the contin ued attrition of curtailed resources which must be anticipated during the coming winter months. But Russia today is not the same as that of the close of the Czarlst period. The Communist regime, it is now be latedly admitted, has done a marvelous Job both of physical organization and psychological preparation for the su preme test which is at hand. As in the case of Nazi Germany, whose strength and capacity have been equally subject to strangely unintelligent discount in this country, the hardships of recent years have developed powers of en durance scarcely comprehensible from our luxurious viewpoint. Furthermore, Communist Russia, again like Nazi Germany, fights literally for existence, without any illusions on the subject. Whichever wins, the vanquished nation in the present titanic struggle can look forward only to enduring hu miliation and collective abasement. That is why each of the two governments can rely on the fullest measure of sacrifice even from subjects who have no reason to love their dictatorships. That is why Winston Churchill can show optimism on his return from Moscow, regardless of the cumulative picture of defeat and disaster which must there have been spread before him. V. S. Has Known Little of Gains. Great as it is, however, the psychologi cal and spiritual strength of Communist Russia would avail little without the careful material preparations which the Soviet government has made for meet ing its present ordeal. In economic or ganization, as well as in social viewpoint, the Russia of today is very different from that of a quarter century ago. Russian secrecy and our own anti communist prejudices have combined to prevent any general realization in this country of the tremendous industrial de velopment which, under Soviet planned economy, has been accomplished in the Ural districts, in little-known Kazakh stan and in Central Siberia. But it is on this development, pushed with feverish energy in recent years, that Russia’s sur vival chances now in large measure de pend. A comprehensive and thoroughly sci entific study of “Asiatic Russia's War Potential” is fortunately available for American readers through the enterprise of the American Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations, which printed a lengthy article on this subject in its “Far Eastern Survey” of November 17, 1941. The author, Andrew Grajdanzev, is an economist of repute and his com pilations are based on official statistics otherwise obtainable only in fragmentary or almost inaccessible form. Writing when the German campaign of last summer was at its peak. Mr. Grajdanzev’s analysis is even more time ly today. For it anticipated the loss to Russia of that very territory which has been occupied by the Nazis in recent weeks. The study remains conservative, since it also envisages the capture or at least complete disruption of both the Leningrad and Moscow economic areas. On the other hand it assumes that the trans-Caucasian districts, now seriously -threatened, will remains wider Russian On the basis of these assumptions, now close to being actual fact, Mr. Grajdanzev presents exhaustive data draws careful conclusions which, when rherfrfd by other source material, justifies more optimism than is afforded by headlines on the current tide of battle. Consumer Goods Are Weak l.»nk. This study concludes, for instance, that in food supplies, both cereal and meats, the area of Russia still remote from German attack is self-sufficient for its normal population of some 70 mil lions, plus an estimated 20 million sol diers and refugees. The same applies to all vital mineral requirements, including oil, provided the Baku area can be de fended. If that is lost Russian oil pro duction will be down to about 10 per cent of last year, with obviously dis astrous consequences. The recent concentration of heavy in dustry, including chemicals, beyond the Urals is, as set forth by Mr. Grajdanzev, phenomenal. So also is electric power development, nearly one-third of all that generated in the Soviet Union coming from districts which seem immune to conquest, either from west or east. In iron and steel production the territory from the Urals east is said to account for about 40 per cent of the national total. It is In respect to consumer goods, and to a lesser extent distribution facilities, that this expert analysis is most pessi mistic. Here everything seems to depend on whether the Moscow area, as center of the clothing, shoe and household in dustries, can be defended. ‘‘Those who are thinking about aid to Russia in terms only of airplanes and tanks,” says Mr. Grajdanzev, ‘‘should realize that consumption goods—in minimum quan tities—are as essential for final success.” With one important reservation the conclusion is that Russia cannot be compelled to surrender because of terri tory lost or likely to be conquered. Even if Leningrad, Moscow and all the area west of the Volga should be occupied, the Russian people, inured to suffering, could still struggle on and maintain a resistance more formidable than mere guerrilla warfare. But to do so they must be supplied with certain special equip ment and technical aid from outside, ‘‘especially from the United States." Prom this report one gathers that the value of a second front to Russia may have been overemphasized. As a measure of practical assistance to the Soviet transport of machines to the Urals seems at this stage more vital than thansport of men to England. Again it all comes back to the basio issue of shipping and the question of whether the supply routes to Murmansk and Basra can be kept open to convey the equipment without which a func tioning Russian economy can scarcely be securely maintained. Belgian Mayor Offers Himself as Hostage LONDON.—The German Army in Bel* glum, exasperated by repeated cutting of wires at Biesme, Namur Province, has organized a corps of civilians to guard Nazi headquarters. The Mayor of Biesme was requested to draw up a list of hostages to be arrested in case of further sabotage, but he refused to oomply, offer ing himself as hostage instead. A WILY CHINESE FIGHT FANATIC JAPS WITH ANYTHING AT HAND Apply Logic to Unwanted Job, Substituting Strategem for Modern Weapons Sorely Lacking By Morris J. Harris and James D. White Morris J. Harris and James D. White, Associated Press correspondents in China, were interned by the Japanese and later released in an exchange of nationals. They recently returned to the United States on the exchange liner Gripsholm—Editor’s note. Japanese fight with their heart and a standardized bludgeon; Chinese fight with their -minds and whatever weapon they can find. That is the essential difference in their methods of warfare. With the Japanese, war is a mechanistic process vitalized by intense patriotic emotion. They throw themselves into it with passion. With the Chinese, war is a chore, an unwanted job that must be done. They hate it. But as with any job, the Chinese accept it as inevitable and apply logic and imagination. It has been said that the Chinese are too civilized to fight well as a nation, and that the Japanese are too uncivilized not to. What it actually amounts to is that the Japanese like to think of themselves as terrific warriors. The Chinese is too interested in normal life to care about the abnormal things you do when you 1 are at war. If he must, he will fight and fight w-ell. But he still thinks of peace as the natural state of life. With passion and precision, the Jap anese have during the last 50 years built up an army that is uniform, co-ordinated and fanatically devoted to enlarging the empire by any passible means. They have consistently kept the largest group of legitimate military observers abroad—and the biggest number of spies. When a new military development arose anywhere, the Tokio general staff got a complete report as soon as pos sible. Then the well-oiled military machine swung into action, testing whether the new weapon or tactic could be used by Japanese and if so how to best advantage and against which enemy. The secrets of Japanese success are largely their fanaticism and their un tiring willingness to test every weapon thoroughly before it goes into action. Their soldiers fight and die like automa tions, so thorough is this training. They do not have all the latest weap ons, and many times those they do have cannot be of the best quality. Yet they know the exact theoretical effectiveness of each tactic, movement or device against any specified enemy. Human lives, human labor and routine staff calculations are cheap in Japan. They use ail without stint. Japan may be expected to fall far behind the United Nations in this war when it comes to new planes, tanks and < . ... LT. GEN. 1TAGAK1, Who lost 70,000 in trap. —Wide World Photo. other weapons where improvements are constantly being developed. This is largely because they have little of the creative to their credit in warfare, as in other lines. But they can be de pended on to make the fullest use of everything they have. When a Japanese goes into battle, he knows that his staff officers have calcu lated the precise striking power of his unit, exactly how it is to be applied, and his own part in the process. His thinking has already been done for him. As suc cess is the only standard taught, he goes into the fray convinced of his own divin ity and invincibility as a tiny part of the Japanese war machine. If he is killed—so much the better— he then shares in a deification of all dead Japanese soldiers which is accorded by his admiring countrymen. Total war fare to him is the natural state of things. mere are desertions among tne Jap anese ranks and isolated cases of their shooting their officers and going over to the enemy. But those are rare. One factor is that they know the Chinese have not too much time to bother with prisoners. The background of the Chinese soldier is vastly different. He has been reared in an intensely competitive society where his combative instincts have been mel lowed by Chinese ideas of fatalism and propriety. In the old days only coolies were sol diers in China and mercenaries at that. Consequently the Chinese civilian gains little prestige by becoming a soldier, for the old ideas persist. In Japan only the nobles were armed in the old days, so that the poorest Japanese coolie takes on something of nobility in his own mind when he is given an army rifle. Yet the battle for Shanghai was a miracle of Chinese bravery. The strategy at Taierchaung was a masterpiece of Chinese military cunning. The endur ance of the Chinese Communist guerril las can only be believed when you see it and try to keep up with them. At Shanghai, Chinese soldiers fought doggedly with inferior weapons long after foreign military observers wondered why they did not run. At Taierchuang the Chinese pulled off what they love best—they outwitted Japan's crack cam paigner, Gen. Itagaki, drew him into a trap and shot 70,000 men to pieces. Along the Yellow River, at Chungmow, they lured Nippon’s No. 1 military smart alec, Gen, Kenji Doihara, into low ground and then cut the dykes. He got out with his skin, but lost a brigade of tanks, and the Yellow River is today, four years later, still the front line. But the Chinese psychology of war is MAJ. GEN. DOIHARA, Outsmarted by the Chinese. —A. P. Photo. essentially not an aggressive one. To him, the man who stands up and slugs it out Just for the fun of slugging is akin to beasts. His feeling for war runs more to superior strategy and clever maneu vers. That battle won with the least fighting is the best won, according to Chinese ideas. The Chinese goes into battle with whatever gun his officer hands him. It may have been made many years ago in America, Russia, Czechoslovakia, Ger many, England or Prance. The ammu nition of his comrade next him may not fit his gun. He has few machine guns. Here again the ammunition required may be of several different patterns and calibers. China entered the war with practically every known design of rifle, machine gun and artillery piece, including some of the oldest in use. Her planes were partly American, partly Italian. Her tanks came from all over the world. Her munitions factories were all located In the Yangtze Valley, which the Jap anese captured or destroyed within the first year and a half of warfare, and China has not been able to replace them entirely farther inland. Whereas the Japanese have only two or three models of trucks in their army, the Chinese have had to use whatever they could get abroad, for China had no motorcar factories. The confusion among the supply departments for such things as tires and spare parts and the consequent inefficiency, can easily be imagined. Supplies are scarcer now that the Burma road is gone. But still the poorly armed Chinese armies attack. Those of us who have seen them in action still say: Give the Chinese troops the same arms and equivalent training and leadership to build up their confidence and they will fight Individual and collective rings around the Japanese. . They have done It many times as It Is.