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With Sunday Morning Edition. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. W A S H I NGTON, D . C . ^The Evening Star Newspaper Company. Main Office; 11th St. and Pennsylvania Avt. New York Office; llo East 4\’nd St Chicago Office: 4.15 North Michigan Avt. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. Reginar Edition. 4 Sundavs, ft Sundavs. Evening and Sunday HOc per mo. hoc per mo. The Evening Star 50c per month The Sunday Star 1 he per copy Night Final Edition. 4 Sundavs. ft Sundavs. Night Final and Sunday yoc mo. *1 on mo. Night Final Star 05c per month Outside of Metropolitan Area. Delivered by Carrier. The Evening and Sunday Star $ I .no per month The Evening Star 00c per month The Sunday Star Ihc per copy Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in 1'nited State*. _ 1 month. t> months. 1 vear. Evening and Sunday $] .on $»i.nn $i*>.ho The Evening Star ;5 4 00 S 00 The Sunday Star 50 ;:.oO 5.00 Telephone National 50o0 Entered at the Post Office. Washington, D. C., as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use for republication of all news dispatches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this Paper and also the local news published herein A!i rights of publication of special dispatches herein also are reserved A—10 THl RSI)AY, November 4, 1043 -- *-- — - ■' .... i 1 *.• ■in.i ii The Coal 'Settlement' We need coal to make steel and steel to make war, and so it. is good that the Nation’s miners are going back to work. But once that is said, there appears to be little else worth cheering in the "settlement” effected by Secretary Ickes and John L. L^vis. If approved by the War Labor Board, the new agreement will give to the soft coal miners a total in crease of $1.50 a day. or 37 »2 cents more than the board had been pre viously disposed to authorize. In terms of cash, this means that the Government has met the price for which the mines struck this week for the fourth time in 1943. In other words, the gun-at-the-head tech nique has worked, even though an effort has been made to soften the picture somewhat by making the boost of 3712 cents contingent on cutting the miners’ lunch period from thirty to fifteen minutes, thus adding a quarter of an hour to the productive day. Without arguing either for or against the wisdom of such an ex pedient and face-saving course, it may be said that other features of the “settlement” are disturbing in the extreme because of the prece dents they set. In the first place, Mr. Ickes negotiated this contract with Mr. Lewis while the miners were still on strike, despite prior official policy not to negotiate under such conditions. In the second place, having seized the mines, the Gov ernment deprived the owners of any say not only over their property but over the terms of employment as well. And in the third place, because the United Mine Workers won their point by being tough and intran sigeant, other labor groups in the country have seen an example tempting them to ask themselves whether it pays to be faithful to the no-strike pledge. Moreover, over and above all this. It. is a question whether the new •’settlement” really settles anything beyond inducing the miners to go bark to work and stay on the job as long as the Government is the employer. There is no assurance, in short, that when the mines are re turned to the owners again, Mr. Lew’is and his union will not find some new reason for throwing the coal industry Into a turmoil and thus threatening the Nation's war effort. In the circumstances, though it is a relief to know that the mines are scheduled to resume production at once, the American people, aware that this fourth strike has involved the loss of perhaps as much as in.000 000 tons of vital fuel, can hardly be expected to throw their hats in the air. Pontine Danger Associated Press reports from Italy Indicate that the Germans have flooded the Pontine marshes. What that may mean possibly will not be clear to the average American reader until he is made familiar with the history of the swampy lowlands referred to. The area lies about twenty-five miles southeast of Rome. Its width varies from six to ten miles and its length from eighteen to thirty. The Tyrrhenian Sea is one boundary, the Monti Lepini another. Even in very early times the whole region was known to be unhealthful. Its reputation for malaria traces back for centuries. Nobody can be sure how the marshes got their name. Tradition says that the Volscians long ago possessed the Ager Pometinus and ' by elaborate engineering made it habitable and fertile." But the Romans conquered and destroyed thirty-three of their cities in 358 B.C. and "the land (soon became dangerous.” The famous Appian Way. built by Appius Claudius, was constructed across its treacherous sands in 312. Cethegus attempted to drain the neighborhood about 160 and Julius Caesar planned to solve the problem by turning the Tiber River into the territory. Augustus believed that canals would help, and Nerva. Tra.ian. Theodoric and no less than eighteen popes attempted to better conditions—largely in vain. It was not until 1899 that any real progress was accomplished. Benito Mussolini, let it be remembered to his credit, pushed the work vigor ously after 1922. It was announced on the tenth anniversary of his assumption of power that fifty thousand acres had been reclaimed and were under cultivation. Among the new towns established in the Pontine district were Littoria and Terracina. The cost of the modern campaign to dry up the marshes, of course, was prodigious. If the investment now Is lost by reason of the Nazis’ delib erate inundation, the circumstance ft will be tragic—not merely in money, but also in human lives. The flood ing of the Pontine depression in evitably signifies the return of the Anopheles maculipinnis, the mos quito which over the ages has killed more people than all the wars that ever were fought. GOP Marches On Whether the results of Tuesday’s voting, coupled with the trend to the Republican Party in 1942, reflect any real impairment of President l Roosevelt's personal political pres tige may be a debatable question. But it cannot be doubted that the, election results point to a strong and growing public dislike of boss ridden political machines and labor political organizations which have contributed in no small degree to Mr. Roosevelt s success at the polls l in former years. From the Republican viewpoint, the election of Joe R. Hanley as Lieutenant Governor of New' York was the most impressive of the GOP successes in Tuesday's contests. Mr. Hanley was swept into office by a majority of some 350.000 votes—by far the best showing that any Republican has made in the Empire State in many a long year. His predecessor, the late Thomas W. Wallace, was elected by a majority of only 24.965 votes, while Governor Thomas E. Dewey periled a majority of but 171.511 over the combined vote of his Democralie and Ameri can Labor Party opponents last year. It would be difficult to say what, if anything, the Hanley vote reveals of the President's political stand ing in the Slate. The American Labor party, whiCOi claimed to hold the balance of power in New York, but which could not deliver w'hen the test came, appealed to its fol lowers on the ground that a vote for General William N. Haskell. Mr. Hanley's opponent, was a vote for President Roosevelt. Democratic and Republican spokesmen, how ever. tried hard to exclude national questions from the campaign and to confine the debate to State issues. And Governor Dewey, after the re sults were in. said: ”1 don't think this has had any relation to the na tional administration. We didn't discuss national matters in the State In this campaign.” Two things seem perfectly evident, however. First, the decisive Hanley victory is an emphatic indorsement by the voters of the excellent ad ministration w hich Governor Dewey has given them. Although the Gov ernor has said repeatedly that he is not a candidate for the Repub lican presidential nomination next year, it is inevitable that Tuesday's results will add enormously to his national political stature. The move to "draft” him for the party's nomi nation may be expected to gain strength. Second, the verdict of the voters, particularly in New York City, is clearly a rebuke to the Democratic political machine, which has been deflnitelv linked to the criminal racketeering element. Tam many may survive this blow as an organization, but its future political usefulness to the President is cer tain to be reduced. The triumph of Walter E. Edge, GOP gubernatorial candidate in New*. Jersey, is another blow' to machine and labor politicians. Mr. Edge was opposed by a labor candidate, who had the Indorsement of national and State officials of the AFL. the CIO and the railroad brotherhoods. His opponent also w'as supported by the Communists and bv Mayor Frank Hague, boss of the powerful Hudson County political machine. Boss Hague had promised the Demo cratic nominee a 100 000 majority in Hudson County, where the ballots are counted late, and he came through handsomely. But this was not enough. The voters throughout the State, evidently tired of Mayor Hague and his allies, overcame the Hudson County margin and elected Mr. Edge by a majority of about 125.000 votes. utner straws in the wind are the defeat of New Deal Candidate Wil liam C. Bullitt in Philadelphia, the election of Mayor Edward J. Jeffries over a labor-indorsed opponent in Detroit, the switch of Hartford. Con necticut. to the Republican column for the first time in ten years, and the sensational showing of the Re publicans in Kentucky. Unquestionably, the political tide throughout the country is running to the Republicans. This may be re versed if Mr. Roosevelt becomes a candidate next November, but such a tide has a way of running its course, regardless of the candidate. Remember those good old days when, as you entered a barber shop three or four tonsorial artists sprang expectantly to their feet in order 1 that you might make a selection? — Japanese Morale The reports of two Associated Press correspondents, just back from Japanese prison camps, confirm the belief that Japan is not going to lose the war through a collapse of civilian morale. According to Russell Brines, im prisoned at Shanghai for more than a year, travelers returning from j Japan are convinced that the Japa nese people will support the war under present conditions for at least j five more years. This state of mind is the product of an intensive propaganda campaign begun by the Japanese military more than a decade ago. Enduring hardships far beyond anything that we have known, and constantly exposed to official terrorism, the people of Japan are resigned to even greater hardships as the war progresses. Fanatically devoted to the Emperor and fed on a propaganda diet of endless ' victories” growing out of the myth of Japanese invincibility, * ' they retain a confidence in ultimate victory which gives them the will to carry on. It is going to take the truth, recorded in the form of self- , evident military defeats, to shake Japan’s civilian morale. In the field, however, in the opinion of Raymond P. Cronin, who has been held at Manila, the Japa nese military men, knowing the facts, are convinced that they have lost the war. There is no doubt that they will fight to the end, but their faith in victory, once so strong, has disappeared. Mr. Cronin cites one interesting bit of evidence in support of this conclusion. Wherever they may be, he says, Japan's military men are endeavoring to sow the seeds of brotherhood among the Asiatic ! races, lioping that Japan may have the opportunity some twenty-five years hence to lead another war against the white race. This is in perfect harmony with I the Japanese character. Certainly, they will never become resigned to defeat. No matter how decisively they may be beaten in this war. we may be sure that, given the chance, they will rise up to fight again. Austria One of the most interesting parts of the joint communique issued by the three-power conference at Mos cow is its declaration on Austria. That a declaration regarding Italy should have been issued was a fore gone conclusion, since that country I is partly in Allied occupation and is j a major battleground between Allied i and Axis forces. But Austria is not invaded by Allied armies, nor can it be, except by air raids, until a prior Balkan invasion or the ex pulsion of German forces from Italy brings the Allied ground forces within striking distance of Austrian soil. Why, then, was Austria singled out for specific mention when all the other countries under German occupation or control were either ! omitted from the communique or ! mentioned only in connection with general considerations? The motives for so doing can be variously interpreted. Perhaps the most plausible interpretation is a desire to reassure or rally the Cen tral European and Balkan nations, I especially Czechoslovakia. Austria's annexation to the Reich in the spring of 1938 rendered Czecho slovakia virtually defenseless against Gernian aggression, since there are no natural defense^ on that side. The Czechs must therefore be un- I alterably opposed to Austrian union ! with any sort of Germany, since it would leave them dangerously en circled and isolated. In varying degrees, every state of the Danubian basin, together with Italy, is un favorably affected by Austria's con tinued union with Germany, re gardless of its momentary regime. The big three in Moscow therefore j express their intention of re-estab- | lishing a "free and independent ; Austria.” which will block German : expansion to the southeast and the south. However, this political decision in volves a vital economic problem. The Republic of Austria set up a genera tion ago at Versailles was not eco nomically viable. It was a mere truncated remnant of the former Habsburg empire. Its great capital city of Vienna simply could not live on the restricted Austrian country side. and its former extensive eco- i nomic hinterlands were closed off behind new tariff walls erected by the other "succession states.” Un less the restoration of an inde pendent Austria is accompanied by economic interdependence of ! the Danubian countries including Czechoslovakia, the tragic con.se- I quences of Versailles are bound to ! repeat themselves. Fortunately, the Moscow conference clearly has this in mind; b%cau.se its insistence upon j Austria s political independence is followed by the assertion that it I will "thereby open the way for the Austrian people themselves, as well as those neighboring states which will be faced with similar problems, to find that political and economic security which is the only basis for lasting peace.” thus far, the declaration on j Austria appears to be inspired by j statesmanlike vision. But the final | clause seems rather Incongruous. I It says that “Austria is reminded, ! however, that she has a respon sibility, which she cannot evade, for participation in the war at the side of Hitlerite Germany, and that In the final settlement account will in evitably be taken of her own con tribution to her liberation." Just what did the framers of the Moscow* declaration mean when ' they wrote “Austria"? The republic was abolished bv German occupa | tion in 1938. and the country united w'ith Germany as the result of a plebiscite. There never has been, and is not now, an Austrian gov ernment-in-exile able or even claim I ing to speak for the Austrian people, j The warning issued from Moscow' i may be good propaganda to stimu i late unrest and guerrilla movements ! in the country, but it hardly seems | fair to measure Austria's future status by the degree of popular re sistance shown to Nazi rule. The fate of Austria should be deter mined by broader and more per manent considerations. Way back in 1893 a German was arrested in this country who claimed to have a divine mission to rule our land. His name was Lungedder, but there may have been a con nection with the Schickelgruber family somewhere along the line. Newspaper scanners are aware of two events of earth-shaking im portance—a global war involving most of mankind, and a sordid murder trial down in a small Ba haman island. r Senate Is Urged To Adopt Moscow Pact By Maj. George Fielding Eliot. Several Senators have proposed that the wording of the Connally resolution on foreign policy be amended so as to embody the exact language of the Mos cow four-power pact. To those Senators and inferentially to all Senators, the people of this country may well say: “Gentlemen, you have something there.-’ To begin with, such an act would place the fundamental foreign policy of the United States on a firm founda tion in which the two branches of the Government which are constitutionally charged with the conduct of foreign affairs would be in full agreement. It has long been apparent that the division of authority on foreign policy between the President and the State Depart ment on one hand, and the Senate on the other, is adapted to modern condi tions only if and when the Executive and the Senate can work in collaboration, both in the formulation of policy and in its translation into concrete acts, such as treaties and agreements. When there exists doubt that the Senate will confirm, by a two-thirds majority, the acts of the Executive, the Executive is fatally weakened in at tempting to conduct negotiations with foreign nations. Now there is an oppor tunity for the Senate to establish a minimum basis tor our foreign policy, a cornerstone upon which a structure of international peace and security after this war can be confidently erected. It is important that this should be done by the Senate's adopting the exact language of the Moscow pact, in order tiiat the forces of division foreign and domestic may have no slightest oppor tunity to assert that there is a differ ence of view, that the Senate is holding back, that the acts of the President and Mr. Hull will not be confirmed, and all the rest of the well-known lines of argument which seeks to divide us from our Allies and to undermine the mutual confidence upon which the unity ol our great coalition must be founded. Next, as my colleague Raymond Clap per has already pointed out, such an act by the Senate would be a merited compliment to Secretary of State Hull w ho has deserved not only compliments but the gratitude of the American people for generations yet to come for his accomplishments at Moscow. Mr. Hull and his State Department have been the recipients of so many brick bats of recent months, that it would seem especially fitting to substitute bouquets now that it is plain how well the bouquets have been earned, and were being earned all, the time the brickbats were flying. For we need not. suppose that these Moscow results are something that Mr. Hull dreamed up on the plane ride -they are rather the results of long and careful thought, study and planning. It seems to me that the adoption of the Moscow language by the Senate would have two further highly desir able results, besides establishing con fidence in our foreign policy and compli menting a distinguished Secretary of State. One of these results would be the ending of the present controversy’ at home, the “to be or not to be'' on the subject of American participation in a world organization to maintain peace after this war. We could turn from this wretched and not always too well-informed dis cussion. to constructive examination of the means by which the desired end is to be accomplished. The end itself would be decided, and decided in such clear and unmistakable terms that there could be no turning back, no avoidance of responsibility, no misunderstanding. Since time may be short, since the facts of peace, as one Allied statesman has wittily said. “May fall on us like a collapsing balcony while we are all standing around looking up with mouths agape.'' the more time we can now devote to constructive thought as to our responsibilities in the postwar world, the better. Aiiomet result ot the proposed Senate action would be the strengthening of the proposed European Advisory Coun cil. and tile strengthening likewise of the American position within that body. In addition to indorsing American par ticipation in a postwar peace organiza tion. tile Senate would, by adopting the wording of the Moscow pact in its resolution, indorse immediate American participation in the new Three-Power Council of London, in which other powers such as France may subse quently be invited to join. It would be hard to over-emphasize the importance of this new council, which seems likely to become the nucleus organization for a real United Nations council, a joint political agency for the examination of questions of inter-Allied policy and the pooling of information, and which may come to assume much the same position as the sifpreme w'ar council of the last war. Such an interallied political agency has long been recognized as a necessity, all the more so now when the United Nations are on the offensive and when, therefore, political decisions must march hand in hand with the military ad vances which open the gates to political opportunities. On every count, the Senate should adopt the language of the Moscow pact and embody it in a resolution con taining no weakening clauses or emas culating additions. This is the course of true statesmanship: this is the op portunity which knocks but once; this is the road to peace. (Copyright. New York Tribune, Inc.) 1 THIS AND THAT By Charles E. Tracetoell. End Not Yet From the Philadelphia Enquirer. From Sweden, Switzerland, by the mouth of a former Nazi newspaperman who fled to Syria, and many others, come solemn assertions that the Ger man people are on the verge of col lapse and that it can't be long now before the big crash of Hitler's edifice occurs. When we get such things from so many directions and at the same time it's desirable to do some sniffing to see if there’s a smell of Goebbels in the wind. It would serve Hitler's purpose only too well if Allied peoples were to snuggle up to the pleasant notion that the German home front is shot to bits. It may be and we'll hope it is. But before we fall for the idea it would be worthwhile to note such evidences of German morale as we can accept at first hand. We have official Russian information that 30.000 Nazi soldiers stood and died before Melitopol was taken. That doesn't sound like im paired morale. The stubborn resistance to our forces in Italy doesn t, either. <ak "SHEPHERD STREET. "Dear Sir: "X hope you will be able to identify, from the meager data I am able to sup ply, the little gray ‘mystery’ bird which has puzzled us all summer. “Living on the eastern edge of Rock Creek Park, half a mile from Pierce Mill, many varieties of birds frequent our yard. "On May 19 our pair of birds, about 4 inches overall length from head to ! tail, established themselves on a small i nest 3 inches in diameter containing i three pale-green eggs mottled with purple and about the size of large olives. i "They seemed not to mind communal t living with a pair of robins hatching out | a nestful of eggs on the branch imme diately below in the same small pine i tree ! "Extremely shy of humans, the father posted himself in a nearby oak and sounded a shrill warning whenever we , approached the pine. "The mother would then fly off the nest, making an agitated circle to lead | us away, then join her mate in the oak until we had quit the yard. As their nest was less than 6 feet from the ground, and the robins’ only 5 feet, neither set of parents had displayed , much caution in qhoosing a site. "The gray pair never became used to our working in tlie adjacent flower bed, i although the robins were not nearly so i apprehensive. "We never had opportunity to note differences in the appearances of the mates. Outstanding characteristic was the very pale gray breast with darker, perhaps black, indistinctly barred wings | and tail. "A dark line over one eye gave a ! cocky air, further accentuated by the I engaging sprightiiness of every perky movement. * * * * "Tail was rather long for such small | birds. No crest. Beak was pleasingly : clean cut. but neither stubby nor long. [ Except for their cries of alarm, we have | never heard them sing, although with mockingbirds giving daily, showy re citals, other birds seemed to lose heart and voice. "Whether or not this is sufficient to identify the bird to you. will you be so kind as to recommend a practical bird identification guide book, for the city bred bird lover, one indexed as to colors of birds? "1 have watched your column in the hope that you would mention several to your readers. After investing in a huge volume of beautiful color plates, only to find even our old friend, the robin unrecognizable from his picture, I should greatly appreciate your advice before choosing another. * * * * , "Your defense of squirrels is timely and much needed, as you undoubtedly realize. Nesting in the tall forest trees m our neighborhood, they are plentiful and were much beloved until In August their depredations on Victory garden corn were so thorough-going that gar dene! s pulled their corn out bv the roots. "Squirrels nimbly climbed the stalks, chewed the top out of each ear and left It. to rot, the ever-ready ants finishing the job. • “We used to watch one bold fellow who visited the community gardens each evening at sunset. He would emerge with a well-filled ear he had plucked for his supper, carry it across the street and settle down in our driveway to eat it. "After peeling the husks back with his teeth, he would balance the ear humanwise in his paws, clipping off row after row of kernels with his teeth. A Walt Disney creature could not have equaled his methodical dispatch, for within a few moments Mr. Squirrel had retreated, bright-eyed and bushy-tailed, into his home in the tall sycamore and the cob with husk attached but never a kernel remaining lay in the drive as a clew to the identity of the robber. “Tiie gardeners took their losses with what grace they could muster. After all, corn was squirrel food, but when squir rels plucked their ripest tomatoes, ap parently for the mere sport of the plucking, took one bite and threw them on tiie ground, squirrel popularity hit an all-time low. “Neighbor reminded neighbor that the little beasts were ‘rodents even as rats,’ fluffy tails notwithstanding. As the to mato crop was sufficiently heavy to allow for the venturesome animals sabotaging several a day in each garden, the situation was not so disastrous as with the corn. But I don't believe the frolicsome squirrels are being invited to partakf at the birds’ feeding stations this season. “I wish to thank you for your chatty, informative column. Its unique value for me lies in the fact that the nature observations aae local. Books take in the whole country, but Washington is your bailiwick and you know its every aspect. May you continue to take joy in the world about you and to share it , with your readers. “Most sincerely yours, G. L. B.” * * ’ ’ We believe our correspondent s bird to be a blue-grav gnateatcher. This bird is 4 la inches long, with upper parts bluish-gray, underparts whitish. The tail is long and sticks up something like a wren's tail. Usually four or five eggs are laid in a neat nest whose interior is about 1'2 inches in diameter. These eggs are greenish, speckled with chestnut The eggs are usually somewhat smaller than “a large oiive." but that would depend, of course, upon one s conception of what a large olive might be. The nest is usually placed about 15 feet from the ground on a branch and can be seen easily when it is first made, but later when the leaves come out it is completely concealed. Kinglets and gnatcatchers are related species, as pointed out here recently, and, in turn, are related to the thrushes. They are fine musicians, but in the case of the blue-gray gnateatcher the singing voice is so weak that it can be heard only at a short distance. These birds, as their name would in dicate, are insect eaters. They consume many leaf-eating larvae and plant lice. Letters to the Editor I'oiiiu ian^ i ruieized lor l allure To Legislate Against Strikes. To f he Ed !*or r>f The St a r Our country Is settling back into a condition of apathy and complacency. , Why? X suppose it is because our armies at the front have experienced a few victorious engagements. We now can have strikes, slow down pro duction and grow lax. But we need to look at the other side: I have just fead a letter, from a young lieutenant who tells of the long hours of fighting and marching- 30 nours with no rest and very little food. He and his men know it is a long, hard fight, and they become very angry, and ; justly so. when they read or hear about | strikes here which slow up production, j I am tired of reading smug statements ; made by civilian air travelers that "the I boys seem happy and seem to be getting all the equipment necessary.” when we know that if all tlie generals overseas , could get all the equipment they need j the war would end sooner and fewer j men would have to die. The politicians hesitate to make laws to outlaw strikes. They even fear the j sales tax will cost them votes. What 1 kind of people have we degenerated < into? Are we worth the life blood that 1 Is being shed abroad? MRS. G B W. | Explains Why Bombing Of Enemy Must Continue. To ihe Editor ot The Star Allow me to outline several points which appear not to have been men tioned in the widespread discussion of recent heavy losses sustained in the bombing of German industrial plants and military installations, particularly bv American planes. First of all. the commander of the bombing force has no means of forecast ing what percentage of the planes he sends will be lost. On two occasions we lost more than 50 four-motored planes. On numerous other occasions we lost fewer than 30 such planes. We are not told how many planes went on each flight, but the nature of the various targets would indicate that 500 or more planes would be required effec tively to bomb mast of them. Certain it is that the size of each bomber fleet could not have varied in size propor tionately with the reported losses. So the bomber commander cannot neatly balance a definite loss against prospec tive damage to a given target. Nor can he know in advance whether the bulk of the losses, if heavy, will occur before or after the target is reached. Many of the •observers” write as if he could do both. Secondly, many "observers” treat the subject as if it were a game or a busi ness venture, as if our military com manders had some good usable and bearable alternative to sending over Germany larger and larger fleets of bombers, mole and more frequently. Actually, this is war. If we do not win it decisively we sftall be subject to the will of our enemies. At best, we shall have a mere cessation of hostilities, certain to be resumed. We have only one real choice, which is to win or lose. We long ago chose to win, with every means in our power. Air bombing i.% one of these means, and a powerful one if used to the limit. Our air arm commanders have been put in charge of bomber squadrons to use all the trained men and bombers M Letters to the Editor must bear the name and address of the writer, although the use of a pseudonym for publication is permissible. The Star reserves the right to edit all letters with a view to condensation. we can supply, as effectively as they possibly can and as frequently as they can select worthwhile targets and ar range the mechanical details. Our bomber crews, more and more experi enced. will be given better and better bombeis. more and better fighter pro tection. for a larger proportion of the round trip as the war goes on. Under these circumstances our bomber force commanders cannot count the costs, but only the results. So long as the mission is accomplished, if neces sary by a second trip using many re placements. they cannot be stopped by losses, it will not happen, of course, but if only 10 per cent were to come back from the next big operation, the next operation after that will, neverthe less. be undertaken as rapidly as pos sible. It isn't pleasant; it isn't merely unpleasant, it is tragic and awful and nearly unbearable. But it must and will go on until the Nazi fighters are I driven from the skies and destroyed on the ground; until the antiaircraft guns j are blasted as well as the factories, and ’ the task of the cross-Channel invasion is made more certainly successful. JOHN J. QUIGLEY. Answers Minnesota Advocate Of Cutting Children's Rations. To ihe Editor o( The St»r. Apparently Mrs. Charles Smith of Hopkins, Minn., who advocated in The Star the cutting of ration points for cnildren has no children of her own. If she did have she would realize that a normal, healthy child in order to remain so needs and eats more than the average adult. A child has not only to replace fuel burned by constant, intense activity, but also to furnish material for building a body by growth. An adult's body is already built and all he has to furnish it is fuel on which to operate. Even a baby must have his ration points as he consumes quantities of canned ioods, milk, vegetables, soups, fruit, etc. A MOTHER OF TWO. Recipe for Applesauce Without Sugar Provided. To ihc Editor of The Star: In these days, w'hen fruit sauces have I become less available, your readers may like to make old-fashioned boiled cider applesauce (very palatablei, which re quires nothing but sw-eet cider and apples, no sugar or spices, in the making. Take a gallon of sweet cider, as sold bv groceries, and boil it down three and a half measures into one by slow Are in wide-open kettle or pan. Cut 5 pounds of tasty apples, such as wine saps or similar kinds, into quarters. Stew the apple pieces in the boiled ! cider until soft, but not mushy, over j slow fire. j Two or three quarts of boiled cider applesauce results, which keeps indefi nitely in the refrigerator or sealed In cans. Its flavor improves for several days as the boiled cider more thor oughly permeates the apples. It goes well with bread or doughnuts, and mv old uncle in New Hampshire would even spread it over a plate of hash. C. O. ABBOT. Haskin's Answers To Questions By Frederic J. Haskin. Many readers send, in questions to the Information Bureau signed only with initials, asking that the answers appear in the newspaper. The space is limited and would not accommo date a fraction of such requests. Be sides, the subject matter is often too personal to be of general interest. Send your question to The Evening Star Information Bureau, Frederic J. Haskin, Director, Washington, D. C. Inclose stamp for return postage. Q. What is the least elevation from which paratroops can Jump safely?— B. E. F. A. The War Department says that paratroops cannot jump very well below 1 300 or 400 feet because they land too fast. The minimum ceiling from which they Jump is about 400 feet. _ Q. What tree was given a funeral ora tion when it died?—L. L. N. A. When the Charter Oak. giant trea believed to be nearly 2.000 years old, was blown down in a storm on August 21, 1856, great crowds gathered to bid it farewell and to listen to a funeral oration. Q Has the alloy in the new B-rent piece ever been used before in coin age?—W. P. A. The alloy has never before been used in the United States or any other country for coinage. Q. What musical show has had th» longest run?—E. P. S. A 'Hellzapoppin” is the longest-run musical show in the history of the theater. Q What is meant by a ' geisha" girl?— P E. H. A. The term “geisha'’ is derived from two Japanese words, "gei " meaning "ar tistic performance.'’ and “sha." mean ing “person." Geisha girls sing and dance to entertain not only strangers, but Japanese men who live in the em pire. Q When was the Alaska highway opened for traffic? M. E. L. A The highway was opened for traf fic on November 15, 1942. Q What is the salary of thp Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of th* United States?—D. C B A. His salary is $20,500 a year Origi nally the Chief Justice received onlv $4,000. and it took six steps to reach the present amount, the last increase hav ing been given in 1926. Q How many parts are there in a range finder?—M. L. E. A. A big range finder may contain as many as 1.500 mechanical parts, to gether with 160 optical parts, including lenses, prisms, etc. Such an instrument weighs close to 10,000 pounds, costs $35,000 and requires a year Rnd a half to build. Q When did Bamum first move his circus bv train?—L. C. A. In 1872 P. T. Bamum purchased 65 railway cars, painted in brilliant colors, and began touring the country by rail. Previously he had used 600 horses to transport, his circus and menagerie from town to town. Q. Are there any people who hiber nate?—G. G. A. Human beings do not hibernate. However, there are reputedly certain Russian peasants who retire to a som nolent condition in winter, sleeping al most constantly, eating little and mov ing only to drink a swallow of water or 1 replenish the fire. This condition re sembles hibernation. Q What is the relation of a knot to a land mile?—K. McK A. A knot is a unit of speed, equiva lent approximately to one nautical mile per hour. A nautical mile equals 6.080 feet, nearly one-sixth morp than a statute mile. Thus when a ship's speed is 30 knots the vessel is traveling 30 nautical miles per hour, or about 3413 land miles per hour. i Q Who created the “Dying Swan.’ Pavlowa's famous dance0 —E. L. H. A. The late MichPl Fokinp. It wa* created originally for a student per formance In St. Petersburg mow Lenin grad i. Q What kind of a gem is the Star of India?- D F. E. A. This is the largest known cut sap phire. It is pale blue in color, It, inches in diameter and is in the collection of the American Museum of Natural His tory. The early history of the stone 1* unknown, but it is believed to have been found at least 300 years ago. Q Does any portion of the ancient dukedom of Normandy still remain in British hands?—R. O. C. i A. No. The Channel Islands, occu * pied by Germany in 1940, formed the last ' remnant of the ancient dukedom re maining in British hands since 1066. th# j year in which William Duke of Nor mandy became William I oi England. Q What is an atoll?—S. S A. The term denotes a ring-shaped coral island, inclosing a lagoon. Christ- . mas Island is the largest atoll in the Pacific, being more than 100 mile* around. Q What composer died from the ef fects of dropping a baton on his foot?— P. L. A. Jean-Baptiste Lully. While direct ing a "Te Deum" on January 8. 1687. with a rather long baton, he injured his foot so seriously that a cancerous growth resulted, which caused his death on March 22. Hunter From clever clan and Quaintly drawn Within the scarlet frame of dawn So lean and hungrily he stood Part and parcel of piney wood, I was flustered at fir-st to find That he was real and not of mind-~ I The last long-hunter of the hills. j His eyes icould out a bobcat's stare, | He's spiked to death an old she-bear, \ But only smoky hills and sun ! Knew all the things that he had done. For naught he spoke and his gun's sharp say Hushed high in the hills and far away— The last long-hunter of the hills. JAY WEST.