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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, November 15, 1943, Image 6

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With Bandar Mamina Edition.
THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor.
WASHINGTON, D. C.
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A—* MONDAY, November 15, 1M3
The People Pay
The announcement that the
Office of Price Administration has
recommended higher prices for coal,
ranging up to sixty cents a ton for
anthracite, is the best answer to the
claim that the recent pay increases
Won by John L. Lewis for the miners
were not inflationary in character.
They are inflationary, and the peo
ple who buy coal will soon find it
out.
When the new agreement had
been negotiated by the mine union
leader and Secretary Ickes, it was
given a generous coating of verbal
camouflage. It was not a ‘‘pay in
crease,” some officials said, because
the miners were not to get more
money for the same work. The extra
dollars in their pay envelopes were
to compensate them for doing more
work. Hence, it was argued, the
Little Steel formula was not broken
and there was no question of infla
tion involved. But actually a funda
mental principle of stabilization—
that no pay increase would be ap
proved which hiked costs to con
sumers—was violated, and the con
sumers shortly will be called upon
to foot the bill. This is inflation,
pure and simple, and no amount of
word juggling can make it other
wise.
It is also a device which forces
the public to assume a penalty
which, if it has any legal basis,
■hould be borne by the mine owners.
The so-called Illinois agreement
contains a clause providing for the
payment of $40 to each miner to
settle back claims for “travel time.”
Mr. Ickes, by plain implication, con
tends that this settlement should
be applied to the whole industry.
But that liability, if it exists in fact,
should come out of the pockets of
the operators, for it is based on an
alleged violation of law by them.
Instead, however, it apparently is
to be passed on to the consumers.
This is a nice arrangement for the
operators, a satisfactory settlement
for the miners, a convenient way out
for the Government, and an old
Btory to the consuming public.
It will be said, no doubt, that the
requirements of war justify this ex
pedient arrangement. And perhaps
that is true. But it would be well
to note that the recommendation
for higher coal prices was made on
the same day that the OPA was re
leasing a statement telling how
much the public and the Govern
ment had saved through the opera
tion of price control. This saving
Is somewhat hypothetical, since it is
based on a comparison of prices
during this war with those prevail
ing during the First World War. For
what it may be worth, however, it
Is a valid comparison, but it will soon
lose all meaning if the “noninfla
tionary” settlement of the coal wage
dispute proves to be the model for
adjustment of other wage contro
versies.
Gaeta
Gaeta, bombarded by the Ameri
can fleet, has been familiar with
war for a long, long time. The
modern naval station there is fa
mous, but it represents only the
latter-day development of a marine
establishment which traces back to
remote antiquity. Some indication
of its age may be guessed from the
fact that on the summit of the
promontory are the remains of the
tomb of Munatius Plancus, who
founded the city of Lyons in 43
B.C. Other ancient ruins, including
many of still earlier date, abound
In the neighborhood.
During the Roman empire, the
port was busy with the traffic of a
thriving trade with distant parts of
the Mediterranean basin. It con
tinued to prosper even when the
Imperial rule disintegrated. The
governors of Gaeta were hereditary
consuls known as hypati. Arabs
took the town in 844, but were
driven out In 848 with the help of
Pope Leo IV. The Holy See claimed
jurisdiction until 875, when Pope
John VIII gave control to a count
of Capua. Subsequently, the hypatus
John II established his lordship
under the suzerainty of the East
Roman emperors. The Norman
counts of Aversa obtained the duchy
in the eleventh century, but Roger
of Sicily dislodged them in 1135.
Gaeta’s citadel was strengthened
about 1400 and repeatedly was rein
forced throughout the next two or
three hundred years. It was invested
many times, but “rarely capitulated
save on account of treachery or
starvation.” The Austrians besieged
the town in 1707 and French, Span
ish and Sardinian troops captured
it after four months of effort in
1784. A French Army under Massena
V
I
likewise found It costly to take in
1806, and the Austrians also had to
pay dearly for it in 1815. Francis
II of Naples made his last stand at
Qaeta in 1860. Relics of each of
these chapters in the city’s history
are to be seen in the Cathedral of
Saint Erasmus, where the Constable
de Bourbon, killed in the sack of
Rome in 1527, is buried and the ban
ner sent by Pope Pius V to Don
Juan of Austria, the victor of Le
panto, hangs behind the high altar.
A Time for Vigilance
Reports from places like Stock
holm, Bern and Ankara must al
ways be taken with a grain of salt
because as often as not they are
merely inspired rumors designed by
the enemy to distract and befuddle
us. At the same time, however, since
many of them have proved true in
the past, they cannot be discounted
altogether.
For example, it would be unwise to
laugh off the current report from
Stockholm that Nazi forces in Den
mark have received orders to be
ready to cope with gas warfare. The
explanation for this is that Hitler is
preparing to cut loose with a new
| “secret weapon” likely to make our
! side strike back as drastically and
| as violently as possible.
Although stories of this sort are
not new, they have more than a little
plausibility now for two reasons:
; First, the Nazis are reaching a point
j where they must do something spec
i tacular or resign themselves to a
| sterile and militarily wasteful de
! fensive stand, leaving the German
home front without hope: and sec
ond, our Allied forces are obviously
preparing for new invasions of
Europe and it is therefore quite as
probable as it is possible that Hitler
j and his generals will try to disrupt
our plans by resorting to some sud
den surprise blow.
In this connection, it is worth
remembering that in speeches de
livered within a day of each other,
both Hitler and Prime Minister
Churchill recently Intimated that
the British Isles may well be sub
jected again to some form of light
ning assault. Thus, the Fuehrer de
clared that although America was
not at present within his reach, he
was determined to exact “retribu
tion” of the “one opponent” near
him—namely, England. And Mr.
Churchill solemnly warned of the
“possibility of new forms of attack
upon this island” and called for a
continuation of the fullest vigilance
on the part of fire watchers and
home guards.
If and when such an attack ma
terializes, we may find, as was re
ported from London over the week
end, that the Nazis will throw in
everything at their disposal, includ
ing rocket guns, suicide squadrons
of parachutists, superbombers and
poison gas. In warning of this, Mr.
Churchill reassuringly added that
the final course of the war could not
be affected by any such development.
Yet it is at least equally true that a
sudden new blitz on England could
make the last phase of the struggle
costly and bloody in the extreme,
particularly if it succeeded in un
balancing a British-American of
fensive launched against “Fortress
Europe” from across the English
Channel.
“If ever I am convinced that my
defeat in inevitable,” Hitler once
said, in effect, to Hermann Rau
schning, “I shall drag half the world
down to destruction with me.” It is
thus not in his nature to exit quietly
from the stage of history, and as
long as he continues to inspire and
lead the Nazis, we must expect any
thing and everything, for although
he is already doomed to peter out
like a rocket, he may still be able to
spread death and devastation on a
grand scale before he spends him
self completely. Vigilance, in a
word, is therefore as much in order
now for our side as it has been at
any time since the start of the war.
A Pill Against the Sea
The old cures never worked. A
man could take the prescribed
champagne or the quick shot of
brandy neat, or he could munch
desperately on soda crackers and eat
nothing else but celery and consum
me, and he could smile wanly at the
stale jokes of all those insufferable
people who kept walking around, in
haling and exhaling and making fun
of his misery, being themselves im
mune to it. And he could sit in his
deck chair and close his eyes and
let the fine clean air caress him and
try to imagine himself solidly earth
bound, but still the heaving sea was
too much with him. And the ship
kept rolling, and when it did not
roll, it pitched—up and down, up
and down, and forever up and down,
and was life really worth living?
No matter what people said, the
old cures never worked. There was
no cure for it. in fact, but the good
land, that beautiful faraway terra
firma. And when would the ship get
there? When would this corklike
bouncing come to a merciful stop?
When would there be freedom from
this immense and ceaselessly churn
ing liquidity? And the man with
mal de mer could only brood over
his questions and wonder why it was
that oceans were necessary or why
the great human race, with all its
genius and despite all its taming of
the raw and primitive forces of na
ture, had yet failed to find a remedy
Tor the simple but awful ailment
that left him physically limp and
spiritually torn and distracted.
This man today, if he has read
the latest news from Ottawa, must
be an excited individual. How mar
velous is the Royal Canadian Navy,
he must be saying to himself, be
cause, thanks to it, there is now a
little pink pill that will banish mal
de mer in at least three out of every
four cases. Imagine! Why, there
has been nothing like this before
in the whole history of the world,
and although it will be put to an
exclusively military use for the dura*
tion, it will be available to all when
peace comes, and the man allergic
to the ship’s roll and pitch will be
allergic no more. Thus has the sea
lost one of its worst terrors, and
never again, however much it may
rage and storm, will it seem quite so
formidable as it used to be. All hail
to the Royal Canadian Navy!
The Uses of Ootimism
DesDite official efforts to curb It.
ODtimism still prevails in both Brit
ain and the United States. A year of
unbroken Allied advances has raised
it from a flicker to a flame, and as
Hitler’s prospects grow steadily more
hopeless, words of warning, words
cautioning that the bitterest battles
may yet lie ahead, cannot quench it.
It feeds on events, and as long as
those events are great and victorious,
it will remain sturdy and stubborn,
no matter how much it may be de
plored for encouraging us to relax in
our war effort.
But optimism does not necessarily
have quite the effect some people
ascribe to it. Perhaps, when kept
within reasonable limits, it actually
stimulates us to do more. The peo
ple of this country, at any rate, have
ielt it for some months past, and yet
the planes and ships and all the
other things we need for war have
been pouring out at a rate never
before achieved in the history of
production. By the same token, too,
our troops in the field, our ships at
sea and our far-ranging air fleets
have been giving an excellent ac
count of themselves. In this sense,
obviously, America’s supremely con
fident attitude during the last half
year and more has led to no per
ceptible coasting on the road to vic
tory; on the contrary, despite our
mood, we have progressively stepped
up our activities both on the assem
bly line and the battle line.
Optimism, after all, is not com
placency. It is not wishful thinking
run wild. It is high-heartedness. It
is the cheerful and hopeful view of
the world. And when it is held with
in bounds, it has its uses. The
pioneers who carved an empire out
of this continent were buoyed up by
it. It is one of the intangible ele
ments that helped to put together
the brick, steel and mortar of our
great dams and our skyscraper cities.
It is part of the spirit that went into
the development of our railroads,
our waterways, our farmlands, our
giant industries. It is as American
as corn on the cob and pumpkin pie.
And except for times when we have
let ourselves down, as during the
last, depression, it has always been
one of our national characteristics,
so much so that travelers from
abroad have made a cliche of saying
there must be something in the
American air that makes us that
way.
This kind of optimism is not the
kind that should induce any of us to
rest on our oars at this juncture. In
fact, if anything, it should stimulate
us to even greater effort, just as a
prize fighter is stimulated when he
goes in to make the nAtt round the
last one because he knows that the
other fellow has been punched
groggy and that a little extra weight
behind a few more punches will
bring on the count of ten. Armies
are like that, too; when they have
the enemy on the run, when they are
confident and see the bright chance,
they are inspired to move in as
swiftly as possible, and with all their
strength, for the kill.
In short, it may at least be argued
that moderate optimism, as distinct
from light-headed cocksureness or
blind smugness, can accommodate
itself to the realistic view and may
even be a stimulant, having much
the same tonic effect as it had on
the pioneers who built our land. For
a man can be filled with it and still
be sensible enough to realize that
many a hard and terrible day may
pass before the ultimate victory is
won; and because of that very fact
and because he knows that the war
can be shortened by all-out action
now, he may actually be more apt
to redouble his effort than the pessi
mist who is doubtful about every
thing or the emotional neutral who
has no strong feelings one way or
the other. Viewed in this light, the
optimist does not seem to merit
being condemned out of hand.
St. Vitus Returns
If Mars is the god of a shooting
war, then surely St. Vitus is at least
the patron saint of a war of nerves.
At any rate, he is holding forth today
in Germany, the nation that in
vented the war of nerves, and is
going strong. Jitters have gripped
the country, and St. Vitus has come
home to roost.
The phrase “come home” is used
advisedly, for be it known that* he
was born and bred in medieval Ger
many, where, according to the exact
words of the encyclopedia, “epidemic
outbursts of mental and physical
excitement” prevailed. In those
days, it was almost a sure bet that
any one seen tearing his hair, moan
ing and acting as if he had ants in
his pants was a German, for, still
according to the encyclopedia, it was
mainly members of the master race
that yere so distinguished. Some
thing had to be done, and was.
Shrines were erected to St. Vitus,
who. it seems, had an answer for
the malady. Pilgrimages were made
to these shrines for relief, while the
rest of the world went about its
business and looked on in sardonic
amusement. By working on a 168
hour week, it appears that St. Vitus
somehow performed the dubious task
of preventing the disintegration of
Germany, saving it tor its great con
tribution to peace and culture in the
twentieth century. If he can do it
again, it will be a miracle to top
all miracles.
Germans Still Fighting
On Russian Front
By Maj. George Fielding Eliot.
The fall of Zhitomir, the Russian ad
vance on Korosten and the renewal of
Russian pressure toward Rechltsa all
tend to give a westerly and northwester
ly slant to the Russian exploitation of
the Kiev break-through. This may well
mark a Russian attempt to envelop from
the south the German forces still de
fending the Gomel area, and thus to
force the evacuation not only of Gomel
but possibly of Mogilev also. This would
in turn seem to threaten both Orsha and
Vitebsk. The country west of the
Dnieper River here is marshy, but by
this time it should be frozen over so
that movement off the roads is becom
ing possible. Such a Russian plan
Would fit well with the continued, if
slow-moving, Russian Offensive south
west of Nevel, which is beginning to be
a threat to Vitebsk from the other side.
All of this, in turn, fits in with what
is apparently happening southwest of
Kiev. The first Russian exploitation of
the break-through of Kiev was a swift
advance to the rail Junction of Fastov,
which cut the principal railway line
feeding the German troops in the
Dnieper bend area. If this advance
could be continued for approximately
100 miles in a southwesterly direction it
would cut the other two lines feeding
that area, and would leave the southern
army group of Field Marshal von Mann
stein dependent on lines of supply from
Rumania. This would mean almost
certain capture or destruction for the
majority of the troops of Von Mann
stein's command.
The Germans appear to have fore
seen and prepared for such a peril, since
the Russian communiques now speak of
heavy fighting in the Fastov area, sug
gesting that the Germans are making
counterattacks to recover the lost rail
way junction. Where the troops came
from for these counterattacks is, of
course, uncertain, but they may have
come from the regions of Zhitomir and
Korosten.
It has always been the Russian system
to push resolutely forward until checked
by German counterattacks with plenty
of reserves in hand to hit the weak
spots from which the counterattacking
forces were withdrawn. This may be
the reason why the axis of the Russian
thrust seems to have shifted from south
west to northwest.
The fall of Zhitomir is not, however,
without direct interest to Field Marshal
von Mannstein. It does not cut another
of his lines of supply and retreat from
and to Poland. But it does cut the one
remaining line of lateral (that is north
south) communications east of the Pol
ish frontier. He will not be able to re
ceive help from the central army group
of Field Marshal von Keuchler, save by
a considerable detour, or send help north
if that is called for. It is another step
toward the isloation of his southern
army group. The goal toward which
the efforts of the Russian high com
mand have been consistently directed
ever since they began their advance on
Kharkov and Belgorod.
/ It is now quite likely that the Russians
will seek to consolidate their positions
west of the Dnieper by linking up their
forces southwest of Kiev with those
which are still fighting beyond the
Driieper in the Kremenchug-Krivoi Rog
area. As the Germans complete their
withdrawals from their more distant po
sitions Kfivol Rog itself becomes less
Important to them. The Germans are
fighting hard once more; the hint of
rout and even of panic which was evi
dent in the initial break-through at
Kiev seems to have disappeared. It is
hard to say what the German plan may
be; there is as yet little to indicate that
they intend to make a stand on the River
Bug, but that is still a possibility.
If so, we may expect to see a vigorous
German counterattack in the Zhitomir |
area in order to ease the pressure on
Berdichev; Zhitomir was a supply base
of some consequence, and its loss may
have been a hard blow to the German
power in the whole area round about.
Finally, let us keep in mind that the
Germans cannot continue indefinitely
to find troops for fresh counterattacks;
their shortage of disposable reserves is
already apparent and that shortage is
increasing. They may ttill gain local
successes but these are to be won only
with the blood of men whom Germany
cannot replace.
(Copyright, 1»43, New York Tribune, Inc.)
Two Pictures
Prom the London Doily Mall.
Two pictures of this Russian situation
are presented to us—one that we would
naturally like to see ourselves, and one
that the Germans would like us to see.
The first picture shows us the Russian
Army battering down great defenses
against a furious resistance by the en
emy, and driving the German Army into
full and disorderly retreat. The second
shows us the German Army going back
in perfectly orderly manner, withdraw
ing to a new, shorter, and powerful de
fense line, the tenure of which would
enable them to release many divisions
for their impending western front in
Europe while retaining sufficient
strength in the east to hold the Rus
sians in check. Whether the first pic
ture be true or not, we had better act
as if we believed the second to be correct.
The danger of accepting the first one
is that it tends to promote the idea
that the war is already practically over.
Some of our trade unionists, and others,
who ought to know a great deal better,
are looking at it through very rose
tinted spectacles indeed. If we look at
it this way the outcome of the siutatlon
will not be to hasten the end of the war,
but rather, by the slowing down of our
war effort, to postpone it.
. Postwar Aviation
Prom the London Daily Herald.
There is at last some positive news
about the future of civil aviation. A
conference on the subject is shortly to
be held in London, attended by repre
sentatives of this country and the do
minions. The conference, of course, will
be but a step towards the world-wide
agreement that must be secured if civil
aviation is to become a boon to man
kind and not the nursery of another
Armageddon. When the British com
monwealth has decided upon its policy,
the United States, Russia and the other
United Nations will have to be ap
proached. If all goes well, these several
powers will draw up a set of rules for
the development of air transport based,
not on international competition, but on
international co-operation. That is
looking far and optimistically ahead.
But the difficulties in the way must not
deter our government from using all
its influence to speed up the process of
negotiation. *
A
THIS AND THAT I
• |
By Charles E. Tracewell.
"NOTTINGHAM DRIVE. ,
"Dear Sir:
“What is the approximate size and
color of our native wild cats?
“One of my earliest recollections is of
a picture in the First Reader of a man
tapping a maple tree, apparently at
night, unaware that in the tree above
him crouched a wild cat ready to spring.
“This picture terrified me and colored
my childish dreams for years.
“This summer, in far less drimatic
manner than pictured by the artist, I
saw a wild cat in his native surround
ings. My companion and I v^ere on top
of a mountain in an uninhabited section
of the Adirondacks Mountain Park on a
day which was overcast, making the
forest look rather dark and foreboding,
when about 100 feet ahead of us I saw a
wild cat cross the path.
* * * *
“He crossed and recrossed several times
and finally disappeared in the woods,
apparently indifferent or unaware of our
existence.
“Strange to say, my strongest emotion
was more one of excitement and pleasure
at seeing him than the actual fear of
the child's imagination.
"The first question asked back at camp
when we told of our experience was-al
ways ‘How big was it?’ We couldn’t
agree on this as there seems to be no
familiar animal of the same size and
shape to use as a comparison.
"We both thought its color black but
everything in the woods was wet from
recent rain and even logs looked inky
black.
¥ ¥ ¥ ¥
“That section is wonderful vacation
country for any one interested in nature
study.
“The same day as we neared camp we
heard a noise in the brush along the
road which was not Just like any other
noise I ever heard, so we waited quietly
until a large porcupine emerged and
crossed the road.
“A strange creative, indeed.
“The birds which seemed to be most
numerous in the trees around the camp
were the myrtle warbler, the cedar wax
wing, song sparrow and nuthatch, and
there were others which I could not
identify.
"One day in the small village near
camp we saw a hundred or more birds
on the telephone wires and were told
that they were barn swallows and chim
ney swifts congregating to begin their
migration.
"Every year about the time of the first
feel of fall in the air they are seen at
that spot over a period of days.
"Many are believed to go as far as
South America on this flight.
"Very truly yours, M. D. A."
* * • *
The Canada lynx is found as far South
as the Adirondack Mountains.
This animal Is a dark gray with a
chestnut tinge.
It is a wonderful example of camou
flage, beacuse its coloration makes it
blend in with any blackground.
It is about 3 feet long, with an ab
surdly short tail and tufted ears.
It seems to have little side whiskers
and the appearance of smiling.
Males weigh from 25 to 40 pounds,
making an animal which must be re
spected.
It is said that it can crouch on a limb
in such a manner as to be practically
concealed, owing to the way its fur
blends with the natural scene,
* * * *
This is the famous "loup" of the
French-Can adians.
It lives on rabbits, mice and small
birds, and about the largest thing it
tackles is a small deer, but it seems to
be good at finding prey which the large
cougars have hidden away.
The lynx is not a very brave one. It
prefers the mountains and will not come
into inhabited places even when it is
hungry.
Despite its strong muscles and general
vigor, hunters claim that a blow on the
back, and not necessarily a strong one,
will kill the lynx.
w m W w
The real wild cat, the bobcat, is about
as long as the lynx, but it seems much
more thickset, more like a domestic cat.
It differs from the latter in that it is
taller and has a much larger and wild
animal-like head, with prominent ears,
but without such large tufts.
The tail is short, about 6 inches, but
not as short as that of the lynx, which
totals only 4 inches.
The general color is pale brown, spotted
on the sides with dark brown.
This is a splendid looking animal, ap
pealing especially to all persons who are
fond of the domestic cat.
Such a person invariably desires to
stroke a bobcat, but experience or com
mon sense would prevent him from do
ing so, even if he could get close enough,
and the animal itself would prevent him,
if he did, because it is fierce and bold, a
magnificent fighter and marauder.
Bobcats are found all over the United
States. They eat squirrels, mice, rabbits
and birds, and come into farm yards to
catch pigs, lambs, chickens, ducks and
geese.
Rats and mice are caught by bobcats
in large numbers, and naturalists be
lieve that in this way they pay the
farmers back. But you can’t get a farmer
to believe that.
Bobcats hunt at night, or in the dawn.
They nest in caves, hollow trees or in
the summer nests of squirrels, or even
In large bird nests. Kittens number
from two to four.
Like the domestic cat, the bobcat
spends most of the day in sleep.
It is a beautiful animal, and should
be protected.
Letters to the Editor
Praise for President
From American Chinese.
To the Editor of The 8Ur:
On October 11 President Roosevelt
made a great announcement. He an
♦ • i ' * •1
nounced that he was doing everything
in his power to secure the repeal of the
Chinese Exclusion Act and to get bills
passed allowing some Chinese to enter
the United States each year.
The President stated that the Chinese
must be allowed to become citizens with
out having to be born here, which, at
present, is the one way an Oriental au
tomatically becomes an American citizen.
He also said that those Chinese now
here who were not already United States
citizens automatically should become so.
This is the most progressive move any
one in any high office yet has made in
behalf of the Chinese people in the
United States. I am an American of
Chinese ancestry and naturally have
given this exclusion act some thought.
In the United States we all are Ameri
cans, regardless of race or color, and
should be treated as such.
The Allied nations have as their main
war aim equality and co-operation for
the benefit of all races throughout the
world, and the United States is proving
that we are fighting for this equality by
real deeds here at home. These actions
in behalf of equality mean something
more to those concerned than all the
fine words and phrases ever could hope
to provide. j. p. w©NG.
Sacramento, Calif.
Urges Faith in Russians
After as Well as During War.
To the Editor of The 8t»r:
According to newspaper reports there
is a group of religious leaders in the
United States that is vigorously opposed
to the United States making any alli
ance in postwar times with the Russian
government. These religious leaders re
member the former days when the
Communistic government of Russia
made a very effective war upon all re
ligion and upon some religious organiza
tions in particular. -They forget, how
ever, that this world war has wrought a
great change in the present Russian
government in its attitude toward re
ligion in general and also in the prop
erty rights of the individual.
Our President has been severely criti
cized in some quarters for the message
of congratulations he sent to the Soviet
Union on the anniversary of its found
ing more than a score of years ago. He
praised the Russian people and the
Russian soldiers, and justly so, for the
remarkable deeds of valor they have
performed. But Mr. Roosevelt’s critics
forgot that political parties and gov
ernments once in a while change their
attitudes on fundamental questions
when they discover to their sorrow that
their former policies were Impractical.
We have good reason to believe that
Soviet Russia has passed through such
a transition, and if the people are good
enough to fight with us on common
grounds and interests during this war,
why are they not good enough to work
with us for our common interests after
the war is concluded?
Thus far the Russian government has
given every evidence of good faith in
the common cause for which the United
Nations are fighting, and it has granted
religious liberty to all religious organi
zations whose ideals and practices are
based upon a total separation of church
and state. The only church organiza
tions that have anything to fear in the
future, according to the assurances of
Russian statesmen, are those religious
organizations which have political as
pirations. For such an attitude the
Russian government needs to be eom
Letters to the Editor must
bear the name and address of
the writer, although the use of
a pseudonym for publication is
permissible. The Star reserves
the right to edit all letter{ with
a view to condensation.
mended rather than criticized. Let us
trust them in good faith, so long as
the Russians maintain good faith to
ward US. C. S. LONGACRE.
Enforcement of 14th Amendment
By Government Called For.
To the Editor of The 8t»r:
Enforcement of the 14th amendment
is not only the constitutional wav to
attack the poll tax. It is the best way
to work for universal suffrage. The
14th amendment says, in effect, that
whenever the right of adult citizens to
vote for President, Congressmen or
State legislative, executive or judicial
officers is denied or in any way abridged,
except for crime, the State's representa
[ tion in the House shall be reduced in
the proportion that the suffrage is
reduced.
Note that this does not give Congress
power to say to a State that it cannot
use literacy testa, residence require
ments, registration schemes, poll taxes
or any other form of disqualification.
(The 15th and 19th amendments do
prohibit race and sex discrimination.!
It merely states that to the extent that
any such laws in any way abridge the
right to vote, a State's representation
shall be reduced accordingly. It is a
mistake to construe this as an attack
upon the South. It is an attack on
any restriction of the right of suffrage
of noncriminal adult citizens in any
State.
Congress should enforce this section
of the Constitution too, after first
examing all State voting laws, and
determining the extent to which each
disfranchises citizen inhabitants. In
asmuch as the power to enforce this
provision is given to the Congress by
this amendment, it is doubtful that
the courts would be willing to take any
hand in it. It is a "political question,”
which the court will not consider.
BYRON L. JOHNSON.
Vice President's Speech
Stirred Reader’s Questions.
To the Editor of The Star:
The truism that the people should
be prepared and ready at all times
in the art of looking well to their chosen
representatives was vividly illustrated
Sunday last in the speech of Vice
President Wallace at the dedication
exercises in the new memorial chapel
of Foundry Methodist Church.
That speech, like so many we seem
doomed to listen to in these dangerous
days, should be of service in helping
to shake us out of our somnolent atti
tude in relation to our several interests
out of which the Government of these
United States is compounded.
That the Vice President is a certain
type of Christian gentleman and scholar
we are happy to admit; Jwt, loose talk
does not make the type very impressive.
Was the Vice President speaking for
you when he said: "In our relations
with China we must act in such a way
as to enhance the spiritual well-being
of her people?” Who are we to talk
down to any class or state, much less
to a potentially great nation such as
China? If we have any extra spiritual
equipment to offer to China, this ob
server is forced to acknowledge that
be is not aware of it.
HUGH BARCLAY RICH.
Haskin's Answers
To Questions
By Frederic J. Baskin.
There are several hundred national
organizations which maintain their
headquarters in Washington. Hera
the information bureau finds the
answers to many of the questions
that newspaper readers ask. When
writing be sure to sign your full name
and address. Send your question to
The Evening Star Information Bu
reau, Frederic J. Haskin, Director.
Washington, D. C. Inclose stamp for
return postage.
Q. What Is the frequency with which
persons lire to be 100 years at age?—
D. L. A.
A. Census records show that In the
United States only one person out of
every 190,000 lives to celebrate his 100th
birthday.
Q. Are any of the old frigates still la
existence?—I. L.
A. The U. S. S. Constellation at New
port, R. I„ and the U. S. 8. Constitution
in Boston are two of the original
frigates authorized by Congress In 1794.
The new frigates now being constructed
are similar to gunboats and are de
signed especially to combat U-boata.
Q How long should It take to play
Ravel’s “Bolero”?—8. 8. N.
A. It is related that Mme. Ida Rubin
stein, for whom It was composed, In
sisted that the music be exactly 17 H
minutes long.
Q. Why does the moon appear so
much larger on rising?—D. Y. B.
A. It was long believed that the moon
appeared larger on rising by compari
son with surrounding objects. A new
explanation has been suggested by Prof.
E. G. Boring of Harvard. He bellevas
that the eye and brain see an object
larger when it is directly in view than
when the eyes have to be rolled up or
down to see it.
Q. Do radio waves have any effect
upon birds flying in the air?—C. B. D.
A. Little is known as yet of the pos
sible effect of broadcast waves upon
birds in flight. Students of carrier
pigeons think they may, to some extent,
influence the birds' sense of direction.
Q. What picture by Titian brought
about a royal marriage?—E. L. H.
A. When the portrait of Philip n of
Spain by the the celebrated artist was
sent to Mary Tudor of England in 1553,
she was "greatly enamoured” and their
marriaj^ subsequently took place.
Q. What are the medals awarded by
Japan?—H. E. C.
A. The Order of the Rising Sun, in
stituted in 1875, is awarded to all ranks
of the Japanese Army and Navy for gal
lant service in war or distinguished
service in peace. The Order of the
Sacred Treasure, instituted in 1888, is
awarded to both military and naval
officers for meritorious service. The
Order of the Golden Kite was instituted
in 1891.
Q. Is the flower bed known as "The
Gates Ajar,” between Minneapolis and
St. Paul, still in existence?—L. P. E.
A. The Gates Ajar in Como Park, 6t.
Paul, temporarily has been discon
tinued.
Q What is the greatest age to which
a horse has lived?—G. E.
A. The oldest horse on record is a
Manchester canal horse which died in
1822 at the age of 82.
Q Does the United States Govern
ment pay rent to England for the
ground in which American soldiers of
the First World War are burled?—O.
B. D.
A. It does not. Brookwood American
Cemetery, England, was purchased by
the United States Government “for
burial rights and perpetuity."
Q. What is the origin of the belief
that the coffin of Mohammed is sus
pended in midair?—P. P.
A. The story was invented by the
prophet's enemies to bring ridicule on
him and his religion.
Q. Why was John Paul Jones’ ship
called the Bonhomme Richard?—A.
R. C. *
A. The Bonhomme Richard was origi
nally an Indian merchantman. Tha
vessel was renamed in honor of Benja
min Franklin.
Q. Who Is the inventor of the Lino
type machine?—M. K. D.
A. Ottmar Mergenthaler, a German
immigrant who came to America In
1872.
Q. Is there such a thing as a flaw
less diamond?—G. E. L.
A. This term describes a diamond
which is free from all internal and ex
ternal blemishes or faults of every de
scription under skilled observation, with
a 10-power loupe corrected for chro
matic and spherical aberration. Thera
are “flawless" diamonds in existence.
Q. How far west of Panama i> Colon?
—W. H.
A. Colon, the Atlantic terminus of the
Panama Canal, is nearly 30 milea west
of Panama, the Pacific terminus.
Q. Please describe a land mine.—'W. O.
A. A land mine is a charge, usually
cvf high explosives, placed on the sur
face of the ground or buried in a shal
low pit and detonated at will, or by
pressure of vehicles or troops passing
over it, sometimes discharging a mass
of broken stones.
Q. Can civilians still become light
house keepers?—M. D. K.
A. There are still approximately 700
or 800 civilian lighthouse keepers who
were appointed under civil service be
fore the Division of Lighthouses was
consolidated with the Coast Guard. No
more examinations are to be held and
hereafter only enlisted men will be em
ployed as lighthouse keepers.
These Are the Good Tools
These are the good tools.
The shovel and the hoe,
The bladed plow that cleaves
The shining stubble row.
These tools are good
To bring us strength and life,
The binder in the barley field,
The shining sickle knife.
Some day we shall come back
To all good tools once more,
We shall find a brighter field—
A time worth fighting for.
VESTA CRAWFORD.’

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