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End of War
In Europe by Mid-'44 Seen Bv DAVID LAWRENCE. To understand the developments In this global war it is necessary sometimes to put all the different areas of operation into perspective and examine the whole picture. Such a perspec tive follows: 1. R u s s 1 a , Great Britain and the United States have be gun military col laboration. This is the biggest news of the war at the moment and may involve the creation of a Supreme War n»vid l.awrenr'. Council such as functioned in the last war. The results of the Moscow conference will be such a.s to elimi nate the gap that has existed here tofore between the Russians and the Anglo-American military staffs. 2. Tire so-called “second front” invasion of the European continent has long been decided upon but the Nazis must be left to guess the time and place or scope of the operations in Western Europe as compared with those to take place in Southern Europe and in the Balkans. 3. Operations in Italy, though of Immense tactical importance in the end, are secondary unless the Ger mans decide to make Italy a major battleground which they are reluc tant to do for fear of weakening their military strength in other areas. Hence the campaign in Italy will be slow-moving though the ac quisition of vital air bases will prove of help in the air attacks on South ern Germany and Austria. Marshall to Command. 4 Gen. George C. Marshall will command the big invasion unless events or other factors not now fore seen bring a change in plan. Gen. Eisenhower will come to Washing ton either as deputy chief of staff or as chief of staff to direct the office here in the event that Gen. Marshall goes abroad. If the in vasion operation becomes tlte big gest military movement of the Allies in the whole war and leads to Ger many's surrender, it Is important that a man of Gen. Marshall's tact and great ability should be on the spot, to cope with the complex prob lems that will arise as Russian armies sweep in from the east, as American and British armies sweep in from the west and as the forces of revolution and anarchy sweep in from all directions through the liberated countries. 5. Strategic air war now being conducted so effectively upon Ger man cities and factories by the Royal Air Force and the 8th United States Air Force will in due time be sup planted or in part substituted by tactical air operations on which our ground forces will depend to cover advances of troops and to devastate the huge fortifications erected by the Nazis in Northern France, Bel gium and along the northern coast of the continent. The strategic air war now going on is an integral part of and a necessary preliminary to the big invasion. Gen. Arnold's splendid command of and co-ordina tion of the whole air war is a big factor in its success. 6. War in the Pacific will be stepped up very soon. The next few months —maybe weeks—should see a major engagement between the American and Japanese battle fleets. The American forces have definitely taken the offensive and are deliberately trying now to com pel the Japanese naval units to rorne out of their fortified bases. Sufficient surface and air forces arc available to us now to expose our selves to major naval action. Is land-hopping except for the acqui sition of certain valuable bases for air support is virtually abandoned in favor of large-scale operations. Admiral King's direction of the Navy has been a masterly perform ance. Attack From All Points. 7. Japanese forces will be at tacked from the north, from the east, from the south and from the west in the next several months concurrently with a major British Ameriran attack on and invasion of Burma on such a scale as to com pel the Japanese to overextend their Imps of supply and render them vulnerable to attack by land and sea. R Antisubmarine warfare in the Atlantic is proceeding satisfactorily and while some measure of success is being and will be attained by Nazi U-boats with their new type torpedoes, even this success will be short-lived. Tire work of the Amer ican antisubmarine forces—air pa trol together with naval escorts— will some day be revealed as a de cisive factor In the winning of this war. *■ 9. President Roosevelt has not only given the United States chiefs of staffs every resource they re quested to bring about victory, but he has never interfered with mili tary judgments or overruled mili tary advice, thus showing every confidence in the commanders and their staffs and pursuing the tradi tional policy of the Commander in Chief under the American system The American people have just cause to be proud of their entire high command and of its cordial and effective liasion with the staffs of Great Britain. 10. The end of the war in Europe assuming that the "breaks" are with us and not against us, may come by the middle of autumn of 1944. The war in the Pacific will take at least a year longer. Internal collapse or "crackup" due to psychological fac tors induced by fear of military consequences could bring the war to an end much earlier not only in Germany but in Japan. The fore going outlook, however, is predicated wholly on the continued resistance Of the enemy and the logical evolu tion of our military power. | tReproduetion Rlihte Reserved.) On The Record— By DOROTHY THOMPSON. When the German Army, which already knows that it has lost the war, decides to surrender, how will it go about it? Inability to answer this j question may i prolong the war. Armies | can go on j fighting for considerable time after they have lost a war, j w hen the y have space to ; maneuver in, j as the Ger i mans have. Dorothy Thompson, ( But they never do it by choice. Generals are more cold-blooded | about winning or losing wars | than civilians are. Defeat always | enters their calculations. After i the last war many German eivil ! ians committed suicide, notably Albert Ballin, president of the Hamburg-American Line, but no | general shot himself. In this war two marshals were ; the first of their countrymen to admit defeat: Marshals Petain and Badoglio. Ludendorff was j the first to admit defeat in the 1 last one. Civilians hope for miracles. Army men trust their own science. Feeling responsi bility for their troops, they do j not continue to engage them when they know by the most exact calculation that the jig is up. They are accustomed to dis engagements after lost battles, and an armistice is only the final disengagement. So, if the generals had their way, it is reasonable to suppose that they would surrender to morrow. or after fighting their way further off Russian soil. Keitel t ould surrender. Marshal Keitel, as head of the German high command, could, regardless of the civil power, sur render directly to the Allies. But this would leave a dangerous situation inside of Germany. He could not surrender Marshal Goering's air force, because it is not under his command, nor the navy, though he might bring it with him. Nor could he sur render the S. S„ which is a party army, directly under Hitler. Nor could he surrender the country, nor accept any political terms, for he has no political authority. The normal procedure would be for the army to do what Lu dendorfT did in 1918: Demand that the government sue for an . armistice, and thus make the surrender through the govern ment. But it is all but unimag inable that Hitler would do this. And there is no legal way to oust Hitler, without his consent. The legal situation is alto gether different from that in Italy, where there was an in stance above Mussolini, namely the King, who could demand the resignation of his Prime Min ister. Holds Two Offices. The highest instance of the German state is the president, and Hitler is both president and prime minister, merging both of fices in the title "Feuhrer.” Tech nically tile only way to get a surrender government would be ior Hitler to dismiss himself as prime minister and appoint a government to countermand his own desires, or resign as presi dent, leaving the post open for some one who could dismiss him. There would be advantages in this, for the generals, who will be eager to avoid civil war. For that they must dissolve the S. S. over which Hitler, in third func tion, as head of the party, has sole authority. A dissolution of the S. S. by Hitler or by a gov ernment appointed by Hitler would certainly contribute to col lapse of German morale. If, on the contrary, the gen erals should arrest Hitler the S. S. could be a factor under a new’ party leader, and there would be no authority uncon testably legal. Thus a transition from a Hitler government to another govern ment would have to divide the two offices: Prime minister and president. If Hitler could be "liersuaded” by whatever meth od, to resign as president, how could Germany get another? Constitution Never Abrogated. The Weimar constitution lias never been formally abrogated. It provides only for an election, and that would be impossible in the moment of surrender with the S. S. intact. In itself it would mean civil war. If Hitler should die m office, naturally or un naturally, there is still no con stitutional method of providing for an immediate successor, as acting president. Hitler took advantage of this short-coming, when, upon Hindenburg’s death, he appointed himself President pro tom, and then got himself ratified by an election in which he was the only candidate. But there is at least a prece dent for another procedure. When the first President, Ebert, died in office, a special law passed by the Reichstag, appoint ed the president of the supreme court, temporarily, to the office. The law only applied to the spe cial case, but it might be in voked in lieu of anything else. Tire president of the supreme court is Dr. Erwin Konrad Bumke, w'ho is a conservative, not a Nazi. The supreme court itself, represents an unbroken juridical tradition and link with pre-Hitler times. Hitler, who has taken every step with some show of legality, was unable to swal low the supreme court and cre ated his own "peoples’ court" for political purposes. The presi dent of the supreme court, as acting president, could appoint a new government. In 1939, at the outbreak of war. Hitler, "in veiw of the risks to his person," appointed his suc cessors to the merged office of Fuehrer: Goering and Hess, and, in case of the death of both, any one appointed by the party. But his sucession has no legality at all. Look at it how you will. Hitler has either got to dismiss him self from one or another of his offices—even if at the point of a pistol—or Hitler must die, perhaps at the front or of some obscure disease, in order to ob tain a legal surrender govern ment. Maybe, all of these will be conjoined. The only alternative is an open, instead of veiled, military coup d >tat. Rp]p?r-rr! bv Thp Rrli Syndicate. In'* ' CJ'HE opinions of the writers on this page are their own, not necessarily The Star's Such opinions are presented in The Star’s effort to give all sides of questions of interest to its readers, although such opinions may be contradictory among themselves and directly opposed to The Star's. The Great Game of Politics— 1 By FRANK R. KENT. The situation which the aggressive candidacy of Mr. Willkie has made in the Republican party is not wholly without humor. Certainly, there is something amus- jga&Hr ing in the inabil ity of the Re publican poli ticians who so violently oppose him to conceal their inner anx ' iety lest they have guessed wrong and the ubiquitous, and turbulent gentle man from Indi ana, not only acquire the Frank h Krai. : nomination but be elected as well, | Their bitterness toward Mr. Will kie Is intense. Particularly is this so among Republican Senators, iFour-fifths of these are exceedingly 'hostile to this nomination, and it is probably true that most of the Re publicans in the House are distinctly unfriendly. In addition, a poll of the Republican National Committee, at. the moment, would reveal much more than a majority of anti-Willkie members. When one reflects that these three groups the Republican Senators, the Republican Represen tatives and the Republican Commit teemen—are normally dominant in Republican organization politics and normally in control of the delega tions to the national convention from their respective States, the prospects of Mr. Willkie's nomination would seem extremely remote. Indeed, they would be completely negligible but for certain political assets which are peculiarly his own and which to a considerable extent offset his party opposition and bal ance his lack of tact, taste and dis cernment. In the interests of clarity it may be useful to present them. I onnrienrp m Sell. There is, for example, his absolute , confidence in himself. He not only is sure that he will be nominated, but he is Just as sure that he will be elected. It must be admitted that a plausible argument can be made on both counts. So far as the nomina tion is concerned in June. 1940. when he got to Philadelphia, he had much the same political setup against him as he has today. In little more than a week he had over come the opposition and routed the two leading candidates — Senator Taft and Mr. Bewey. j This time, Mr. Willkie is the only open and active candidate for the nomination. He lias been working like a beaver for the last two months. For the next eight, all his energy and time will be devoted to promot ing his candidacy. No other man mentioned for the nomination is in position to challenge him. The two other outstanding possibilities—Gov. Dewey and Gen. MacArthur—are de barred not only from any movement in their own interests but from any encouragement of their friends. The Governor, by his public and private statements, are removed lrom the field and could enter only in the event of a genuine and utterly un planned ‘'draft'’ such as has never occurred before. Keeping Faith With Your Physician And You. Filling your prescription exactly as the doctor directs is the v/ay pharmacy is practiced at "Peoples." You can be certain that here only professional pharmacists — long - schooled and fully e perienced — compound prescriptions, using high quality pharmaceuticals from nationally famous houses. N : AT "PEOPLES"... (1) Your prescription is filled promptly ... (2) With the finest pharmaceuticals ... (3) By a professional pharmacist... (4) Then double-checked for accuracy .., (5) And priced to save you money. Bring Your Next Prescription to "Peoples" PEOPLES DRUG STORES Conveniently Located ALL OVER TOWN Couple all this with the facts that Mr. Willkie has a potent press sup port, and a real popular following, and, despite the bitterness toward him, his advantages in the nomina tion race are obvious. As for the election, his friends point out that Mr. Roosevelt defeated him in 1940 by a majority of less than 5,000,000; that in the nature of things the President cannot be as strong now as he was then; that a shift of less than half a million votes in the pivotal States would reverse the re sult; that Mr. Willkie has not lost strength since 1940, but gained it, and that the Republicans who op pose him for the nomination will [support him after he gets it. Progress With Negro Vote, All of this is, of course, a one ! sided argument and will be vigor ously disputed by those who regard Mr. Willkie as almost as <much a New Dealer as Mr. Roosevelt and hold it would be "suicidal'’ for the Republicans to nominate him. There arc a good many such in the party. Nevertheless, there is one asset which Mr. Willkie has acquired since 1 1940 that ought not to be overlooked. This is the progress lie has made with the Negro vote, which more or less holds the balance of power in eight or nine pivotal States above tlie Mason and Dixon line. In 1936 and again in 1940, though for 50 years this vote had belonged to the Republican party. Mi'. Roosevelt, got more than 90 per cent of it. This was partly due to Federal patronage and the WPA. but a very great con tributing factor was Mrs. Roosevelt. Mr. Farley, who directed the early New Deal strategy to capture the Negroes, thinks she should get the largest credit. Now the claim is made by his friends and also by some detached and posted observers—that Mr. Will kie lias acquired great strength among the Negro leaders; that lie would poll more Negro votes against Mr. Roosevelt than any other Re publican candidate; that he is, in fact, as popular as Mr, Roosevelt with them, though not as popular as Mrs. Roosevelt. There are a number of reasons for this, but mainly it is due to his plea to tiie moving picture industry, a year or so to cease discrimination against the Negroes. This plea was so earnest and impassioned as to sweep the important Negro leaders who heard it off their feet and win for Mr. Willkie their unstinted friendship ana gratitude. The really practical politicians be lieve that any considerable loss of his Negro support would more surely deleat Mr. Roosevelt than anything else. Certainly he could not have won without it last time. Indian Rose From Ranks C D, Desmukh, the first Indian to be made governor of the Reserve Bank of India, had been deputy governor since 1941 and before that head of various financial depart ments of tIre government. I . Moscow Conferees Well Aware Of Balkans' Compromise Need By BLAIR BOLLES. In 1925 Joseph Stalin told a Yugo slav Communist named Semicli. who was in Moscow for a meeting of the Yugoslav Commission of the Communist International, that Yugoslavia “cannot escape the in fluence of the great forces that are at work beyond her borders." Now Yugoslavia has been pressed by “great forces." the human wish for something new and closer to perfection, into a revolution. Yugo slavia and Greece provide the two revolutions born of this war. Peo ple in both countries are struggling to create a* society they lacked before the war. They struggle from deep conviction. The closest students of the con flict in the two countries find it as hopeless to expect that the revo lutionary Partisans will embrace Gen. Mihailovich or that the revo lutionary Greek guerrillas will re voke their stand against King GEN. MIHAILOVICH. —A. P. Radiophoto. George II as to have expected that Abraham Lincoln would have tem porized with the Confederacy. On Moscow Agenda. These Balkan problems are on the Moscow agenda, and it is be lieved here that the representatives of tlie three governments meeting in Moscow are realistically aware of the unlikelihood of unifying the opposing forces on a compromise basis or of further disuniting the common guerrilla front against the King of Greece. The prospect of unity between the two factions in Yugoslavia today— Partisans, who conduct military operations both to injure the Axis and to further a political revolu tion. and the followers of Mihailo vich—is so remote that the high politicians have to consider a more striking side of the question: Shall the revolution be given it' head or shall it be stopped? Russia favors the development of the revolution in Yugoslavia, al though it is doubtful whether this revolution Is Marxian. Points of Disagreement. Fundamental disagreement be tween the Partisan forces of Gen. Josip Broz (Tito) and the followers of Mihailovich center around a number of points. The primary one is that Tito favors the Yugoslavian state concept of three peoples. Slovenes, Serbs, Croats, united beneath the banner of one government which would serve them all equally and demo cratically. Mihailovich is a product of the Yugoslavian army circle which be fore the war worked for the estab lishment of a Serbian hegemony over the two other Yugoslav peo ples. In times when Europe's future often is discussed in terms of the possibility of federations, Yugoslavia offers an example of an attempt at federation. The country was born of the World War. It was mothered by Serbs. Croats and Slo venes joining in the 1917 Declara tion of Corfu and fathered at the Versailles conference. Almost from the outset of the new kingdom s existence, the Slo venes and Croats felt that Yugo slavia’s King Alexander was gov erning according to a Serbian nationalist policy injurious to the aspirations of Slovenes and Croats. Their fears were supported in 1929 when Alexander—who was favor ably regarded in democratic society outside Yugoslavia on account of his foreign policy—proclaimed a dictatorship. Corfu Declaration. Tire Partisans’ struggle represents another step in the progress since 1917 toward a realization of the Corfu declaration. King Peter, the boy monarch in Cairo, is suspect of passionate Yugoslavs because he is the son of Alexander and because his government-in-exile has been dominated by nationalist Serbian thought. Mihailovich is suspect further in the Partisans’ mind because that government-in-exile made him its Minister of War. He can't escape identification with the Serbianism of that government. Whatever Mi hailovitch's real views may be. he is compromised so far as the Parti sans are concerned. The Greeks in turn resent the memory of the active rule of King George II because he summoned the late Metaxas to the prime min istership and Metaxas subsequently established a stern Fascist dictator ship. The guerrillas' demand that the King remain out of Greece until a plebiscite is held on the question of his return springs from a yearn ing toward democracy. Two Flee San Quentin With Aid of Fire Bomb Et ’h*- Associated Pr*«s. SAN QUENTIN. Calif.. Nov. 1 — Two convicts sawed their wav out of San Quentin Prison yesterday and used a fire bomb to confuse a prison guard who shot at them with his rifle. They escaped from the prison yard. Warden Clinton Duffy identified the prisoners as Gabriel Marcias 19. serving a term for robbery, and George Wells. 26. second termer sent up on three counts of burglary , Warden Duffv said a shortage of 25 guard* probably encourged Mar cias and Wells to make the break. 1 y£jr IF YOU’RE PLANNING TO BUY A HOME . . . REFINANCE YOUR MORTGAGE . . . OR MODERNIZE AND REPAIR . . . . . . INVESTIGATE the va riety of real estate loan plans available at American Security. American Security & TRUST COMPANY MAIN OFFICE: FIFTEENTH STREET AND PENNSYLVANIA AVENUI CENTRAL BRANCH: 7TH AND MASSACHUSETTS AVE., N. W. . SOUTHWEST BRANCH: SEVENTH AND E STREETS, S. W, NORTHEAST BRANCH: EIGHTH AND H STREETS, N. E. NORTHWEST BRANCH: I MO FIFTEENTH ST., N. W, Back the Attack: Buy War Bonds MEMBER FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION • FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM McEvoy— Would Teoch Basic 'Chinglish' Bv J. P. MeEVOY. Not so long ago, Winston Church ill stepped up to the microphone at Harvard, laid that stogie down, and—smack in the middle of a radio address— did a three on i n u t e com mercial for Ba sic English. The reaction wras in stantaneous and t remendo us. Everybody asked everybody else what is Ba sic English and no sooner were the subject and they told than j. r. McEvoy. they ch a n g e d never referred to It again. Being something of a slow-witted fellow, I can't drop things as fast as my brighter friends. My brain is just like a sheet of flypaper. Once a piece of information gpt,s caught there, it buzzes around con tinuously until either It gets away or collapses on its face with its pathetic little rear up in thp air, at which time it is rpvpresntly re moved and room made for another fact. Well, that's the way It was with Basic English. I learned it con sisted of only 830 words- or was it 850?—(the radio chokpd slightly at that point)—and it seemed to me that Mr. Churchill's suggestion made sense—that Basic English could very well be the universal language which many people believe would make for world peace. I have my own private doubts on this subject because when you don't understand what people are saying, you can't argue with them but as soon as you understand them, you begin to contradict, quarrel, and the first thing you know the neighbors are calling the police. Point Pretty Devastating. Anyway, it was only a few,' days later—Basic English was still buzz ing around in my brain, a bit feebly by this time, to be sure—when along comes a Chinese gentleman who differed with Mr. Churchill You see what I mean? If the Chinese didn't understand English he wouldn't have understood what Mr. Churchill was saving and there wouldn't have been any argument. But his point was pretty devastat ing. Why start with Basic English! he said in effect. More people speak Chinese than English, so why not make Basic Chinese the global lang uage? I asked my friend Jimmy Yen, who started the Mass Edu cation Movement in China, what he thought about that, for Jimmy had worked out a Basic Chinese years ago and taught millions of Chinese how to read and write it. Jimmy bowed. “Within the four seas all men are brothers.'’ he re plied with Confucian calm. Which 1 seemed to take care of that. And there it stands. Tp.p irre sistible Mr. Churchill versus the im movable Confucius. Can the Chi nese, in their immemorial way, eventually assimilate Winston, stale cigar and all? After centuries of success with Mongols. Manchus and missionaries, it would be the su preme test. His Idea Is Born. Fortunately, one basic language for all the world needn't wait for this finish fight between Mr. Churchill and Confucius. I have attended to the matter myself, as my personal contribution to post war planning. Like many great dis coveries, this, too, was a happy accident—an inspired merger of English and Chinese thought fused in the white heat of Oriental pas sion. And here it is, just as it was born that day. in the main waiting room of the Grand Central Station. A Chinese was trying to catch his train and at the same time an attendant was vainly trying to find his baggage. The Citinese was jumping up and down in a parox ysm of anxiety and rage. Finally, as the gates were closing, he ham mered on the counter with his fists iand shouted: "Pretty damn seldom where my bag go. She no fiy. You ,no more fit run station than God's j sake. That's all I hope.'1 There you have it. folks! Crisp, musical, eloquent—the new tongue for the new world—Basic Shinglish! i (Distributed by McNaught Syndicate, Inc.) FBI Official to Speak Edward C. Kennelly, assistant ad ministrator of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, will discuss juvenilp delinquency at a meeting of the Midway Civic Association at 8:30 p m. Thursday at the Morgan School, Florida avenue and California street N.W., George W. Johnson, president, announced today. ” ;---: BUICK-*™ ■« BRAKES REUNED ej m jjp CLIFT'SJt 51495 Linings Guaranteed i’ti.000 Miles Duvlieate D. C. Testing .Machine' 200? K St, X.W. ME. 622! WOOLENS 100r-„ all-wool materials Including gabardines, worsteds cheviots coverts tweeds and uniform materia!—for men s and women's Fall clothing. Capitol Woolen House 819 »th St. N.W. MEt. 3379 Save Fuel . . . Keep Out Drafts Make Your Home Warmer caulking; Compound $3-25 gaI. 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