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With Sunday Morning Edition. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. WASHINGTON. d7~C~ The Evening; Star Newspaper Company. Main Office: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. New York Office: llo East 42nd St Chicago Office: 43ft North Michigan Avo. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. ? Regular Edition. 4 Sundays. ft Sundays. venmg and Sunday 80c per mo. POc per mo. Star- 50c per month Hie Sunday Star 10c per copy «.' Final Edition. 4 Sundays. & Sundays. Nient Final and Sunday 90c mo. $1.00 mo. Night Final Star 65c per month Outside of Metropolitan Area. _ Delivered by Carrier. The Evening and Sunday Star . *1.00 per month Sve1lnK #.tar- - HOc per month The Sunday Star_ _ 10c per copy Rates by Mall—Payable In Advance. Anywhere in United States. _ . „ 1 month. 6 months. 1 year. Evening and Sunday $1.00 $6.0ti $12 no The Evening Star.. .75 4.00 8.00 The Sunday Stan. .50 2.50 6.00 Telephone National 6000. Entered at the Post Office, Washington, D. C . as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. Jh« Asaociated Press is exclusively entitled to if,°„r .republlcation of ail news dispatches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this ??,py ??d aJS0 *bf local news published herein* All Uhls of publication of special dispatches herein also are reserved. ' " ^ctobe^^E1943 More Good Than Harm The nature of the Gallinger Hos pital investigation and report might have justified Commissioner Mason in maintaining the hands-off at titude he assumed during the hear ings and, as a defendant under charges, sitting by and letting this little tempest run its course. That he has not chosen to do so is to his credit. He has made a handsome apology for his attitude during the hearings, for which, as an ordinary human being, he had plenty of excuse. He has gone further now by Initiating certain definite moves to correct immediately some of the un satisfactory conditions at the hos pital pointed out by the investiga tors. The late Dr. 'William A. White, the highly respected superintendent of St. Elizabeth's Hospital, was the butt of a very vicious type of political attack by some members of the House which took the form of charges against his conduct of the hospital and touched his profes sional integrity. He was characteris tically philosophic about such things, aftd although some of the so-called investigations must have brought him personal suffering he used to say that they did the hos pital more good than harm. Those who have felt a sense of outrage at some of the manifestly unjust tactics and findings of the Gallinger Investigators, especially as they affect personal reputations, can at the same time agree that more good than harm will come of it in the end. More attention will be paid to conditions that other wise would have been treated as routine. Those who control local appropriations are not apt to as sume responsibility for denying im provements that can be made by expenditure of money alone. Under attack, though some of it may be unjust, the staff at Gallinger will not allow further criticism to be sus tained. It is a question w-hether such investigations must, for their effec tiveness, depend on dramatized mud slinging. Senator Capper and Senator Burton probably will ac complish far more, through their present painstaking and Intelligent search for a cure of Washington's slum problems, than if they went about it by trying to embellish with personal attack a scandal half a century old. It is unfortunate that there is not more regard, in Con gressional committee proceedings, for personal reputations that can suffer permanent injury by slovenly acceptance of what could never pass muster in a court as evidence. A little more team-work at the Capitol with the loc^j officials who have responsibility without au thority, a little less inclination to capitalize short-comings for the sake of passing publicity, would go a long way toward making the im provements that everybody regards as desirable. There is plenty of room for them in the District. Personal Appeal House-to-house canvassing in be half of the Community War Fund was started yesterday. That means that volunteer solicitors are calling upon their friends and neighbors to the end that the campaign to raise $4,800,000 in Washington and nearby Maryland and Virginia for necessary charities may be a complete success. Such effort is an imperative phase of the drive. It represents a direct appeal, far more definitely personal in character than any newspaper article or any radio broadcast. The men and women who give their time and strength to the work deserve a cordial welcome at every home to which they go. It is in the name of the United Service Organizations, the United Nations Relief, the United Seamen’s Service, the War Prisoners' Aid Com mittee, the United States Committee for European Children and all the many co-operating local welfare agencies which constitute the main line of defense on the home front that they call. Each solicitor solemnly has pledged the maximum of faithful endeavor in the interest of practical brotherhood. As a group, they are striving for the ful fillment of Metropolitan Washing ton’s share of a great national move ment—one vital aspect of America’s part In winning the war and insur ing the benefits of peace to all people. A cynic lately was reported to have wondered whether the average resi dent of the Capital of the United States really comprehends the duty and the privilege of helping In such a cause. His question Is a challenge, first to the head and then to the heart of every citizen. If his doubts are justified, the volunteer War Fund solicitors will discover the fact. But those persons who know Washington best are confident that his agnostic ism will be proved baseless by the generosity of the response. On Saturday, September 18, in Toronto, Canada, a “tag day” drive was staged for Netherlands relief. Women and girls went through the streets with boxes into which civilians were invited to drop their contributions. A visitor from Wash ington noticed that men in uniform were not asked to give. He also ob served that they gave without being asked. There was no need to “edu cate” them in the responsibilities of human fellowship. They already had learned the lesson of willing and cheerful sacrifice. Their Only Hope A year ago, when Stalingrad seemed about to fall and Rommel was hammering at the gates of Alexandria and Suez, the United Nations faced a supremely critical situation. Today it is the other way around, and as our Allied power con verges from all directions upon the heart of “Fortress Europe,” we hear reports of an extraordinary meeting of the “highest political and mili tary authorities of Germany.” It is perhaps more than a little significant that this meeting was called not by Hitler, though he at tended and addressed it, but by Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, chief of the high command of the Ger man armed forces. There is at least a suggestion here that events have begun to run such a black course for the Reich that the professional military leaders are moving to put the Fuehrer and the Nazi party in the background and take matters in their own hands in an effort to escape a total defeat. Yet they cannot do this merely by getting rid of Hitler and his chief henchmen, if that is what some of them are contemplating. They can not do it as long as the United Nations—particularly Britain, Rus sia and the United States—hold to the common objective of smashing German arms. For they have had notice served on them by both Presi dent Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill that our Allied forces are as intent upon crushing their power as upon liquidating Hitler and the Nazi "new order." And despite a widespread impression to the con- ; trary, Premier-Marshal Stalin has ! similarly declared that Germany’s surrender must be unconditional. How' then can the German high command hope to save itself from total defeat, if not by banking upon j an eventual division among the Allies? It seems far too late in the war for .secret weapons and sensa tional surprises to be of any great help in reversing the present mili tary tide, so that the only chance for Germany appears to be through prolonged last-ditch resistance cal culated to weary us and win time for a possible falling-out between Russia on one hand and Britain and the United States on the other. This is a point that cannot be stated too often or emphasized too much. Germany’s only hope for an avenue of escape is through cracks in our Allied political and military strategy. It is a point that will almost certainly have great bearing on the temper of the momentous conferences that have just begun in Moscow. And it is certainly a point that speaks volumes against those here at home who seem to take a wayward delight in being the ir responsible agents of discord and j disunion at a time when harmony and oneness of purpose can do so much to shorten the war. “Voturno Line Taken,” read a re cent newspaper statement. It would appear to have had the L knocked out of it. A Newspaper Subsidy Opinion among the newspapers is sharply divided over the merits of the Bankhead bill, now before the Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, the purpose of which is to authorize the Treasury to dis tribute from five to thirty million dollars a year among the news papers for advertising the sale of Government bonds and other obliga tions. Some of the editors believe that such an expenditure for advertising is sound enough and that the money would relieve the financial plight of many of the sifialler newspapers, especially the weeklies, semiweeklies and triweeklies. Other editors are as firmly convinced that the bill is an opening wedge to subsidization of newspapers and therefore carries with it a dangerous threat to the independence, if not the freedom, of the press. Newspapers exist in their present form on advertising revenue, and the National Editorial Association, one of the proponents of the Bank head legislation, points out that as no advertiser controls the press now there is no reason to fear such con trol by the National Government. As a spokesman for the proponents, the association dismisses the fears of a subsidy as “merely silly talk with an ulterior motive behind it.” The trouble with the Bankhead bill is that the chief pressure behind it comes from those who would bene fit financially from its passage, and not from those whose main interest is to sell Government obligations through a sound advertising pro gram. If the President and the Secretary of the Treasury besought Congress to appropriate funds for an advertising campaign to sell Gov • ernment bonds, being convinced that this was the most effective method of stimulating sales, it is to be doubted that many newspapers would be found In opposition. There is a time and place for Government advertising, as the military services have demonstrated in their recruit ing drives. If the same results could not be obtained in any other way, the Government might be forced to advertise the sale of its securities. But effective advertising is merely a by-product of this bill's objective, which appears to be the distribution among those who undoubtedly need it of .more millions of public funds. Once begun, this practice would be as hard to get rid of as any subsidy and, like any other subsidy, it would tend to increase. Freedom of the press may not be concerned at all. One hopes that freedom of the press is made of stronger stuff than la’ck of a Government subsidy. But this bill savors of subsidy and is therefore to be regarded with sus picion. When the Government buys advertising space it should buy it as any citizen buys it, on its merits alone. A Distinguished Service When Dr. Frank W. Ballou came to Washington in 1920 the school system was demoralized by inade quate appropriations, crowded far beyond its deplorably limited facili ties and the staff and teacher per sonnel were grossly underpaid. Friction within the system added its own contribution. An educator in another city, approached by the Board of Education in its search for a new superintendent, had tersely replied that “I would prefer to be superintendent of schools in Petro grad,” a city which then typified the ultimate in disorganization from civil strife. It i*, one tribute to Dr. Ballou’s skill as an administrator that his retirement, after a service as su perintendent of twenty-three years, finds the school system function ing smoothly despite the stresses and strains of another war. Instead of going abroad for a new superin tendent, the Board of Education very wisely has chosen to elevate Dr. Ballou’s principal assistant, Robert L. Haycock, a product of the Washington public schools and a highly regarded veteran in their service. While dislocations due to the w'ar will continue to occur in the school system, the system itself is on a far firmer foundation than Dr. Ballou found it twenty-three years ago. Dr. Ballou came to Washington as superintendent of schools at a time when his special qualifications were in demand. He had a definite pro gram for raising the educational standards in teaching personnel, for improving the physical equip ment of the schools, for the organ ization of special curricula to meet new public demand and for obtain ing higher pay for the teachers. He quietly began a process of gradual reorganization and kept after it with an intelligent perseverance which marked him as an excellent public official. He has not escaped his share of brushes with Congress and with other critics. But neither his dignity nor his purpose ever suffered from temporary losses or setbacks. He has been a contributor to the healthy development of Washing ton, and he leaves office enjoying the friendly respect of the com munity and its hope that relief from responsibility will help him to over come the physical disabilities which led to his premature retirement. There is a warm welcome for Mr. Haycock, his successor, known so well and so affectionately to Wash ingtonians for his long and dis tinguished record in the schools as teacher and administrator. He will have the loyal support of the com munity and his colleagues. No New Taxes? The House Republicans, having taken a stand against enactment of new taxes at this time, are being accused by some of their Democratic colleagues of trying to make a political issue of the tax bill. One may suspect that this accusation is not entirely without foundation. In their turn, the Republicans de nounce the administration’s new $10,500,000,000 tax bill as being political in character. And one may also suspect that there is basis for this accusation, since the Treasury program would relieve from taxa tion some 9,000,000 persons in the low income brackets, many of whom will cast votes in next year's election. But the important question is not whether the Republicans or the Democrats, or both, are trying to make political capital out of the tax problem. What really matters is the forty billion dollars or more of excess spending power in the hands of the American people and the disposition that is to be made of it. The Government needs a sub stantial slice of this money as war time revenue. If the effort to con trol living costs is to be even measurably successful, it also will be necessary to prevent the use of these surplus funds in competitive-bidding for scarce commodities. In both respects, the responsibility rests on Congress, and it is to be hoped that the legislators will not fail to measure up because of the im minence of election day. There is no easy road to higher taxes, but a bill can be written if Congress has the will to write it. Apple production in the United States for 1943 is estimated as only 43 per cent of the 1942 crop. This all works out O.K.; there is about the same falling-off in doctors to be kept away. German Strength Believed Diminishing By Maj. George Fielding Eliot. There are some suggestions In recent reports from Europe that we may have to revise downward somewhat the esti mates that have been made of German fighting strength, based on the number of available German divisions. The division yardstick is the most convenient and generally accurate method of stat ing the total fighting strength of an army, but its usefulness in making com parisons tends to diminish when the divisions of one side are much weaker than those of the other. In the World War, for example, the American divisions at full strength totaled something like 27,000 men each, while British and French divisions never had over 15,000, and German divisions toward the end were falling off toward 5,000-10,000. In all three of the last named armies it was thought Inadvisable to reduce the number of divisions, but a shortage of manpower compelled the reduction In the size of each division. From the normal complement of 12 battalions of infantry the divisions of these armies w'ere reduced to nine bat talions, and some reduction was also made in the other arms. The size of component units—regiments, battalions, companies—also tended to dwindle away, especially in the German Army in the last three months of the war. After the World War the nine-bat talion organization was quite generally adopted for infantry divisions for rea sons of flexibility. Tire 12-battalion division proving unwieldy on the modern battlefield. The infantry division came to be almost standardized throughout the world's armies, and its strength was in the neighborhood of 15,000-16,000 men, Including all its combatant and seyvice units. There were two major exceptions —the Japanese, who clung to the old “square" division of 12 battalions, and the Italians who, basing their ideas on their experience in Spain, reduced their divisions to six battalions. mow mere are report? coming in which suggest that the Germans, again faced with a manpower shortage, are reducing their divisions to six battalions in some cases, though quite generally retaining the full complement of artil lery and other supporting troops. This reorganization is perhaps considered at Berlin to be well adapted for a defensive war. Certainly a division with only six infantry battalions lacks the punch and follow-through for a powerful offensive operation against strong resistance. The advantage of reducing the strength of each division, instead of reducing the number of divisions, is the retention of tried and proven fighting teams and their commanders and staffs; if divisions are broken up and distributed among other divisions there is sure to be fric tion and minor difficulties of all sorts until the officers and men have become accustomed to working and fighting under the new conditions, and the serv ices of the operating and administrative staffs of the disbanded divisions are lost. It must be remembered that it takes a long time to train a good division staff, to get every member of It fitted into the right place and the whole working smoothly together. When this has been done it has a value as a unit which greatly exceeds the value of the individuals who compose it. It is therefore to be expected that as the Germans begin to get to the bottom of their manpower barrel they will beglft to cut down the infantry strength of their divisions and perhaps the artillery strength as well. We shall still hear of 300 German divisions of all types, but it will mean something less in fighting strength than a similar number of Allied divisions. Very likely the Ger mans will keep up their old practice of putting their best men into elite units— armored divisions, parachute divisions, and, of course, the special selection of highly indoctrinated youth for the Waf fen S. S. Experience does not appear to hafe taught the Germans that this process, while perhaps good for a short war. is ruinous in the long run, because it takes from the normal infantry' divi sions the backbone of the army, the very leaven of good men which every unit needs in order that the men of lesser qualities may function effectively. The fact that prisoners left behind in rear-guard actions are now found to be Poles, Czechs. Alsatians and others of doubtful allegiance to the Nazi cause suggests that another sort of weedlng out process may be going on in the Wehrmacht, with the ultimate notion of retaining for the final defense of Germany only tried and true German fighting personnel. (Copyright, 1949. N. Y. Tribune, Inc.) A Protracted Strain From the Winnipeg Free Press. In the prosecution of the war we must always acquire economic liabilities as we achieve military victories. The con quest of Italy is going to put an addi tional strain upon our food resources. The liberation of Prance and all the occupied countries in the west will add to the strain. Military victories are de cisive and pass quickly. The economic liabilities, on the other hand, are long term propositions which may take years to liquidate. Unless we recognize this clearly the impulse to regard the war as being over when the fighting stops will be irresistible. But this war will not be over until all the people of the occupied countries are restored to nor mal living. This restoration will impose a great responsibility upon all the United Nations, and particularly upon the North American nations. If we, on this continent, concentrate too much of our attention upon military victory alone, we may well set in motion forces which in the end will lose us the peace. Mystifying From the Boston Post. There may be a way to explain it, but the layman is baffled. The Government announces that for the first eight months of the year less than 1 per cent of the butter produced in this Nation was shipped abroad. At the same time, 11 per cent of the cheese products were shipped out. Of the total supply of pork products in the Nation, 15 per cent w'ere sent abroad, and only 1 per cent of the beef and veal. That being so, how is it that the butter shortage is acute, but cheese is readily available on the home front? How is it that there is an acute shortage of steer beef and not of veal and pork? The layman is entitled to an explanation. He Is willing to make sacrifices if given the real reason why he should. THIS AND THAT I By Charles E. Tracewell. "TAKOMA PARK, Md. "Dear Sir: "Your column In The Evening Star is a daily pleasure of my whole nature loving family. "Since we moved i^to beautiful Ta koma Park this summer, we were very happy to spend our vacation at home enjoying the wildlife. "I have been tempted to write each time some one has written to you about squirrels. About a month ago I discov ered a nest with four baby squirrels In a corner of my attic. The mother squir rel Is a great pet of the neighborhood and no one would ever want to harm her babies. "Since the babies were absolutely in the wrong place and were still too young to be put out on their own, a neigh bor helped me nail a comfortably lined bushel basket high in a tree as their nest. "For days I watched the basket, hop ing to see that the mother had discov ered her babies. Soon I caught sight of her slipping into the basket. "In a few days little noses bobbed out of the top. And finally, about a week ago. I saw the big mother leading the four little ones around on the limbs of the tree. "It certainly has given me a happy feeling to know the mother found and took care of her brood. "Every evening I see them, all five, slip back into the basket for the night. "Very sincerely yours, E. J. W.” * * * * In a war-torn world, such idylls as this are helpful to keep the balance true. The wild creatures go right ahead trying to lead sane lives, despite the worst that man can do to them. Over in Europe the concentrations of planes is so great in some sectors that migrating birds have been forced to make a detour! In this country there is a scarcity of shotgun shells and small arms ammu nition. much to the delight of all small animals and birds. All things work out to the good of something. Many persons make money in a war. The animals go right on living. Squirrels do as much pure living as anything we know, and that is one reason why we like them. They show, as well as the next, how to be one’s self. Just a little better than most, we have always thought. And then when you consider what swell acrobats they are, and what born comics, you have a com bination sure to please. v * * * Mother squirrels, above all the other creatures of the forests, have a sure ability at finding their babies when lost. This is not true of some animals, and especially of the birds. If a nestling falls out, it almost always means its death, unless it is picked up by some kindly human being. In such cases it is necessary for the person to raise the bird "by hand.” This is not necessary with squirrels. All one has to do, as our correspondent proved, is to put the baby in a place where it will be seen by the mother. Several years ago a severe afternoon thunderstorm blew a young squirrel to the ground. The baby was not more than 4 inches long, and most of that was tail. It lay on the ground beneath the limbs of the tall locust from which it ! had fallen. A wire-haired terrier discovered it. He was barking at the foot of the tree, dashing forward and then draw ing back, in the nervous way these dogs have. We went over to see what he was barking at, and found the baby squirrel. It was breathing, but .that was about all. It was ice cold. The mother, all this time, was mak ing a peculiar moaning sound in the branches above. It was a queer noise. Squirrels have quite a vocabulary, but these words of sorrow over one lost are used only at such times. Once heard, these sad sounds will never be forgotten. m * m * We placed the baby in a crotch of the tree about 6 feet up. The mother came down like an arrow straight to her infant. She laid it out across the branch, and swiftly licked it all over, to warm it up and restore the flow of blood. Then she seized it in her mouth, and ran aloft to the summer nest, high in the tree. This is the real squirrel cradle, an extremely large "bird’s nest,’’ about 18 inches across. Some time later three healthy babies were scurrying through the limbs of that tree, leading their mother a merry chase. * * * * It is always best to take squirrels out of an attic. They are such lively and mischievous things that they are better off in a tree, where they belong. This fall there .seems to be an unusu ally large number of young squirrels, probably due to the conditions named. • Lack of ammunition and millions of hunters abroad in the armed forces.) Wildlife naturally profits, to the ex tent of replenishment of the ranks. Extension of the suburbs year by year helps in this, because the squirrels are protected, being generally regarded as a proper part of the suburban scene. They find much food which has been put out mainly for the birds, in addi tion to the end products of many nut bearing trees. Most persons who feed j the birds try, at first, to keep the squir : rels away, but mostly end up by per mitting them to eat as they please, since they are persistent animals, and need a large amount of food, due to their high rate of metabolism. Letters to the Editor Discusses Historic ! Role of Haiti. To th» Editor of Th* Star: The visit of the President of Haiti recalls to Americans the generally un recognized part played by that island in the history of their nation. At the close of the 18th century, European rivalries involving France, Spain and Great Britain, all claiming territory here and opposing our expansion beyond the Mis sissippi, led to an effort by Napoleon to establish a New France in this hemi sphere. The Haitian Army, recruited by a former slave, Touissalnt L'Overture, drove the French, under Napoleon’s brother, out of their island, thwarting the intent to use Haiti as a base for invasion of America by way of French Louisiana. At that time "three-eighths of our exports had to pass through New Orleans to market, from our western settlements," as Jefferson knew so well, and Louisiana included what Is now Texas. Taking advantage of Napoleon's need for money and the disappointment from Haitian opposition, Jefferson, with the aid of Livingston, Madison and Monroe, bought Louisiana Territory for $80,000,000, one-fourth of which went to Americans for claims against France. That acquisition gave the United States untold wealth, land from Canada to the Gulf and from the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains, provided the stage for the frontier to enact a program of free enterprise, and furnished the eco nomic basis for a policy of isolation from which we are dragged by socio-economic changes. CHARLES M. THOMAS. Argues for Adoption of ! Federal School Subsidies. To the Editor of The Star. The educational opportunities of sev eral million school children hang upon a decision of the United States Senate. A bill, S. 627, nitroduced Jointly by Senator Elbert D. Thomas of Utah and Senator Lister Hill of Alabama, would provide emergency funds for keeping schools open during the war and ad justing certain inequities of schooling which are greatly handicapping the war effort, and will give us a generation of young people ill prepared for the main tenance of a peace .which we hope this time will be permanent. Last school year, more than 80.000 teachers left the Nation's classrooms. It is expected that some 100,000 will leave this winter. Some of these teach ers have entered the armed forces and auxiliary services, but the most wide spread and at the same time preventable cause for the teacher flight from the schools, is inadequate salaries. Those are as low as $568 on a State-wide aver age. There are 360,000 teachers in the United States whose salaries are less than $1,200; 66,000 whose salaries are less than $600, and 10,000 receive $300 or less for a year’s work. In the face of a shortage unprece dented in educational history war ac tivities of the schools have tremendously increased. The vocational shops of the public schools have to date prepared more than 6,000,000 youth and adults in the specific skills of the war indus tries. They still have an important re sponsibility in the training of the coun try’s war manpower. In the high schooLs are more than a million boys, who, if the war lasts another year, will be in the armed forces. These boys are being given pre-induction training in courses, including physical fitness courses, worked out by the schools In co-operation with the War and Navy Departments. Last Letters to the Editor must bear the name and address of the writer, although the use of a pseudonym for publication is permissible. The Star reserves the right to edit all letters with a view to condensation. month the director of the Selective Serv ice System issued a directive to local selective service boards to seek the as sistance of the local schools in the edu cation of a half million illiterate men who cannot be accepted for military service until they learn to read and write. During last school year alone the teachers and pupils of the schools were responsible for the sale of thou sands of dollars’ worth of War bonds and stamps. These and scores of other activities directly imposed upon the schools by all-out war will have to be curtailed unless the schools have finan cial help. The amount of money which the Hill Thomas bill would make available is $300,000,000. This is an average of about $10 per child per year in the United States. This is certainly not an ex orbitant increase in the cost of a year of schooling. The legislation specifically reserves the control of the schools to local school authorities and prohibits the Federal Government from any juris diction over administration, organiza tion, Instruction, methods of instruction and materials of instruction. The failure of the schools effectively to assume their wartime duties is serious enough. A curtailment of their services to peace Is more serious still. If we are unwilling to add $10 per year per child to give us the enlightened citizenry upon which self-government depends, then what are we fighting for? BELMONT FARLEY, National Education Association. Relates Difficulty of Carrying Books To and From Defense Plant. To the Editor of The Star: 1 enjoyed very much Charles E. Tracewell's column “This and That’’ in the September 22 issue of The Star, in which he replied to a reader on the subject of reading books while riding to work. The habit of reading books on the cars and buses is one which I never utilized very often while living in my native home, Washington, prob ably because I was always too deeply engrossed in the ever-interesting beauty of that city. But, now that I live and work in a large and typical American city, domi anted by industry, I no longer have opportunity to enjoy vivid scenery while riding to work. Consequently, I de veloped the habit of -reading books along the way. But recently a most unfortunate problem has arisen and I am wondering just how many others have become the victims of this mis fortune. The defense plant in which I work is one in which a worker may enter with the book he reads while travel ing to work, but, in order to take the book with him after work, it is neces sary to obtain a special pass slip each day from the department head. Since doing this would not be very practicable, the reader-worker must give up his op portunity to gain new knowledge, and thus resort to either daydreaming or sleeping, or possibly reading the news paper. ROBERT EMMET BURKE. Chicago. Haskin's Answers To Questions By Frederic J. Hctskln. This paper puts at your disposal the service of an extensive organiza tion in Washington to answer ques tions. This bureau cannot attempt to diagnose disease. A doctor should be called in all such cases. You have only to address The Star Informa tion Bureau, Frederic J. Haskin, Director, Washington, D. C„ and in close 3 cents for return postage. Q. Please give the number of Executive orders and the number of laws since 1933 —H. M. E. A. In the 10-year period from 1933 to 1942, inclusive, 3,565 executive orders were issued, while Congress passed 4,304 public laws. Q. Why is Colorado called the Cen tennial State?—J. E. N. A. The reason is that it was admitted to the Union on August 1, 1876, 100 years after the Declaration of Inde pendence. Q. How many workers have been em ployed in salvaging the former eteam ship Normandie?—V. R. A. The task has required from 600 to 800 workers for more than & year and Is considered the greatest and most difficult naval salvage operation. Q. When was Beethoven’s “Ninth Sym phony” first performed in public?—E. L. H. A. This great work was completed late in 1823 and first given on May, 7, 1824, in Vienna after receiving only two hur ried rehearsals. In the Beethoven note books there are sketches for this sym phony dating back 30 years. Q. Are there any vitamins in oleo margarine?—S. C. K. A. Oleomargarine contains both vita mins A and D. Q. Who holds the world’s record in typing?—P. H. A. Miss Margaret Hamma of New York established a new professional record of 149 words per minute for one hour in a contest held in Chicago in 1941. Since that time no contest pro grams have been held owing to exist ing conditions. Q What were the names of the flag ships of Admirals Parragut, Porter and Dewey?—N. C. A. They were as follows: U. S. S. Hart ford, Admiral Farragut; U. S. S. Black Hawk, U. S. S. Malvern and U. S. S. Octorora, Admiral Porter; U. S. S. Olym pia. Admiral Dewey. Q. What position did J. Edgar Hoover hold before becoming director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation?—C C. A. He was special assistant to the Attorney General and assistant director of the FBI. Q When was Mammoth Cave in Ken tucky discovered?—E. H. T. A. The cave was discovered in 1809 by a hunter named Hutchins reputedly as he was chasing a bear into its en trance. It must have been known earlier, however, for reference was made to the entrance in the county records of 1797. Q. What modern city stands on the site of ancient Troy?—A. L. D. A. The modern Turkish city of His sarlik is the traditional site of ancient Troy. The famous dispute concerning the exact site began about A.D. 180 and was not settled until 1893. Q What inscription has been selected for the Rushmore Memorial in South Dakota?—A. H. J. A. There is no inscription on the memorial, and it is not contemplated that there ever will be one. Q. How many words are there in the Oxford English dictionary?—J. V. A. The number is given as approxi mately 725,000. Q. When was the first scheduled race between an airplane and a railroad train?—F. G. R. A. The first race was from Chicago to Springfield. 111., on September 29, 1910, between an airplane piloted by Walter Brookins and a train of the Illinois Central Railroad. The prize of $10,000 was won by the airplane. Q. What connection if any did Eng land have with the XYZ correspond ence?—B E. R. A. It was because France was in censed about our negotiation of Jays treaty with Great Britain that decrees were issued against our shipping, and that our Minister Charles C. Pinckney was not received. This was the beginning of the Franco-American misunderstand ing. during which the XYZ correspond ence occurred. Q. How much ore is required to pro duce one gram of radium?—I. D. A. One gram is obtained from nine tons of Belgian Congo ore, as compared with one gram from 400 tons of Amer ican ore. A gram is equal to about 1, 28 of an ounce. Q. What literary works are believed to have had the greatest influence upon human thought?—R. T. H. A. According to "Halleck's English Literature," "with the exception of the Scriptures, Shakespeare's dramas have surpassed all other works in molding modern English thought. If a person should master Shakespeare and the Bible, he would find most that is great est in human thought, outside the realm of science.” October Afternoon—1943 This afternoon, I watch a gardener rake The litter from a bed of fleurs-de-lis; Cut back the flattened blades—I pray for France— Her lily flowering free! This afternoon, I watch a gardener plant Sad tulip bulbs, and, watching, make a prayer For the release, by spring, of Holland’s fields— Bright tulips risen there. This afternoon, I xcatch a gardener set In earthy roxvs the bulbs of daffodils And pray, by springtime, such may bloom in peace On England’s gentle hills. VIOLET ALLEYN STOREY.