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With Sunday Morning Edition. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. WASHINGTON. D. C. The Evening Star Newspaper Company. M*ln Ounce: nth St end Pennsylvania Ave. New York Office: 110 East 4'Jnd St. Chicago Office; 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. ^ Regular Edition. 4 Sundays. A Sundays. Evening and Sunday SOc per mo. 80c per mo. *5® 5v®n»n« Star- 50c per month The Sunday Star . 10c per copy ejtgi Final Edition. 4 Sundays. A Sundays. Night Final and Sunday 80c mo. $1.00 mo. Night Final Star- 66c per month Outside of Metropolitan Area. Delivered by Carrier. The Evening and Sunday Star .$1.00 per month The Evening Star — _ _ 60c per month The Sunday Star_ 10c per copy Rates by Mai!—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United States. _ . _ 1 month. 6 months, 1 year. Evening and Sunday $100 $6 tut *12 00 Tie Evening Star .75 4.oo goo The Sunday Star.. .50 2.50 5.00 Telephone National Sofro. Entered at the Post Office. Washington, D. C.. as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to ♦he use for republication of all news dispatches credited to It or not otherwise credited in this fn^ tlso ,h® l8c,i news published herein. AH rights of publication of special dispatches herein also are reserved i^-l^^_TCESDAY^Octo^26^943 Giving Efficiently Two million dollars must be raised within the next four days if the Community War Fund drive is to be completed on schedule as planned. According to the latest report. 58.6 per cent of the total objective has been subscribed. It is believed that the present deficit can be met, pro viding every resident of Metropolitan Washington and nearby Maryland and Virginia responds both gener ously and promptly. Any such effort is important in Itself as an example of large num bers of neighbors working together for the achievement of a single pur pose. The campaign this year is particularly significant also because of its relation to the struggle over seas. But it has other connota tions of high idealism. The people of the Capital of the United States have learned to solve their social problems voluntarily and co-opera tively, and they realize that it is practical democracy so to do. Let it be repeated that the War Fund is a scientific philanthropy. It is all-inclusive, it is direct, it is effective and its operating costs are reduced to the minimum. Through its facilities, a donor may help co incidentally the United Service Or ganizations, the United Seamen's Service, the Wrar Prisoners’ Aid Com mittee. the United States Committee for European Children, a dozen dif ferent agencies doing relief work in Russia, China, Greece and other countries in the war zone and all the necessary “home front” organiza tions upon which the poor, the sick, the blind, the very old and the very young, “the otherwise forgotten folk” depend. No individual striving alone could hope to accomplish an equal amount of good with the same means. Only through fellowship in giving can'the greatest and speediest benefits be had. The War Fund has facilities which reach around the globe yet do not omit the next street. By taking advantage of them, a subscriber may feed a starving baby in Athens or Chungking, provide badly wanted comforts to soldiers in Italy or New Guinea, give sorely needed assistance to families overwhelmed by misfor tune within shouting distance of j Community Chest headquarters. To all its readers. The Star appeals fn the War Fund’s behalf. Our pioneer ancestors, starting in cold, soon learned to outdo the clever American Indians at every one of their best tricks, product of ages of practice. From what Senator Russell says of our men in the Far Pacific, they have made the same sort of record against the highly practiced Jap jungle fighters. Contrast Occasionally the comic strips and the movies may give the impression that our airmen have a gay time of it bombing the enemy. In real life, though, the job is a difficult and grim one, full of unusual physical and mental strain. As described by General David N. W. Grant, air lurgeon of the Army Air Forces, it is something like this: One look into the pilot’s cabin of a B-17 will convince you that its flight is actually an engineering operation demanding manual and mental skills which put the driving of an automo bile in the kiddy-car class. * * * The co-ordinated operation of all gadgets would be difficult in the swivel chair of your office. But cut the size of your office to a five-foot, cube, engulf it in the roar of four 1,000-horse power engines, increase your height to around four or five miles. Then get into a flying suit, gloves and shoes all heated by electricity, put on a helmet with earphones, cover your eyes with goggles and the rest of your face with an oxygen mask con taining a microphone, strap on your parachute, and it might be weil to add about sixteen pounds of body armor. That will give you an idea of the normal conditions under which these men work. • * • You may have to face an occasional pain from ears, bends or intestinal gas expansion, a touch of dizziness, numbness from cold, or the subtle comatosity of anoxia (lack of oxygen). There will be interruptions to man machine guns against enemy attacks. Also due allowance must be made for a stream of machine-gun bullets or the burst of ack-ack sheils in your im mediate vicinity. And as the final touch to this bizarre picture of in tense concentration, add the fear of death. Somehow General Grant's words have a humbling effect. They make many an event on the home front seem mean, cheap and inexcusable. We balk at higher taxes here, we threaten strikes, we want more pay or more profits, and ive are getting Just a little bit fed up with some of the inconveniences of rationing. What our airmen face, the strains they endure and the dangers they cope with daily all over the world, is comment enough on the way so many of us in this country are in tent upon the selfish task of keeping this war as nice and Comfortable for ourselves as possible. The contrast is less than pretty. The Badoglio Interview The interview given by Marshal Pietro Badoglio to representatives of leading American and British news papers is a peculiarly revealing one. Giving straightforward and un equivocal answers to a list of search ing questions, the marshal not only clarified the present and future attitudes and policies of the pro visional government which he heads but also made several illuminating disclosures from the past. An an alysis of the interview as a whole affords an enlightening survey of Italy's position and actions from the genesis of the present war down to this time. Especially gratifying are the marshal’s assurances that he seeks no perpetuation of his own author ity or that of the regime he directs, which he recognizes as emphati cally an interim one, created by war time exigencies and due auto matically to terminate with the emergency which brought it into being. He likewise promises com plete collaboration with the United Nations in the common struggle against Germany and cites an im pressive list of services already per formed by his government and the armed forces loyal to its orders. Finally, he pledges sincere co operation with all Italian political parties, including the Communists, in a political "common front” de signed to eradicate the last vestiges of Fascism at home and prepare the ground for a resumption of normal political life after the war in ac cordance with the principles of lib erty and popular choice of govern mental forms and methods. The marshal gave assurances that Italy’s postwar foreign policy would be one of peace and nonaggression. “I am convinced," he slated, “that the Italian policy toward France, Yugoslavia and Greece after the war will be a policy of cordial, open friendship and that there will be no longer in Italy any one who would w'ant to revive territorial claims against them. Those claims were purely Fascist conceptions." It is in regard to past events that Badoglio was most revealing. He began by stating that, in the final diplomatic crisis of August, 1939, Mussolini did his best to dissuade Hitler from going to war, telling the Fuehrer that Italy was not pre pared and would be nonbelligerent. At that time the Duce seems to have been sincere, and “every one was convinced that we would never get into the war." But the amaz ing German victories of May. 1940, presented Mussolini with a tempta tion that he could not resist; so, against the unanimous advice of his generals and diplomats, including Count Ciano, he deliberately plunged Italy into the war. Mussolini’s cold-blooded cynicism is strikingly revealed by his answer to their remonstrances when he disclosed to them his secret pledge to Hitler to declare war on France and Britain by June 10th. “In September,” he asserted, “everything will be over, and I need some thousands of dead to be able to sit at the peace table ; as a belligerent." Badoglio draws from this conclusion that “responsi bility for the declaration of war rests exclusively on Mussolini." That, incidentally, accords with Church ill’s judgment in his speech delivered in the autumn of 1940 that "one man, and one man alone" was re sponsible for Italy’s plunge into the maelstrom. Equally revealing are Badoglio’s statements concerning the downfall of the Fascist regime last summer. He declares that it was entirely a “palace revolution within the Fascist ranks"; that the army had no hand in it, and that a popular rising was impossible under the repressive conditions which then prevailed. Mussolini’s overthrow was due to the disillusionment of his own partisans and colleagues at his cat astrophic blunders which had led his country to humiliation and im pending ruin. “He fell like a rotten pear," says Badoglio. What better epitaph could be framed for the political mausoleum of the “Saw dust Caesar"? Statistics show that in our Army there is one commissioned officer to every 11.65 enlisted men. The new inductee usually feels exactly as if he were the .65. Library Lectures The Writers’ Club of the Library of Congress presented last night the ! first of a new series of lectures on literary subjects of importance in the prevailing “age of transition.” Allen Tate, consultant in English poetry, was the speaker. He will be followed on successive Monday eve nings by Dr. Max Lederer, Dr. Horace I. Poleman, Dr. Arthur W. Hummell, Dr. Edwin G. Beal, jr„ and others qualified to discuss the art of letters as it is practiced in dynamic modern times. Admission to the Coolidge Auditorium will be free to all persons desiring to attend so long as seats are available. Such an enterprise, of course, has a distinctive value as an educational force. But it also is of interest be cause it brings the “faculty” of the world’s greatest bibliographic estab lishment into closer relation with the public. The scholars on the Library staff are men whose views of changing events are worthy of the attention of a much larger audience than they customarily meet in the ordinary routine of their labors. The Writers’ Club, sponsoring their appearance on the platform, is serv ing the best practical purposes of cultural democracy. It merits appreciation ip equal measure. Blind Justice The District Court of Appeals, acting under what it regarded as a mandate from the Supreme Court, has set aside the conviction of Washington’s so-called ’’society burglar.” To the credit of the ap pellate court, it may be said that this was done with obvious reluc tance and in the apprehension that the reversal would lead to a miscar riage of justice. The evidence''against the accused consisted of finding stolen goods in his home and a confession which he made voluntarily to police on the day of his arrest. There was no reason to believe that “third degree” methods had been used, or that the accused man had been threatened or mistreated in any way. But the police, after receiving the confession, waited a week before taking the prisoner into court, and it was this circumstance which convinced the Court of Appeals that the conviction would have to be set aside under the rule laid down by the Supreme Court in the McNabb decision of last March. This latter decision deserves more general attention than it has re ceived, for it is a striking illustration of the extent to which sentimental ity can sometimes obstruct the processes of justice. The McNabbs — three of them— were Tennessee “moonshiners.” In July of 1940 Federal officers attempt ed to catch them in the act of sell ing illegal whisky, but the suspects ran away. While the officers were pouring out the whisky a rock was thrown at them from a nearby ceme tery, and one of the officials turned his flashlight in that direction. Thereupon the moonshiners opened fire and the officer was killed—a plain case of cold-blooded murder. Police rounded up a group of sus pects and they were questioned in termittently for two days before confessions were obtained. There was no evidence of brutality or third degree methods. The suspects were advised by the chief investigator that they need not make any state ment and that they need not fear the use of force by the police. In these circumstances the confessions were admitted at the trial, in w-hlch the defendants were unwilling to take the stand in their own behalf, and the conviction was upheld in the Circuit Court. But the Supreme Court, while not contending the con- I fessions were made involuntarily, j nullified the conviction on the ' ground that the suspects had not been taken promptly before a com mitting magistrate or judge after they had been arrested. The court based its decision on the claimed authority of acts of Congress requir- ; ing that arrested persons be taken promptly before a committing au thority, although none of these leg islative enactments applies directly 1 to a case of this kind and Congress i has not forbidden the use of con- i fessions in evidence where there has j been delay in arraignment. Never theless, in this case, the court held the delay to have been unreasonable, and that the confessions therefore could not be used against the de fendants. The result is that the Supreme Court, in its extreme solicitude for the individual, has devised new technicalities which criminals may seize upon to escape just punish ment. In this instance a wanton murder goes unpunished for no valid reason related to the substantial rights of the accused. And, as evi denced by the local decision, the adverse effects of the Supreme Court’s action are beginning to be felt—and they will be increasingly felt—throughout the country. In a period when crimes of violence are on the increase, the lawbreakers are given substantial new hope of find ing refuge in technicalities, and the basic, but often neglected, rlgnt of law-abiding people to be protected against the depredations of criminals receives another setback. Father of Invention It has long been known that ne cessity is the mother of invention, but for some reason the father is not mentioned. A little thought will show that very probably the father is laziness. The prehistoric man who marie the first wheel must have been the laziest member of his tribe. The motorcycle is the natural production of a bicyclist who was born tired, and so on. Beneath the luster of inventors throughout j the ages has been the motto: "Let something else do it." be that some thing else gasoline, steam, electricity or what have you. To Montana goes the honor of tearing aside the illusion surround ing the paternity of invention and proving, beyond a shadow of a doubt, that it was sired by laziness and laziness alone. A man there was found by a game warden asleep at the shore of a lake, beside a basket of trout but with no rod. Asked for an explanation, he partially woke up j and sleepily pointed to a dog in the j lake swimming lustily for shore, i Attached to the animal’s tail was a line with a spoon hook, and on the hook was a three-pound trout. Groaning with the added effort, the vicarious fisherman next produced a license, legally issued to "Bingo, age three years, occupation, fish hound.” "Mighty glad you showed up, warden,” said the angler as the dog came ashore. “The only fly in the ointment is that Bingo can’t take fish off the hook and put them in the basket. You can do that. Ho, hum!” [ Nazis Not Yet Caught In Russian Traps By Maj. George Fielding Eliot. The Russians are driving a long nar row salient into the German defenses inside the Dnieper Bend. The point of this salient Is directed on the railway and mining center of Krivoi Rog. (There are some indications that Krivoi Rog already may have fallen, and inciden tally I should like to call attention to the fact that this column has to be written before the arrival of the daily Soviet communique, which is the one really reliable source of information on Russian accomplishments.) In any case, the Russian advance is on a narrow front between the rive^p Ingulets (on the west) and Saksagan (on the east*. Such an advance is par ticularly exposed to attacks on its flanks, which become more of a danger the farther it goes and the narrower 'the front of the advance becomes. The Ingulets is a considerable stream, but alone it is not enough to secure the Russian right flank against r German counterattack from the west, the direc tion in which the bulk of the German strength is to be found. It is natural, therefore, that the Rus sians should seek to widen the base and eventually the whole of their nar row salient, and this is just what appears to be happening. The eastern base of the salient has been broadened by a push down the right bank of the Dnieper, which, probably, in conjunction w'ith di rect attack across the river, has re sulted in the fall of the great city of Dnepropetrovsk. The Germans retiring from Dnepro petrovsk cannot use the main double track railway to the west, for it is already in Russian hands. They must retire along the single-track line toward the southwest, which runs by way of Apostolovo to Nikolaev, with a branch to Kherson at the mouth of the Dnieper. From Apostolovo, a branch line runs west through Krivoi Rog to connect with the Kiev - Znamenka - Nikolaev railway. If Krivoi Rog has fallen, the Russians may already he on their way to Apostolovo, thus sealing the last, route of escape for whatever number of Germans may now be trying to get out of the "big bend" area. We have no way of knowing how many there are. Many may have been evacu ated already. Others may fight their way through to safer locations. We shall not know the exact measure of the Russian success until the Russians tell us offi cially, and the yardstick of that success j will be the number of German prisoners j taken, or Germans surrounded and killed 1 inside the Russian trap. This is trap No. 1, and it, is almost closed. Trap No. 2 is the Crimean Pen insula, the main exit of which was closed with the fall of Melitopol, and the secondary exit, by way of the Perekop Isthmus and Kherson, seems likely to be elosed at any time as Soviet troops race across the plains south of the Dnieper to reach tne vicinity of Armvansk. where the new German railway from Kherson joins the old Crimean branch line. Trap No. 3 is the whole southern half of the “big bend’’ region, which is served by the railway running south from Znamenka to Nikolaev, with Its branch to Krivoi Rog. There is no transverse ! line connecting this railway with the parallel Kiev - Odessa railway to the west, for the whole length of the line i south of Znamenka. This is due to the excellent reason that there exists no railway bridge across the River Ingul. Front reports reaching Moscow say that the Russians are extending the bace of their original salient to the west, as ■well as to the east, and are thus threat ening Znamenka. If they take it. they have, in effect, taken Nikolaev and Kherson as well, always providing that they can hold fast against German counterattack. This would not. however, mean that all the German troops now within traps Nos. 2 and 3 would inevitably be cap tured. It would be possible to withdraw some of them by sea. under cover of darkness, and it would be possible to withdraw some of them by road from Nikolaev across to Vosnesensk, on the River Bug, northeast of Odessa. But the number that could be evacuated by these means is probably much less than the total number now within the traps. The Germans hardly can hope to make a last-ditch “Stalingrad" defense any where inside trap No. 3. The conditions are not favorable for it. They can counterattack, if they have the reserves. Their situation Is desperate, but is not yet hopeless. All depends on the forces they have available for counterattack, within the time limit which the Russian advances permit them. As to tran No. 2. the Crimea, it is ! quite conceivable that the Germans may make a suicide stand there on the Stalingrad model, supplying the garri son by sea as long as they are able to do so. In that case, we shall undoubtedly have a test of the remaining powg;- and abilities of the Russian Black Sea fleet operating from its recently recovered base at Novorossisk. To sum up the situation as it now appears: The shadow' of a disaster possibly Worse than that of Stalingrad hangs over the German Army, and par ticularly over the southern group of armies on the Russian front, under the command of Field Marshal von Mann stein. It is within the possibilities that the bulk of this force may be taken or destroyed within a comparatively short time. But this is not yet a certainty; for none of the Russian traps have wholly closed, and the full potentiality of German counterattacks has not yet been exhausted. (Copyright, 104.'!, by New York Tribune. Inc.) Army of Veterans Grows Prom the Topeka Capital. That phrase heard so often in war time, “When the boys come marching home again," is out of date. Many of the boys are already home, and more are returning each day. It was recently revealed that a total of 210,000 servicemen have been freed by the Army since Pearl Harbor, for rea sory of physical disability. While many became ill or were wounded in combat, the vast majority of these veterans never saw the enemy. They couldn't take strenuous Army training and developed ailments which made it necessary for them to return to civil life. Human weaknesses are not always easy to detect. Although men are in ducted only after careful physical and mental examinations, it takes the rigor ous life of training camps and combat to weed out those unlit lor service. THIS AND THAT By Charles E. Tracewell. “LEGATION STREET. “Dear Sir: "I wish to express to you my deep ap preciation of the letter you received from M. B. G. of Falls Church, Va., as published in The Evening Star recently. His finding of four dead sparrows at the base of a tree, taking the bodies to his office and then to his home, where he buried them near a maple tree, show's he is the possessor of a noble heart. Would that we had many more like him. We enjoy your articles in The Star. “Sincerely yours, J. C. B.” * * * * “THIRTY-SEVENTH STREET. “Dear Sir: “I have been reading your column for two months and I wonder if you could tell me if any specimens of fairy shrimp (Branchipust are found around Wash ington. "Also I would like to know if the fresh water polyzoa are very common around here. "We are studying this in biology at school, and I would appreciate it if you could give me any information about this in your column. "Thanking you, I am, "Sincerely, E. K. M." * * * * In these hectic days, when every one fights and criticizes, it is good to have appreciation of such small good deeds as burying dead birds. Not every one would do this, of course, but it is good when done. Not every one will lift a stricken dog or cat or squirrel off the roadway. Several years ago there W'as a most disgraceful exhibition of indifference on a downtown street. A black cat had been run over, and there it lay for days, being run over successively by thousands of cars, until at last it became just a pan cake of a shape in the street, and at last just a smeared outline. * * * * Our second correspondent wants to know about fairy shrimp, and various polyzoa or brvozoa. The latter look like moss, but the shrimp is something else again. It is a curious creature found in small ponds, or pools, particularly where the water is cold. They are widely distributed over the United States, but one usually must go along with an expert in such matters to find them. All of these curious creatures, bits of life utterly unknown to most persons, are to be found in. the right places, but often the search leads one into cold, muddy places, and sometimes into pools ! and puddles where there is some danger j of germs. So it is best at all times, in the search 1 for such life, to go with an experienced person, such as a teacher or enthusiast of some sort. After all, a teacher is an enthusiast, is he or she not? Teachers are enthusiasts about knowl edge and children. They have to be enthusiastic about education, or they would not stay In it. They could go into war work, and make a great deal more money. In ordinary times, they could become gasoline station attendants, and prob ably make more money. In the latter job, they would not be called upon to do all sorts of work for which other people ought to be paid. They are enthusiastic about children, all right. They have to be, to put up with them! But their love for knowledge and chil dren leads them to become the sainted characters ^hich we, in later life, know them to be, although at the time we knew them best we sometimes thought otherwise. * * * * Of all the teachers, the biology teacher has the hardest time of it, as he takes a big net, and a dipper, and a case, and leads a pack of jostling students into some smelly pool, in order to get a dip perful of protozoa. If the teacher at the same time hap pens to be a ‘'fish fan,” he kills two birds with one stone, since many of the crea tures to be found in fresh-water pools at;e good fish food for tropical specimen*. There are rotifers and daphnia and many a worm to be secured, all of which tropical fishes “go for” as the best pos sible food. Feeding tropical fishes in an aquarium spurs the owner on to all sort* of odd knowledge. He builds up batches of "white worms,” wrigglers good for fishes. He even sends to California for some eggs of the brine shrimp. This i* a small creature, very much smaller than the fairy shrimp. The brine shrimp lives, as its name suggests, only in salt pools. Its eggs will hatch out only on contact with salt water, whereas the eggs of the fairy shrimp will hatch out only on con tact with fresh water. Some of the fairy shrimp eggs are known as resting eggs, and at times seem to require drying out before they will hatch. This is true also of the brine shrimp eggs. Eggs of the fairy shrimp will re tain their fertility for 14 years. That is, they will remain dry for that time and subsequently hatch out if put in fresh water. We personally have a container of brine shrimp eggs which hatched out at the end of eight years, but experiment* with them after that were a failure. These eggs were secured in March, 1932. Today they look exactly as they did then, but somehow the mystery of life has gone out of them. Both brine and fairy shrimp swim upon their backs, and have little keen eyes which look out upon an odd world for a little time. We wonder if the shrimp find their world any more strange than man does his? Letters to the Editor Advocates Year’* Detention Of Dogs Suspected of Rabies. To the Ed.tor of The Star: The local alarm over the spread of : rabies recalls a bit of comment that appeared in the London Lancet some 25 years ago. It told how an English research laboratory wishing to obtain a specimen of "street rabies virus" as dis tinguished from "fixed rabies" (an at tenuated virus propagated in laboratory animals in preparing Pasteur treat ments) circularized every health officer in the United Kingdom without locat ing a single case of street rabies. Finally the laboratory was forced to import the desired specimen. Some years before Great Britain had put into force a very stringent law, re quiring that every animal be kept for I one year confined under observation before a license was granted. Every imported ammal was kept in quarantine for one year—the longest recorded period of incubation for street rabies. The result was the complete eradication i of the disease from the British isles. With our great open spaces yet inhab- j ited by coyotes and other predatory animals highly susceptible to rabies we could not hope to equal the success on Britain's tight little island. But some such measure, once enforced in all our populated communities, would prove a great blessing to both man and man’s most faithful friend, his dog, DWIGHT T. SCOTT. Theater Audiences Rebuked for Noise. To the Editor of The Star: One hesitates to assume that the pa trons of the National Theater inten tionally are insulting the excellent or chestras and the well-known conductors who have appeared there during the past two weeks. But it is difficult to believe that Washington audiences are so devoid of culture or ignorant of the elements of musical knowledge that they are not aware that the very charming overtures in both "Blossom Time” and "Oklahoma” are as much a part of the performance as are the catchy songs or the witty dialogue. Owing to the continuous chatter of the audience, it is impossible to hear the quieter portions of these overtures, and unless one is fortunate enough to have a seat within a few rows of the orchestra it is difficult to hear even the louder parts. Surely one is entitled to expect that audiences in the Capital City of the United States of America should be bet ter behaved. E. F. B. "Bright-eved Ones” Condemned for Waste. To the Editor of The Star: A faulty structure, based on boss rule, incompetence, waste and Ill-conceived planning, is doomed to disintegrate, but a substantial edifice erected on right eousness, justice and common sense will stand. The founders of this republic built their structure on sound, sane principles which endure. Those that attempt to tamper with truth and twist it into new and distorted patterns will eventu ally discover that true foundations can not be shaken. If we sow the seeds of dissension and squander our substance while defying economic laws, the harvest frill be bitter. Not so long ago certain bright-eyed ones decided to tamper with mother nature's laws in an effort to restore prosperity and burned wheat and slaughtered food animals just to get rid of them. Today, as a result of this stupid scheming, we Letters to the Editor must hear the name and address of the writer, although the use of a pseudonym for publication is permissible. The Star reserves the right to edit all letters with a view to condensation. have to beg for butter and bacon with scarcity confronting us. The ‘'fiscal paradise” which was to be created by repeated borrowings (deficits were said to be desirable) is rapidly be coming a people's "purgatory,” so bur dened are they with ever-mounting taxes. Stern measures should be taken to stem the waste, which still is very much in evidence. EDMUND K. GOLDSBOROUGH. Sales Tax Advocated For Its Constructive Results. To the Editor of The Star: Not to pass a long overdue national sales tax law at this time would be an act of supreme stupidity. Every effort should be made now to bring the tax muddle under tight control. This need stems from the chaotic mess in which the country now finds itself entangled—the pay-as-you-go or guess and-pay now, with refund and or pen alty later “victory” tax. This head ache-producer was probably a sincere effort by Congress to meet, in groping fashion, the need. Why not admit its tfltal failure? In respect to postwar needs, especially, it is full of holes and flaws. Philip Murray's squawk that the sales tax is inflationary may be ignored since no proof is offered. The only inflation is seen in his threat that labor (despite record gains far outdistancing living costs) will demand boosts to offset costs of a tax its leaders have decided to feel disgruntled over. These leaders seem willing to cultivate a measure of infla tion—as an aid to future demands— judging by their willingness to contrib ute to it. The sales tax is simple, direct, quick and easy to collect. Gains following its adoption would be instant and many. Millions of questionnaires, followups, paper w-ork obviated. Acres of filing space released. Thousands of tons of paper saved. Sizable reduction in the bureaucracy needed to administer it. Greater incpme tax exemptions and re peal of victory tax as demanded by Mr. Murray. If pressure is felt on every purchase, people would become more alert to Government waste, demand curbs on free-handed bureaucrats w'ho squander the tax money. Willful evasion would be impossible. The national sales tax is the sensible way, but it must be a real tax, not a hollow compromise. Few, if any, exemp tions. Taxes must be raised, not con jured out of a brass hat. Let's have the sales tax. WALTER BAHNSEN. Praise for Article By Star Columnist. To the Editor of The Star: I was thrilled by the reading of the article by Frank R. Kent in your issue of October 20. The timely and courageous presenta tion of his article, about w’ho are to be the dominating factors in America, in my opinion is the most serious situation concerning every citizen in our domestic affairs. We must and will win the war. We also must maintain our demo cratic system of government. C. J. S. Haskin's Answers To Questions By Frederic J. Haskin. This paper puts at your disposal the service of an extensive organiza tion in Washington to answer ques tions. This bureau cannot attempt to diagnose disease. A doctor should be called in all such cases. You have only to address The Star Informa tion Bureau, Frederic J. Haskin, Director, Washington, D. C., and in close 3 cents for return postage. Q. How many operations are required to make an Army flag?—T. L. A. Thirteen operations are now nec essary to the manufacture of the flags used by the United States Army. They are made at the Philadelphia Quarter master Depot. Q. When and where was the Unknown Soldier selected?—R. V. B. A. On October 24. 1921, in the Hotel de Ville, at Chalons-sur-Marne, Prance, the Unknown Soldier was selected by Sergt. Edward F. Younger of the Amer ican Forces in Germany. Four identical caskets, containing the remains of four soldiers, unidentified by name, but knowm to be American soldiers, were in position side by side. Sergt. Younger selected one of these four, to be known as the Unknown Soldier, by placing “a bouquet of roses” on his casket. Q. What is the highest rank in the Marine Corps?—R. E. N. A. The highest rank is that of lieu tenant general, the present commandant being Lt. Gen. Thomas Holcomb. Q. How does the income tax in this country compare with that paid by the people of Great Britain?—N. R, A. The income tax in the United States amounts to about 90 per cent of that paid by the people in Great Brit ain. According to figures of the National Industrial Conference Board, 27 per cent of the income of the United States in 1942 went for taxes, while 40 per cent in Great Britain went for taxes. Q. When was the first national politi cal convention held?—N. C. B. A. Prior to 1831 no such conventions were held and candidates were nomi nated either by State Legislature or by committees in Congress known as the congressional caucus. No nominations were made for the first two presidential elections. Q. How long does it take a snake to digest its food?—L. R. D. A. Usually 20 to 50 hours are required for digestion to reach its peak. The total time for digestion may be as long a3 five or six days. Q. Where is the highest weather sta tion in the world?—L. L. A. What is probably the highest sta tion is the one at Monte Rosa, Italy, at an elevation of 15,000 feet. Q. Does the name "Suwannee River” appear in Stephen Collins Foster's orig inal manuscript?—T. A. N. A. Sigmund Spaeth in Etude gave the following explanation: "Foster's original manuscript shows the name of the Pe dee River, which obviously invited ridi cule. His brother suggested Yazoo, which was even worse. Finally they took out a map of Florida, and a roving finger eventually stopped at the name of Suwannee. * * * ‘That's it,’ cried Steve, ‘that's it exactly,’ and so the Suwannee River became immortal." Q. Are tokens widely used to pay streetcar fares?—G. C. B. A. According to the American Transit Co., practically all the large cities use tokens for fares. Q. What is the amount of money that has been allocated to the President to date, to use as he sees fit?—E. L. H. A. Since July. 1940. over a billion dol lars has been allocated to the President for various purposes. Of this. $87,500,000 was for Government expenses and for purposes which he need not specify to Congress. All this money is allocated to various Government agencies which actually do the spending. Less than $50,000,000 of this has been used so far. Q. What is the largest crowd to at tend a baseball game at Sportsman's Park in St. Louis?—D. K. A. The largest crowd was on Sunday, July 12. 1931. wrhen 45,770 persons wit nessed a double-header between the St. Louis Cardinals and Chicago Cubs. Q. Which are warmer, gloves or mit tens?—L. W. B. A. Heavy mittens are warmer than gloves because in mittens the fingers warm one another. Q. How many people speak the Eng lish, Geripan and Japanese languages? —L. D. A. The English language Is spoken by 270,000.000 people; German by 78,947, 000; Japanese by 97,700.000. Q. How much is the earth flattened at the poles?—E. B. S. A The earth is very nearly a sphere for the flattening at each pole causes the distance from the center to either pole to be only about 13>2 miles shorter than the distance from the center to any point on the Equator. Q. How long was Samuel Gompers president of the American Federation of Labor?—C. McE. A. Mr. Gompers was president from 1886 to 1924, the year of his death, except for one year, 1895, when John McBride was president. These Are Forever Ours We do not have the magic to halt The sun nor the moon, to keep the day From yielding to the darkness, Nor the high space of stars from letting The light come, softly and tenderly. Yet these are pleasant hours to which We cling, permitting the precious jewels Of dreams to engrave themselves Into our lives. We have no regret Of the passing of days; there will be Discords that make us cringe When off-notes disturb the rich And even flow of the sweetest music, But we can keep always the memories Of the good; they are ours to be lived Again and again, just as we would pick up A book of poems to read the choicest Of them over and over, and often, Because they appeal to us, Because they are forever beautiful. LANSING CHRISTMAN.