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With Sunday Morning Edition. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. 'WASHIN GTONT~ dT~ C ~ The Evening Star Newspaper Company M*in Office: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. New York Office: llo East 42nd St. Chicago Office: 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. Regular Edition. 4 Sundays. 5 Sundays. and Sunday 80c per mo. OOc per mo. The Evening Star- 50c per month The Sunday Star 10c per copy F"inml Edition. 4 Sundays. 5 Sundays N.ghtFina and Sunday 90c mo. Sl.no mo. Night Final Star- 65c per month Outside of Metropolitan Area. _ Delivered by Carrier. ='?d Sunday SUr -*1 60 per month S f,tar- 60c per month The Sunday Star— .. . - 10c per copy Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in Cnited States. _ . _ 1 month. 6 months. 1 rear. Evening and Sunday $i.on $6,00 lie no The Ev ening Star _ ,7ft 4 00 8 00 The Sunday Star__ .50 2.50 5.00 Telephone National 5000. Entered at the Post. Office. Washington, D. C.» as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to f.or "Plication of all news dispatches credited to it or nor otherwise credited in this also tKi* local news published herein. h«r»ii h.VL l ouh^cation of special dispatches herein also are reserved. A—6 SATURDAY, November 6, 1943 The Meeting Place In a recent statement to reporters Senator Overton of Louisiana ex pressed his definite opposition to ‘'suffrage'’ for the people of Wash ington, referring specifically to the McCarran and similar bills. He based his opposition on the fear that such measures would tend to dele gate to the people of Washington the exclusive control over the Dis trict of Columbia by Congress. That control, he believes, is wise and 6hould be retained. Advocates of the McCarran bill do not admit that its provisions run counter to the Constitution’s as signment of legislative control ex clusively to Congress. There is room for debate here; certainly there are implications in the McCarran bill which raise grave doubts as to the validity of some specified powers delegated to the Commissioners. In The Star’s opinion, however, the important -thing is that Senator Overton's objections to "suffrage”— as defined in the McCarran bill—do not extend to participation by the people of the District in elections for President and Vice President and their representation in Congress. Senator Overton does not believe the District should have the status of a State. Neither do -the advo cates of the Sumners-Capper reso lution for a constitutional amend ment, giving Congress the power "to provide that there shall be in the Congress and among the electors of President, and Vice President mem bers elected bv the people of the District constituting the seat of Government of the United States, in such numbers and with such powers as the Congress shall de termine * * This resolution provides the meet ing place for all those who believe that "governments derive their just powers from the consent of the gov erned’’ and who see no valid reason for making the Capital of the United States an exception to this funda mental concept of democracy. ■ Grim and Pressing In urging a subcommittee of the ! Senate Foreign Relations Commit- j tee to recall to life the long-dormant Gillette-Taft resolution, former j President Herbert Hoover has re peated the same basic argument he has been making ever since he first advocated relaxing the blockade to ’ permit shipment of food to the peo- - pies of Nazi-occupied lands. But far from weakening his views on this subject, repetition has tended rather to strengthen them, the more so ! because the probiem grows increas ingly acute as time wears on. Mr. Hoover's idea is to use avail able Swedish shipping to carry food from this part of the world—chiefly j from South America—to such small countries as Belgium. Holland. Nor way and Poland, the distribution to b° handled through neutrals like Sweden and Switzerland and the j International Red dross, on the basis of a guarantee from Germany to keep hands off. The Gillette Taft resolution embraces substan stantially the same idea and Mr. Hoover believes that its adoption by Congress would lead the adminis tration to join with the British gov ernment m reconsidering the feas ibility of lifting Ihe blockade to let, this kind of relief go through, more or less as it is now'going through to the Greeks. The proposal has been cold-shoul dered in the past largely for military reasons, chief among them being that it would very probably help Hit ler, who could no more be trusted in this field than in any other, par ticularly in view of evidence of a deliberate Nazi policy to weaken and depopulate nations like Poland through such cold-blooded meas ures as planned malnutrition. Mr. Hoover now argues, however, that the Germans can do nothing at this point to save themselves from de feat and that even if they took ad vantage of the food shipped under his plan, they would not be able to defer that defeat in the slightest degree. This may be the last winter of the war in Europe, he says, but whether it is or not. it will certainly be a terrible one for the hungering conquered peoples unless some measure of relief is forthcoming at the earliest possible moment. Amer ica. he feels, has a moral obligation in this respect, and if we discharge it well, “we will prepare a reception for our troops such as they could not hope for if they move in later and find starving populations.” The decision must, of course, be left to the administration and its counterpart in London because they are in the best position to know what should be done. Nevertheless Mr. Hoover’s argument, covering one of the grimmest and most press r ing problems of the war, merits the fullest consideration, and it certain ly ought to loom large in the de liberations of the United Nations relief conference beginning next Wednesday in Atlantic City, The subject is one that cannot be put off too long without causing' un imaginable misery among millions of human beings who have suffered more than enough already. The Senate Concurs The Senate, passing the Connally resolution with only five dissenting votes, has joined the ranks of those who are determined to build a better world upon the ruins of this war. There will be critics to pick the resolution to pieces, to search for flaws in every line and paragraph. But they cannot disguise the fact that eighty-five Senators, ninety if we count those who were paired or announced in favor of the resolution, have signified their earnest belief that the United States should and must play a responsible part in the organization of the world against future wars. As finally adopted the first three paragraphs of the resolution com prise the full text of the original Connally proposal. Then it is strengthened, psychologically at least, by the incorporation of Article IV of the four-power declaration signed at Moscow. Under this lan guage the Senate “recognizes the necessity of there being established at the earliest practicable date a general international organization based on the principle of the sover eign equality of all peace-loving states, large and small, for the maintenance of international peace and security.” The final paragraph provides that any treaty made to effect the purposes of the resolution must go through the constitutional process of ratification by at least two-thirds of the Senate. That is the Connally resolution. It is a little stronger, perhaps, than the Fulbright resolution, also adopt ed bj» an overwhelming majority in the House. But whether the one or the other contains the more explicit language is of little real importance. The important thing is that virtually every member of both branches of Congress is fully alive to the fact that the great mass of the people, beyond victory, want peace. They want it, they are deter mined to have it, they are prepared to pay a reasonable and necessary price to get it. And the Senate, concurring with the House, has an nounced to the world that no act of legislative caprice will be permitted to block this aspiration. No matter what the doubters may say, this country has come to the crossroads and has made a great, decision. Wilhelmshaven and Rabaui Our air arm has just won two great victories within twenty-four hours of each other against both our Axis arch enemies. The first of these victories, on Tuesday, smote the Japanese at Rabaui. their main South Pacific base. The second, on Wednesday, blasted the big German naval base and shipbuilding center at Wilhelmshaven on the North Sea coast. Both were daylight, precision bombings for which our air force is justly famous. These aerial triumphs are note worthy. not only for the specific damage inflicted, which was very great, but also as indicating im portant developments in air strategy and tactics that promise to pay big dividends in the near future. Since those developments differ from each other as widely as their respective operational theaters are geograph ically separated, it will be well to consider them in turn. The raid on Rabaul is the latest of a devastating series. Rabaul, with its broad, landlocked harbor and elaborate shore installations, is the indispensable base for Japanese sea, air and land reinforcements coming down from Truk to bolster their waning holds on New Guinea and the Solomons. It is heavily fortified and has strong antiaircraft defense/ but this has not prevented our air squadrons from blasting it repeat edly. Just a month ago a big raid sank over 100 enemy ships and did tremendous damage. Since then, several supplementary attacks have kept down repairs and destroyed several hundred Japanese planes. ^Tuesday's raid was the most destruc tive on record. It caught a big Japa nese ship concentration, presumably to relieve or evacuate their trapped forces in the Solomons. Flying in literally at masthead height, our bombers, escorted by fighters, sank or damaged nearly 90.000 tons of ! shipping, including cruisers, destroy ers. large transports and tankers. Nearly every ship in the harbor was struck by 1,000-pound bombs. Our losses were not slight—pine bombers and ten fighters, the heaviest loss we have suffered in any single air ac tion in the South Pacific. But the results were worth the price. Inci dentally. fully 100 Japanese planes were shot down or destroyed on the ground. * From all this, two deductions logi cally emerge. First. Rabaul has be come a veritable sink-hole for Japa nese ships and planes—the two weapons that Japan can least afford I to see weakened. Japan has no | alternative main base in the South , Pacific short of Truk 800 miles to i the northward ifi her mandated is | lands. She must either continue to i pay through the nose for siphoning | reinforcements through Rabaul or I abandon that whole region, includ ing at least 40.000 troops on Bou gainville and the Shortland Islands, whom we need not root out expen sively by direct assault but can by pass and leave to starve. Thus, the original costly tactics of island hopping have been transformed by air supremacy into a new tactic of Island leap-frogging, much less ex pensive and yielding quicker and more decisive results. Consider now the lesson of Wil helmshaven. It was our first big raid since that of October 14, on Schwein furt, in Central Germany, when we suffered the loss of 60 bombers be sides a few long-range fighter es corts. Wilhelmshaven was the biggest yet — approximately 500 bombers escorted by as many fighters, 1,000 planes in all. . Yet, compared with Schweinfurt, our losses were negli gible—only five bombers and a few fighter planes. The reason seems to be the heavy fighter escort, which kept off German interceptors armed with their new rocket bombs that did such damage on the Schweinfurt raid. This looks as though at least a partial answer had been found to the rocket bomb and the ‘‘silver fire” projectile which are Germany's latest innovations in the tactics of aerial defensive warfare. If this be so, we have again gained the edge in the blasting of Hitter's Fortress Europe wherever the range permits adequate fighter escort for bombing raids. At this crucial juncture of the war, the significance of such an achievement by our air arm is espe cially great. San Francisco's Mayor The election of Roger D. Lapham as Mayor of strife-ridden San Francisco brings another business executive to an important political post and sets the stage for what should be an interesting and in structive experiment in a new kind of political management. San Francisco for years has been plagued by recurring strikes and virtually every other known form of labor trouble. Conditions got so bad at one time that the city was in •serious danger of losing the bulk of its shipping business, and strenu ous efforts have been made'by intel ligent business leaders, with some labor collaboration, to map out a program which would enable em ployers and workers to live together after the war. Mr. Lapham is well equipped to play an able and ob structive role in this endeavor. As an employer member of the War Labor Board, from which he resigned four months ago to enter the mayoralty race. Mr. Lapham became firmly convinced that the best hope of both labor and man agement lies in not more, but less. Government regulation. In his opinion, the experience which in dustrialists and labor representa tives are acquiring on the board will prove helpful after the war. They are learning to thrash out their problems in face-to-faee discussions, to accept the verdict of a ma jority decision, and. at the same time, are acquiring a new understanding of each other's problems. If the lessons learned in this wartime undertaking can be applied when peace comes, in his opinion, there will be less and less need for Government intervention. And Mr. Lapham is convinced that this will bf> as desirable for labor as for man agement. since labor, if it proposes to lean on Government, must be pre pared to accept a growing measure of governmental control. This is the philosophy that he will take with him to his new' post as Mayor of San Francisco. And if he can demonstrate that his ideas are sound in that troubled community, he will have set an example which labor and management throughout the country may well find worthy of emulation. !n Southeastern Europe It is certainly an excellent time for our ideas, if not our armed forces, to invade Southeastern Europe and hammer away there at Hitler. Hun gary, Rumania and Bulgaria are unquestionably growing progressive ly more sensitive to the new political and military conditions prevailing in the world. They see the mighty Red Army driving the Nazis into an apparently disorderly retreat. They are conscious of the slow but irre sistible advance of our armies in Italy. They know how massive are the blows being struck by our air power in the west. They have heard of the declarations of Moscow. And they have no illusions about who is going to win the war. In the relatively near future, the Russians may be at the River Bug and beyond the Bug in Bessarabia, and that outlook, coupled with the prospect of ever-expanding British and American action elsewhere on the continent, must even at this moment be exercising a profoundly important influence on the thoughts and plans of Hitler's weary and reluctant satellites. Rumors to this effect are. pouring out of Europe in a constant stream, particularly as re gards Rumania and Bulgaria. The former is at war with the Soviet Union and the latter is not, but both are important segments of the southeastern wall of the Nazi "for tress" and both are capable of mak ing spectacular turnabouts in the event of a German catastrophe east of Bessarabia. This is peculiarly true of Bulgaria whose pro-Russian masses could become a major men ace to Hitler. With the weapon of ideas, there fore, with a political offensive mak ing full use of the Declarations of Moscow, it is conceivable that this key part of "Fortress Europe" may be made to disintegrate even before any of our armed forces attempt to storm it. Hungary, Rumania and Bulgaria do not have their hearts in the war, and they would like nothing better than to get out of it as quickly as possible. The potentialties im plicit in this are undoubtedly so great and so clear that it is a safe assumption our American. British and Russian leadership will not neglect them. * Fate of Nazis in Russia Unsettled By Maj. George Fielding Eliot. Thp situation in South Russia is one which seems to call for the introduction of some new element—probably by the Russians, since they dispose of the great er reserves. So far, the German Army appears to have escaped disaster. To call what has so far happened to them by that name is inaccurate, or at least hfisty. They have lost territory, they have in partic ular lost contact between *their main forces and those in the Crimea; but their counter-action before Krivoi Rog has kept open their lines of communica tions and the Russians have not been able to expand their Dnieper bridgehead westward to Znamenka. It is possible that considerable num bers of German troops may have been cut off in the Nogaisk area by the swift Russian .advance to the Isthmus of Perekop. As to this there is no certainty | yet. But it would appear that the bulk : of the defenders of Melitopol must have retired southward into the Crimea. However, though disaster has not yet come to the Germans, they have not yet escaped it by any means. It may come upon them in the Crimea, where the strength of the German forces is un known, as well as the capacity of the German depots. It is more likely to come upon them in the immediate fu ture, as a result of a new Russian of fensive. in this connection, the course of the Dnieper from Kiev to Kremen chug is well worth watching. North of Kiev, the Russians have in creased the size of their bridgehead. Southeast of Kiev, the Russian bridge head opposite Pereyeslav still exists. Ad ditional Russian forces at these two spots might bring about the fall of the Ukrainian capital, and if this could be exploited bf- a great Russian offensive swinging southward from Kiev, follow ing the well-known Russian strategic pattern of successive attacks in mutual support of each other, the whole of the German forces east of the Kiev-Odessa line would be endangered. There is some doubt, as to whether even the mir acles of supply so far performed by the Russians would enable them to under take so extensive an operation beyond the Dnieper at this time. If they could, the results might be of decisive charac ter. But there are less extensive moves open to the Russian high command which may prove to be well within their present capacities. For example: A new crossing of the Dnieper in,the vicinity of Cherkassy, with its objective the rail junction of Smrla. would threaten the main German supply line for the present area of active operations. If this were to be combined with a new attack fiom the west flank of the pres ent Kremenchug bridgehead, it might produce very considerable results. A crossing of the lower Dnieper would threaten both Nikolaev and Kherson and would probably bring about the re capture of Krivoi Rog, but it would not, in all probability, entrap any consider able German force unless it were com bined with at least thp latter of th* above-mentioned operations. Other wise. the Germans could retire through Kirovo, and overland from Nikolaev. There is little use in these examples of what may be possible, save to empha size by this means that the present situation cannot h* greatly de\eloped without some new move, and to point on* that the whole history of Russian offensive operations in this war very strongly suggests that such a new move ma\ be in the making, may even now be in progress—always providing the Russians have the necessary means. The German problem is just the same as it ever was -to extricate their army without suffering undue loss. The Rus sian objective is also the same—not the recovery of territory, but tire de struction of at least a substantial slice of the Wehrmacht. As for the Germans in the Crimea, they must now put their trust in sea communications with Odessa. Bv that means only can th°y be withdrawn, re inforced or supplied. That they are not 10 be left, to their own devices is indi cated by the reports of Russian attacks on the Kerch Peninsula. There can be no doubt that the Russian Black Sea fleet will do its best not only to support these amphibious attacks, but to inter fere with German coastal traffic by sea on the Odessa-Eupatoria route. Doubt less the present situation has been suffi ciently anticipated by the German staff, so that the Crimea has well-stocked military depots, but they cannot last forever. The Crimea may be written off as definitely lost to the Germans. Its restoration .to Russian control is now only a question of time and perhaps of a little more hard fighting. (Copyright, 1343, N. Y. Tribune. Inc ) Charter Shortcoming Frnm the Boston Herald. “ * * * No territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned.” So stipulates the Atlantic Charter in its echo of President's Wilson's "self-de termination of nations.” The ideal proved to be impractical in 1917: is there any more hope for it in the past war world to come? The question arises because claimant nations are beginning to stake out. their demands on Italy. The Yugoslav and Greek governments have already set forth their requests, which are, .it is said, to be discussed at the coming three power conference at Moscow. France will probably enter claims and sometime or other Austria may join in the process. Soon the practical meaning of the ter ritorial provision of the Atlantic Charter will have to be amplified. As it stands, it is a particularly inadequate guide. Of course, it does mean that there should be no outright grab by the victor na tions, that, for instance. Italy should not be partitioned between England and France as a spoil of war. But if it sug gests that Europe's boundaries should be rectified by a process of multiple plebiscites, then it is hopelessly im practical. There is no geometry that | can divide that continent into both na tional and ethnological boundaries. Getting Ready From thr Great Bend Tribune. Comes word now that civiliaas may be able to buy new radios sooner than expected after the war if the surplus equipment of the armed forces is made available to the public. After the war a lot of things are apt to happen. Right now advertisements are running strong about freezing units for farm and home. Evidently the producers are getting ready in advance for the postwar period. I THIS AND THAT By Charles E. Tracewell. —— N STREET. , "Dear Sir: "I am glad you continue in your ster ling defense of the blue jay, which I regard as one of our best birds. One of them comes every day right here in the heart of the city. I have never seen this one. If it has a mate, it has never been visible. "This Is a fine specimen, large and bold, with as loufi a squawk as I have ever heard. What Interests me is that it flies to my window sill every morning at the same time, just as I am get ting up. "He comes at almost precisely the same time every morning. He looks in the window, then he bends his legs and sticks out his neck and gives one of these rousing squawks. "He seepis to enjoy Jt as much as I do. He will eat a few seeds, but never many. It is almost as if he comes for the sole pleasure of seeing me, rather than for the eating. This could be, as the young people say. "I know no bird in all our ioftg list which is more of a bird all over than the jay. In many years of watching them I have never seen one of them harm another bird. I am glad you stick up for the blue jay, in this respect. I do not believe one-tenth of the stories told against them. "I wonder how such stories arose. Probably it is due to the perfert, aplomb with which the bird flies around. It, seems t.o be conceited, and I am sure it would be, if it were human. "Probably people watching it give it human characteristics. It seems very sure of itself, and makes such a noise, that they think it is blowing its own horn, and is pushing other birds out of tiie way. "Tlie truth is that, like most blowers of horns, it is not half as terrible as it pictures itself. I have watched it too much to be fooled. Other birds are not, afraid of him in the least. In my old home I watched sparrows chase jays. "Thanking you for your accurate pic tures of nature, without sentimentality, but With plenty of honest sentiment, I am. "Very truly yours. L. M. M." * * * * The blue jay is a favorite of many bird watchers. This is not only because of the color ation of the bird, as our correspondent points out. but also because of the actions of the jay. It is. in truth, an interesting bird. Its clocklike regularity in coming to a feeding station is one of its charms. Many watchers do not see this feature, for they are not regular themselves. It is only the person who rises with the clock who is able to appreciate this trait in a bird. * * * * For several years we had a band of half a dozen jays who came *o the yard every morning at exactlv 7 o'clock. There was scarcely a second's devia tion in the time, morning after morning, i -- — 1 Even stranger, was the fact that they remained for 20 minutes. ‘ Then they flew away, almost as If somebody had called them. * * * * Since there were just six of them, and never any more or less, they were easy to keep track of; it was not just a co incidental arrival by different, birds. There was no other explanation of it except that they were the same birds, and that for some unexplained reason they flew into the yard on schedule, and left on schedule. Explain it any way you will, we could never manage a satis factory explanation except that period icity is more frequent in nature than is commonly understood. Birds often take turns on the nest, and sometimes do it very regularly, each parent bird taking a certain series of hours, just, as humans do in a factory'. The strange part is that the periods begin and end each day at exactly the same times. Migration is another thing birds do which is more or less regular, but cer tainly not done according to the clock. Migration, which is instinctive, is mo tivated by food and temperature, and is an automatic reaction of certain species. Light seems to have something to do with it, too. it goes according to the calendar, but, thpre is a great leeway in the migration of the individual bird. In other words, he may leave at any time during a period of from a month to six weeks. The journey of the individual bird cannot be pinned down to a certain definite day, or even week, with the ex ception of a few' species, notably swal lows, some of which fly in and away every year at exactly the same times, year after year. * * * * The blue jay. being an all-the-year around bird, has no migration problems to puzzle him. He is tough and does not mind the coldest weather. Perhaps he can put his considerable brains to work on other problems, in cluding those of puzzling his human friends, who would like to know how he can manage to fly into a yard at the same time each day. The jay doesn't tell all, although he seems to be trying to. as he yells and screams his way around a neighborhood. In a world of complaining humans, we have yet to hear a complaint agaiavt, the "screams" of thp jays. People complain against roosters, but never against blue jays. the sound of the merry bird, high and shrill, seems to pleasp most people, a no* inconsiderable feat. No on° can say the rail of the blue jay is musical, but it has something which is very good, a perfect blending with the outdoors. Its ordinary cries are just rich*, and it has a varietv of softer calls which many listeners, not seeing the maker, ascribe to other species Pleasant whistling notes come from that bill, and also a wooden clattering sort of noise which no doubt the jay makes just for the fun of if. He is that sort of bird. Letters to the Editor w Tells Value of Leaves i That Might Be Burned. To the Eh.’nr nf The S'ar Again. Washington and its neighboring towns and villages, as well as the grounds 5 about many farmsteads, are htterPd with the season's harvest of leaves. Already 1 thousands are out with rakes preparing 1 for the destruction of this valuable re- i sources Very soon, countless blazes will consume tons of leafy material, although this is rich substance for gardens and i fields if saved and utilized. The fires will convert the leaves into smoke, in visible vapor and carbon dioxide, leaving only flakes of ash to disappear with the next- wind. Boys and girls an,: a goodly number of grownups, too, find enjoyment in this pastime of waste. It must be admitted that no little pleasure comes from walk ing through the gaylv colored, rustling leaves. Moreover, fallen leaves have fragrance, following rains and biting frost, and the blazes set by industrious yard cleaners are a cheerful sight in the j twilight and darkness of autumn eve- ! nines. But in all probability much more real delight would be derived from saving the leaves for conversion into compost and later on into luscious vegetables 1 Not many will think to stack leaves in out-of-the-way corners, to make com post for enrichment of garden and field. No matter in what shape or form the leaves are piled, in the course of a year they will have rotted without further assistance into a highly desirable form for revitalizing ailing soil and for pro tecting the ground and keeping it cool and moist in summer. Whether worked into the soil or scat- | tered over it. this leaf-humus is highly effective for preventing erosion on sloping areas and for increasing the j absorption of rainfall. And any one who will rover his garden with 2 or 3 inches of the disintegrated material will have little trouble with drought. It seems strange that we had to wait until very recent times—until soil con- j servationists came actively on the scene j —to find out that the proper way to ! use land is to handle it as nearly like i nature handles it, which is under a pro tective cover of grass or forest with a ground cover of litter. Now. we can't have forests growing in our fields and lawns and gardens, but we can scatter forest litter, or any other kind of veg etable litter, over any cultivated area. On well-established lawns there usu ally is little need for sj^ch material, because grass is one of nature's most effective tools for building and holding soil. Where the ground is cultivated, however, a covering of vegetative litter not only increases the absorption of rainfall, but provides a most favorable condition for the activities of various beneficial organisms, such as earthworms and micro-organisms. The organisms j make the soil a living thing. They bur i row through it all summer long, making It spongy and converting organic mat j ter and other constituents of the soil ! into available forms of plant food. Because of the severity of drought j about, Washington the past summer, plants growing in the accustomed man ner withered and succumbed; but where J there was a ground cover or mulch of leaf material, cornstalks or other veg etative litter from last season’s growth, not much damage was caused. The mulch cut down evaporation so effectively that, moisture stored in the soil was able to keep plants green and j growing. In a few gardens near Wash j ington, surface mulching and contour Letters in the Editor must hear the name and address of the writer, although the use of a pseudonym for publication is permissible. The Star reserves the right to edit all letters with a view to condensation. cultivation saved so much of the 1943 spring rainfall that corn-on-the-cob was still coming to the table on November 3 —along with beets, turnip and mustard greens, lettuce, Irish potatoes, lima beans and tomatoes. The first heavy frost will put an end to such sumptuous living, to be sure, but the drought was whipped by substituting a simple con servation practice for a practice of waste. Let s save and use more of our leaves. H. H. BENNETT, Chief. Soil Conseiration Service, De partment of Agriculture. Revolution in Germany Regarded as Prelude to Surrender. To !hr Friitor of Th* Star. Why do we have no news on one of the most important phases of the war— Allied propaganda in Germany? Can it be that, some are more anxious to stage a Sherman's march through to Berlin, regardless of cost, thafc to pro mote the early collapse of German morale, which alone can bring victory with a minimum of casualties? If so. Armistice Day should make them remember: The lesson of World War I and its aftermath is not that we ought, to have hacked through to Berlin in 1918. but that we failed to avert the world-wide depression which led despairing German unemployed to back Hitler, and we failed also to join and strengthen an association of na tions which could have prevented Nazi aggression. This is the supreme moment to incite revolt and offer appropriate incentives for surrender. The Germans no more want to see their sons slaughtered in a war they know is already lost than we want to lose ours in a war already »'°n. ROBERT S. FIELD. ’ Vineland, N. J. ftlnr of Patriots in Congress Advocated. /o the Editor of The S'ar. It. ill behooves the big pots of busi ness. or the sooty kettles of labor, or the clattering skillets of agriculture to be calling one another black. Each group according to its pitiful lack of lights pushes blindly against the government's anti-inflation dam. While up on Capitol Hill, among the membership of a signally timid and vacillating Congress, each group has its own special bloc aiding and abetting in this sad attempt to commit mass financial suicide. For let that dam give way and businessman, laborer, farmer, butcher, baker, candlestick maker—all will perish in the deluge of misery let loose. Among the more than 500 members of the Senate and House will there not appear a bloc of young courageous men willing to proclaim to the country these unpleasant facts? Wages and salaries must be frozen, prices held or rolled back, and taxes and enforced savings must be upped until every one of us, rich and poor alike, for the duration shall be reduced to the most austere standard of Spartan living. DWIGHT E. SCOTT Haskin's Answers ? j To Questions By Frederic J. Haskin. Many readers send, in questions to the information bureau signed only with initials, asking that the answers appear in the newspaper. The spar is limited and would not accommodate a fraction of such requests. Besides, many of these questions are too per sonal to be of general interest. Send your question to The Evening Star Information Bureau, Frederic ./ Has kin, director, Washington, D. C. In close stamp for return postage. Q. What amount of money is paid out daily as life Insurance?—W. G. N. A The Institute of Life Insurance re ports that American families received $6,582,000 a day in life insurance pay ments in 1942. t Q Do butterflies have a fragrance?— E. L. H. A Many specimens are without odor, while others have a fragrance resem bling that of sweet grass, jasmine, syringa, mignonette, orange blossoms or balsam. Q How many men does it take to run a battleship and a destroyer?—B. L. Y. A. The crew of a battleship varies from 1.200 to 1,500, while the crew of a destroyer ranges from 122 to 230. ; Q Is Germany using dogs in the ! present war?—p. N. d. A. Germany early in the war used trained dogs as sentries, to ferret, out saboteurs and to track down stranded l Allied airmen. Q. What is the area of the Govern ment, Printing Office?—E. E. A. The total area occupied by the world's largest printing plant is 33 acres. In 1942 this office produced 365,456.048 publications of all classes : including nearly 10.000.000 comes of the ! Congressional Reoord. Q Are sugar stocks in this country increasing?—L. C. B. A. Increased water transport enabled the United States to obtain a larger amount of offshore sugar during th» first six months of 1943 as compared with the same period of 1942. However, supplies are still below peacetime levels and stocks are about 500.000 tons under the 1939-1941 level. Q In what year was the entire Notre Dame team named for all-America hon ors?— M. E. R. A. Ir. 1930 the entire Notre Dame eleven was selected by Bill Cunningham as his all-America team. Q Arp any races of people exempt from tuberculosis?—N. I C A. No race is exempt, but some races appear to be more resistant than others. Q When was the New York Stock Exchange established?—P. A. M. A On May 17, 1792. 25 of the old-tim# brokers, whose usual place of fneeting was the shadp of a buttonwood tree, on Wall Street, drew up a document of for mal regulations. With the growth of business a more compact organization became necessary and on February 21, 1820, the New York Stock Exchange waj formed. Memberships cost $100 apiece. Q Where is the Owvhee Dam?_E C. M. A In Oregon. It is built on an ex tinct volcano. Q How does the heating value of apple wood compare with that of coaP— —O. B. H. A. When dry and well-seasoned, on# cord n' apple wood equals one short ton (2.000 pounds' of coal. Q. When was Trinity Church in New York built? What is its value?—P. E. B. A The original Trinity Church was built in 1696-7. This was destroyed by fire in 1776. It was rebuilt 12 years later. The second building was found to be unsafe in 1839 and in 1846 it was replaced by the present structure. An pxact figure cannot be given for its value. An estimate is $17,600,000. Q What colony received thp greatest variety of immigrants?—S. S. B. A. No other colony had so many im migrants of different races and religions as Pennsylvania. Therp were Dutch, Swedes, English, Germans, Welsh and Irish. There were Quakers. Presbyte rians, Catholics, Lutherans, Mennonitpj and Moravians. Q. Is iron ore in the process of forma tion?— G. M. A Recent researches have shown that ; enormous deposits of iron resulted from : the life processes of bacteria and algap. Such processes can be observed in sum mer in many ponds or sluggish brooks where decaying organic matter is pres ent. Sometimes many tons of iron ore j may be found at the bottoms of such I pools. Q. When were the ancient Roman J cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum buried?—M. P. D. A. The cities wpre buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A D. The ruins were discovered by chance in i 1594. Some Say Old Autumn Dozes in the Field Some say old autumn dozes in the field Where lately full-eared corn and yellow grain Swept hy the passions of the earth gave yield, Enhanced hy motion and the purple rain. The stuhhled acres, dust and rust ing plow; The morning solo of the anxious crow; The plaintive mooing of the new weaned cow, Must give him troubled dreams of dearth and woe. To me young autumn, in his over alls, Sits on the hillside staring at the igest Where shadows creep and foun tained-color falls While poetry of (flange gives peace and rest. And he shall always be a youngster dreaming, Caught in the frost before the win ter’s scheming. CULLEN JONES.