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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, December 03, 1943, Image 10

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He Hewing grtm*
With Sunday Morning Edition.
THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor.
WASHINGTON. D~C,
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A—10 FRIDAY. Dec. 3, 1943
Tempest Over Censorship
It is to be doubted whether the
general reading public is greatly
concerned about who scooped whom
with the news of the Cairo confer
ence. But a large section of the
journalistic world is upset and
everybody seems to be unhappy,
blaming everybody else.
On the surface, at least, the com
plaint stems from the fact that the
Reuter’s correspondent in Lisbon
sent a dispatch on Tuesday telling
about the Cairo conference, which
reached the United States about the
time American newspapers were re
ceiving the official announcement of
the Cairo conference, to be held
strictly for release until 7:30 o'clock
Wednesday evening. As far as
known, the American newspapers,
with one exception, scrupulously
respected the release date for the
official announcement while printing
with high glee the story from Lisbon.
For, under our own very sensible
censorship regulations, a story
emanating from a foreign capital is
printable here.
British newspapers, however, were
not permitted to print the Lisbon
dispatch • although the BBC seems
to have broadcast it) as they were
under direction from the British
Ministry of Information not to men
tion the Cairo conference until offi
cially authorized. These papers are i
now damning the British Ministry j
of Information because they got '
scooped by the American press,
through courtesy of British Reuter.
Our own OWI, this being a free fight,
• has protested to Reuter about
breaking a release date and Reuter
has replied that its scoop was jour
nalistic enterprise. Brendan Bracken,
the British Information Minister, is
assailed because BBC had to remain
silent while radio stations over the
world were talking about the Cairo
conference and the newspapers are
jumping on Mr. Bracken because
BBC broadcast the Lisbon story
which they were not allowed to
print. It Is all very confusing.
But it is probable that the real
cause of this unhappiness is a feeling
that censorship is being used for
purposes other than national secu
rity—the only legitimate justifica
tion for censorship in a free country.
There was voluntary censorship, so
called, on the Cairo conference al
though the Axis countries obviously
knew when and where it was going
on. The censorship was Imposed,
not merely for security reasons, but
to permit absolute control of the
news through official sources, to be i
released when somebody in author- I
lty decided it should be released— {
and released from the White House. !
That sort of thing breeds anxiety i
and resentment in newspaper offices I
and the turmoil about the Lisbon j
story is a convenient outlet.
One American newspaper, the !
Bayonne <N. J.) Times, deliberately
violated the release date on the offi
cial announcement and printed it in
advance, declaring rather pugna
ciously that it acted on "a conviction
that the people of the United States
are entitled to news as well as any
other country in the world.” The
wisdom of its zeal, however, is ques- '
t.ionable. Granting, as one must,
that some censorship is a wartime
necessity and that somebody must
make the rules, the only substitute
for the existing "voluntary” censor
ship is one enforced by fear of heavy
penalty. Our own newspaper cen
sorship is working relatively well
now because the newspapers police
themselves. - If they break ranks,
everybody will suffer. —
Symptomatic
Sweden no longer hesitates to rub j
Berlin's fur the wrong way. Not many j
weeks ago it made a special effort to
help Jews being hounded by the
Nazis in Denmark. Earlier it had
ended an agreement permitting the
transit of German troops through
its territory to and from Finland.
And now it has just taken strong
diplomatic action in behalf of 1,200
anti-Quisling Norwegians — chiefly
students and professors of Oslo Uni
versity—who have been arrested for
deportation to Germany.
The Nazis have tried to justify the
arrests as a necessary measure
against the danger of sabotage and
•'disloyal'’ acts in Norway, but the
Swedish government, speaking for
itself and reflecting widespread in
dignation among the Swedish peo
ple, has not been convinced. In a
formal note of protest, it has called
upon Berlin to cancel the action,
warning that Sweden views the
matter with “great anxiety” and
that in the interests of Swedish
German relations the German gov
ernment should meet the “deep
!Wi*hes” of the Swedes.
At this time last year, if Sweden
had taken any auch Arm diplomatic
step, the news would probably have
been of front-page Importance. But
not so now. Now, so greatly has the
European situation changed, the
Swedes say openly what they have
always wanted to say as a free and
democratic people, making it clear
in many different ways that they
have no use for the Nazis. As much
as the reports from the battle fronts,
this display of increasing spunkiness
on their part is strikingly sympto
matic of the declining strength of
Hitler’s Germany.
Psychic Stakes in Asia
Not the least important aspect of
the tripartite Cairo conference is
its effects upon the psychological
“imponderables” throughout the Far
East. The text of the agreement
arrived at by the participants, short
and pithy in form, is packed with
psychic dynamite. Britain, China
and the United States formally
announce their war aims toward the
Tokio end of the Axis in a way
which renders a fight to a finish
inevitable. The Japanese people now
know that defeat spells the loss of
all they have worked and sacrificed
for since the beginning of the Meiji
Era some 80 years ago, when Japan
i emerged from its hermit isolation
and concentrated intensively on
becoming a “great power” in the
Western sense of the term. They
are to be stripped of all their terri
torial gains and will be cooped up in
their home islands, which have a
combined area smaller than that of
California. Disarmed and deprived
of control over most raw materials
needed for large-scale modern in
dustry, they will be overshadowed by
a victorious China elevated to the
status of a political and economic
colossus. That is a situation which
will render almost unthinkable any
recovery of military or economic
strength. Japan will be automati
cally dwarfed to the status of a
second or third rate nation. It will
have lost forever its vision of empire.
All this will be made frenzied use
of by the Tokio warlords. Every
Japanese will realize as never before
that his destiny is at stake. What
ever “moderates” may exist in Japan
will henceforth renounce all hope of
a negotiated settlement and support
the program of total war. The fa
natical spirit of this naturally belli
cose people will be fanned to new
heights of reckless fury. Tojo's aim
to forge the “Yamato race” into a
“living ball of fire” will have been
attained.
This was undoubtedly understood
by the conferees at Cairo. Why,
then, did they so grimly show their
hand? The answer would seem to
lie In the psychological gains which
will accrue to them everywhere else
in the Far East. Throughout the
Orient, "face” or prestige is a factor
of enormous importance. The mere
fact that the Allied "big three” have
solemnly decreed the destruction of
imperial Japan will reverberate in
the remotest parts of Asia, hearten
ing hundreds of millions of people
either subjected to the Japanese
yoke or fighting desperately to avoid
such subjugation. The net benefits
of this psychological stroke should
outweigh Japan’s heightened deter
mination to resist unto death.
Especially is this true in China.
The situation there, after seven
years of terrible war strain, is far
more critical than is generally
known to the world at large. Chiang
Kai-shek and his patriot associates
have been hard put to it to keep up
popular morale. In other words,
they have been steadily losing
"face.” The promises of national j
greatness and permanent eradica
tion of the Japanese oppressor will
give a tremendous lift to the Chinese
and should restore the waning pres
tige of the Chungking government.
Conversely, it will tend to under
mine the confidence of Japan’s
puppet regimes in China and else
where, who have bowed to the con
queror for corrupt, selfish reasons
and would be the first to desert
Nippon's sinking ship of state. Fur
thermore, it will intensify the rebel
lious activities of "underground” pa
triotic groups in Korea, Manchuria,
the Philippines and elsewhere.
Provided the Allies make good their
death sentence on imperial Japan
by shattering blows in the near
future, the psychological impact of
the Cairo pronouncement should be
very great. And it is unlikely that
the Allies would have spoken so
decisively unless they are prepared
to make good their undertakings.
The hysterical, suicidal mania of
the Japanese soldier, proved on
Tarawa, Attu, Guadalcanal and
many other fields of combat, can be
counted on to persist regardless of
losses or reverses. The Japanese
will presumably have to be killed oft
bv the million before their Sun of
Empire sets forever. But this would
have been true if the Cairo confer
ence had not been held. Japan
militant would have gone down
fighting anyway.
Grenoble Threatened
In their increasing desperation,
the Nazis in France are capable of
making good their threat to raze
the ancient city of Grenoble. Patriot
activity in the neighborhood has
brought the promise of destruction.
Many Americans, knowing the beau
tiful old fortress town, will under
stand what is imperiled.
Grenoble has some resemblance
to Quebec. It stands at the junc
tion of the valleys of the Isere and
the Drac. Magnificent mountains,
some of them ten thousand feet
high, rise above the rivers. A series
of defensive works occupies the
slopes of the Rachais over the mod
ern business and residential areas.
Settled in prehistoric times, the site
was called Cularo by the Allobroges
and Gratianopolis by the Romans.
The Burgundians held it in the fifth
r
century, the Pranks In the sixth. Zt
was Included in the kingdom of
Provence from 879 to 1032. Then
followed a long struggle between the
local bishops and the counts of
Albon. Taking the title of Dauphins
of the Viennois, the latter, when
victorious over their ecclesiastical
rivals, made Grenoble their capital.
It was stipulated that the citizens
were to retain their municipal privi
leges at the absorption of Dauphiny
by the royal power in 1349. The
city was sacked by the Protestants
in 1562, but the firmness of the
governor prevented a repetition of
thfe Massacre of Saint Bartholomew
a decade afterward. Lesdiguieres,
at first a leader of the Reformers
but subsequently their enemy, took
possession for Henry IV in 1590. It
is to him that the vast system of
fortifications is attributed. The peo
ple of the community were noted
for their' independence and their
ardent zeal for personal freedom
even in his era. An attempt on
the part of Louis XVI to weaken
their parlement in 1788 resulted in
the Day of Tiles—a serious defeat
for the regal authority.
The center of Grenoble is the
Place de la Constitution, a park
surrounded by the buildings of the
univeisity and various government
departments. There are fine French
and Italian pictures in the art
gallery, antique furniture and por
celain in the museum and one of
the richest collections of old books
and manuscripts in Europe in the
library. A statue of the Chevalier
Bayard, the knight “without fear
and without reproach,” adorns the
Place Saint Andre.
Visitors from the United States
always were interested in the glove
factories for which Grenoble long
has been famous. The gants Jouvin,
skillfully executed in more than a
hundred different establishments,
represent the city’s principal in
dustry.
Not to Be Celebrated
December 7, 1941, was no day of
glory for America. About all that
can be said in its favor is that it
galvanized us at last into unified
action against the common foe.
Otherwise it was a day of defeat for
us. one to be remembered but not
celebrated—a date which, as Presi
dent Roosevelt has said, will make
the name of Japan “live in infamy”
as long as our history is written.
There is a great deal of common
sense, therefore, in the President's
veto of a congressional resolution
designating the anniversary of Pearl
Harbor as “Armed Services Honor
Day.” In Mr. Roosevelt’s words, it
would be "singularly inappropriate”
to put such an idea into effect, not
only because the outstanding fea
ture of the day was enemy treachery
and our own unpreparedness but
also because it seems a bit fore
handed to establish a specific date
at this time to pay tribute to all
those who have served in our fight
ing forces during the course of a war
that is not yet ended. This reason
ing is altogether sound. So, too, is
the President’s view that future
events, between now and the final
defeat of the Nazis and the Japa
nese, will very probably suggest a
much more suitable timing for such
a commemoration.
As Mr. Roosevelt points out in his
veto message, we do not have to
mark December 7 in any special way
to remind ourselves of its meaning.
The day speaks well enough for
itself. Far from having a note of
celebration in it, it should serve
always as an object lesson of what
can happen when a nation is lacking
in vigilance. The best way to re
member it this year is for all of us
to heighten our resolve and Increase
our efforts to bring to a successful
conclusion the war that engulfed
our land two years ago when the
dawn came with thunder, flame and
death to Pearl Harbor.
Gone But Not Forgotten
The crime of AWOL, like larceny,
is of varying degrees, and is handled
accordingly. If the time lost is a
few hours, it may be condoned, par
ticularly if caused by a breakdown
in transportation. When it gets into
days, stiff but not fatal punishment
results. When it reaches the neigh
borhood of a month, the culprit is
really behind the eight ball.
However, if a larceny is suf
ficiently grandiose, and is on a scale
of many thousands of dollars, involv
ing gaudily printed stock certificates
instead of blackjacks, the perpetra
tor has a chance to get away with
it. That similar conditions may
apply to AWOL has been recently
shown in the case of a soldier who
walked off guard duty, moved to
another State, and for some time
remained there as a civilian. He
is now at another camp, working on
civilian status, with his offense for
given, largely on account of his age
or, to be more exact, his two ages.
It would not be humane to be too
hard on a mere youth of twenty for
deserting in 1883, and equally in
humane to penalize him in 1943
when he was eighty. It also would
be a shame to spoil a world’s record
of sixty years AWOL.
A strike is reported in a big laun
dry. This should allow a breathing
spell to button manufacturers and
let them catch up.
The air is said to be full of wild
ducks calmly watching hunters who
have gone wild because they have
no ammunition.
It is about time for the RAF to
break up a few more dams in Ger
many and add to the Nazis’ flood
pressure.
One postwar industry in Germany
that will need no artificial stimula
tion or source of supply is the junk
business.
Shelling Foreshadows
New Britain Landing
By Maj. George Fielding Eliot.
In many cases, naval bombardment
has been the Immediate preliminary to
amphibious attack on Japanese posi
tions. This is because, as the final
act in the softening-up process pre
paratory to landing, it is desirable to
obtain the effect of the concentrated
fire of naval batteries. The difference
between naval bombardment and aerial
bombardment lies in the degree of con
centrated destructive effort which it is
expected to obtain against a particular
target. The bombing plane, having
dropped its bombs, must go back to its
base for another load before it can
continue its attack. The naval vessel
can go on firing as long as it can remain
within range of its target, its fire effect
being otherwise limited only by the
capacity of its magazines.
Moreover, the naval vessel can stand
still, or at least cruise at very slow
speed (enemy defensive ability permit
ting), so that, if the location of its
targets are known and plotted, and if
there is good direct or aerial observa
tion of its fire, it can lay a very heavy
concentration on any particular target.
The risks of using expensive and
heavily manned warships within reach
of enemy shore-based aircraft and gun
batteries are, however, considerable. In
general they can be so used only when
full surprise can be attained, or under
cover of darkness or smoke, or when
fully covered by supporting naval gun
fire and air forces, or—as seems to be
the case in the Southwest Pacific at the
moment—when complete air superiority
has been obtained by the attacking side
and the fire of the ships themselves is
adequate to deal with the shore bat
! teries.
Even so, the risks are such that in
general they are to be undertaken only
to obtain a considerable compensating
advantage; such an advantage as the
final preparation for a landing by the
destruction of enemy defense installa
tions which have escaped the preceding
air attacks. When air attacks rise in
intensity, and then are followed im
mediately by naval bombardment, the
suggestion is very strong that a landing
is contemplated.
i ms appears to be the state of affairs
at Oasmata. on New Britain Island, and
at Madang, on the north coast of
New Guinea, west of the Huon Gulf
region Both places, but Gasmata par
ticularly, have been under heavy air
attack. The last bombing attack on
Gasmata is reported to have been the
heaviest ever delivered in the Southwest
Paciflo area. Now both of these places
have been subjected to naval bombard
ment. It la therefore possible, though
not yet certain, that Gen. MacArthur
believes the time has come for a landing
on New Britain Island, heart of the Jap
anese defense system in the Southwest
Pacific, and that he proposes to defend
the flank of this operation by a simul
taneous blow at Madang.
Madang is Indeed threatened from
three directions. American and Aus
tralian forces are now In position to
advance along the north shore of New
Guinea westward from the Pinschafen
area, others are established inland from
Madang in the Ramu River valley and
an amphibious operation from the sea
might under these conditions prove
decisive as far as Madang is concerned
just as occurred at Salamaua and Lae.
The situation of Gasmata Is some
what different. We have at present no
foothold on New Britain itself. An
attack on Gasmata would be our first
attempt to obtain one. But it should
not be supposed that the Japanese
could rush large numbers of troops
down from Rabaul to defend Gasmata;
the land communications of New Britain
are almost nonexistent. Nor would
American troops landed at Gasmata
be able to commence an advance on
Rabaul. The value of Gasmata to
Gen. MacArthur lies reglly in the fact
that it would give us a good air base
much closer to Rabaul than any other
we now possess and that it would
deprive the Japanese of a base from
which they have been able to harass
and observe our operations. The value
of Madang would be that its capture
would interrupt the westward com
munication of Rabaul along the coast
of New Guinea and would thus increase
the Japanese need to depend on send
ing convoys south from Truk, as they
recently had to do with resultant severe
losses in naval and merchant shipping.
ICODjrlsht, 1843, H. Y. Trlbunt, Inc )
Jap Fleet on the Spot
From the Topek* Capita..
Just as air power is calling the turn In
Europe, sea power is the big factor in
the Pacific theater of war, and America
and the Allies are on the upgrade on
both sides of the world.
When Japan struck at Pearl Harbor
it was obviously with the Idea of dealing
a crippling blow to much of our Pacific
Fleet. The Japs thought it would be
possible to sink the rest of the fleet
while our other ships were tied up in
the Atlantic. They thought we would
not dare divert sea power from the
desperate battle with the Nazis, in
some particulars they were right; in
others wrong.
Probably the Pearl Harbor attack suc
ceeded far beyond the expectations, or
knowledge, of the Japs. They actually
put most of our fleet out of commission,
and left us almost helpless in the Pa
cific. But they didn't know that at the
time, which gave us precious weeks and
months to recover while MacArthur’s
forces fought a delaying action. They
were entirely correct in the assumption
that we could not risk pulling ships
out of the Atlantic area to fight them.
The big opportunity for the Jape Is
now gone. We have steadily been re
building our aea power until it Is now
believed that our Pacific Fleet is much
stronger than that of the Japanese
Navy, which was once among the world’s
best. The situation has reversed itself
and Americans are now daring the Japs
to come out and fight. On a few oc
casions they have done so, and have
lost heavily.
English Baby in Wartime
From the Jteider'a DilHt.
An Englishman asked the British
Ministry of Labor and National Service
for permission to start work every
morning at 8 instead of 7. He didn’t
want to be a slacker, he aaid, but he
needed the extra hour to “get the baby
up to granny’s.”
Asked why his wife could not take
care of the baby, he explained that she
had to get to her Job in an aircraft fac
tory at 6. As for granny, when asked
why she could not come and pick up the
baby earlier, the man replied: “Granny
doesn't get off tha night shift herself
until 7.”
I THIS AND THAT I
By Charles B. Tracewell.
Going to the woode lor walnuts and
hickory nuts used to be a part of fall
routine in America’s small towns.
On Sundays it was customary to hitch
up the horse and carriage and go out to
some farm, where nut-bearing trees were
known to be, and there secure permis
sion of the owner to take away a few
bags’ full.
Trips into nearby woods were always
in order, especially for small boys who
had the time and energy.
The green outer husks have to dry,
and then have to be beaten off with
stones or instruments.
Walnut stain was much in evidence
in the old days.
vase
Today we buy walnuts from people in
markets, but we shouldn't do as a Chevy
Chase resident did.
He put his purchase on the back porch
overnight, and when he came down to
look for his walnuts the next morning
they were all gone.
Squirrels had been up early.
Any sort of nut is like a red flag to
a bull, when it confronts a squirrel.
Once when Templeton Jones lived in
Georgetown he was presented with a
magnificent dressed rabbit.
The game was in a paper bag. and he
placed this Inside the icebox from an
outside door.
But an old black cat got it, just the
aame, and gnawed up about half of it.
* * * *
The ^creatures must secure food
wherever they can find it.
Squirrels, in particular, seem to have
all outdoors working for them.
There ought to be a particular bond
of sympathy between humans and squir
rels at the Christmas season.
Both races of living creatures are vory
fond of nuts.
Templeton Jones wonders If other
people recall how nuts were cracked in
small towns long ago?
It was the fashion to take a flat iron,
and put the handle down between the
knees.
This left a nice strong table on which
to crack tha nuts with a hammer or
other appropriate instrument.
A big darning needle, in lieu of a nut
pick, was used to pick out the nutmeata.
» * * *
Jones always thought nutmaats were
more trouble than they were worth.
He can recall how he felt this was
when he was a very small boy.
He remembers his feeling of disgust,
with all the small boy’s intensity, at the
way some of his associates went at get
ting the meats out of nuts.
Ht cannot recall that he either called
or thought of them as hoggish. He was
Just what his elders called a • finicky
child/'
Today It la realised that the fastidious
child, especially if a boy, is really a
sick child, lacking in the proper amount
of vitamins and minerals, in all likeli
hood.
* * * v
Jones still shrinks from photographs
of human beings eating.
Nothing irks him mors than a shot of
a soldier gnawing a wing of turkey.
Pictures of persons eating corn on the
cob, he has always thought, ought to be
forbidden by law. It would be prepos
terous, perhaps, to call them indecent,
but that word gives some inkling of the
way Jones feels about them.
Eating hot buttered popcorn in public
ought to be forbidden, too.
There are just some things that fas
tidious people do not do.
* * * *
Jones has often thought that animal
eating always seems proper and lit.
What Is more engaging than a squirrel
holding a nut up to his mouth?
mis is the most characteristic pose of
one of our most interesting and appeal
ing small animals.
Just a silhouette will recall memories
to any looker, even one who is not par
ticularly interested in animal life.
me smallest child will recognize the
pose and name the animal.
Cows cropping grass, and horses eat
ing out of a trough, birds pecking ber- ;
ries from a bush—these seem downright
natural and appealing.
But a man eating corn on the cob is
an abomination.
* * * *
Popcorn, with plenty of butter—and '
no ‘•point*”—was the great Sunday aft- j
arnoon feast in many a small town j
household.
There was a lag, some hours after
dinner.
It was the old letdown, and nothing
seemed to remedy the matter except
popcorn.
The popped com was heaped in a
great bowl and covered with melted
butter.
Some salt was sprinkled on.
Everybody had a share, including the
household cats, which ate from a news
paper in the middle of the floor.
Jones can recall how the melted but
ter caused the paper to take on a waxy
appearance.
His recollections remind him to try
popcorn on the squirrels the next time
he pops some. He has a fancy electric
popper, still in working order, but noth
ing does a better Job than a pan with
a lid on it, provided you know how to
handle the lid.
He has fed many items to squirrels,
but never, so far as he can recall, has
he ever tried them on popcorn. Miss
Smith, take a memo: ”Trv popcorn on
the squirrels.” They ought to like it.
Letters to the Editor
“Distorted Pieture” of “Delinquency”
Discussed by Social Hygiene Officer.
To ihe Editor •( The Star:
Your editorial, "War and Delin
quency,” hit several nails on their re
spective heads. The term "juvenile
delinquency" is itself a variable. Its
definition varies widely in many com
munities. and there is an even wider
variance between the legal definitions
and general public conceptions of what
la included in the term.
Oftentimes over-all figures purporting
to be juvenile delinquency "statistics”
lump together a variety of items that
give* a grossly distorted or illogical pic
ture. They are as unsound, scientifi
cally. aa was the computation in the
traditional story often used by statisti
cians to illustrate a reductlo ad ab
aurdum. This anecdote, you recall, tells
of an ancient veteran forced ur seek
alms. Holding out his tin cup to the
passerby, he would point to the sign
strung over his chest, which read: "Help
an old soldier! Service years, B;
wounds. J; children, 5; total, 17.”
In calling attention to the 133 children
under 16 years who were excused from
school last year because of pregnancy
or to care for their infants, Dr. Joseph
A. Murphy of the Health Department
gave the community one rather alarm
ing statistical sidelight. For its proper
evaluation, however, we need comparable
past figures. Determining whether there
is more or less illegitimacy is mere
guesswork unless we have a sound sta
tistical base of departure.
Those of us who are working with
Negro leaders to remedy some of the
handicaps which impede that racial
group appreciate particularly your edi
torial statement, "The figures were
shocking enough, indicating a condi
tion, in some of the Negro schools espe
cially, that concerns the whole com
munity.” For, just as long as the inci
dence of tuberculosis, venereal disease,
illegitimacy and other physical and
societal maladies continues many times
higher in this group than in the neigh
boring population, just so long should
we concentrate more medical, educa
tional and economic therapy to improve
their lot. Such ameliorative processes
are not merely altruistic. They can be
justified on a dollars-and-cents basis in
that they will reduce the total of com
munity ills, thereby safeguarding the
entire population. Whenever we lower
the rates of disease, illegitimacy and
crime, we save on such taxpaying items
as health and police protection and in
stitutional care, in the long run, pre
vention la much cheaper than salvage.
RAY H. EVERETT,
Executive Secretary, Social Hygien#
Society.
Greed for “Material Things”
Held te Blame fer Fetor* Wats.
To tht editor of The Mar:
If the annihilation of Germany's war
ring potentiality will bring permanent
peace, as Channing Pollock Indicated
was his opinion in a recent letter to Hie
Star, then why all this talk of attain
ing peace by eliminating trade barriers,
collaborating with the reet of the world
and entering into nonaggremion pacts
with other nations? Why not merely
annihilate Germany’s warring potenti
ality and forget the other ideas?
I am afraid that Mr. Pollock’a opinion
was derived more froril imagination than
from facts. There were wars before
Germany came Into being and there
have been wars since in which the Ger
mans did not participate, in truth, past
and present events reveal that war Is
not a characteristic of any particular
group of people, but that any and all
peoples will engage In war when prop
erly aroused—yee, even with the mem
f*
Letters to the Editor must
bear the name and address of
the writer, although the use of
a pseudonym for publication is
permissible. The Star reserves
the right to edit all letters with
a viexo to condensation.
; bers of their own groups, as evidenced
| by our Revolutionary and Civil War*
and by the Russians’ Red revolution.
As I see it, regardless of what kind
of peace is effected with Germany, there
is going to be war just as long as people
love material things enough to fight for
them. And I do not think that any
particular group of people has a monop
oly on that kind of love.
J. J. SPERRY.
I Woodstock, Va.
Tewa Meeting Democracy
Wanted In Practice.
T# tht Ml tor of The ator:
How can the unorganized 15 million
heads of families attain representation |
I in public affairs now controlled by spe
cial interests?
j First, the error in our governmental j
system must be discovered.
One immediate cause is the primary j
system. The "horse-and-buggy” towm i
meeting and its companion, the party |
caucus, were abolished under the char- I
acterlstically false slogan of the politi
cians, "The people shall rule!" There
the voters gathered together, transacted
their own local public business and
personally chose representatives to act
for them in distant, general subjects.
Of course, there were abuses. But the
vast majority of people are reasonably
honest, truthful and peaceable, so that
the natural remedy was to require all I
voters to attend town meeting and '
caucus.
Wendell Willkie says that 1\2 per cent
of the Russian people rule Russia; other
estimates are to 1 per cent. The com
mitteemen rule in New York State.
What percentage of the people are they?
The remainder are the "kanonen •futter”
in war; the providers of feed for the
tax eaters, and the pushees in peace!
The town meeting and caucus are tha
foundation; re-establish them and re
store the limitation of the powers of the
representatives of the people which to
gether constitute the essence of repre
eentative government.
EDWARD HENRY NEARY.
Abolition of Exclusion Low
Regarded as International Gain.
To the Editor of The star:
Let me congratulate Congress for
abolishing the discriminatory Chinese
exclusion law. Now, the bill is in the
White House awaiting President Roose
velt's signature. The President, possess
ing a farsighted vision and a profound
sense of justice, undoubtedly will sign
it with little delay.
Ths annual admission of 105 Chinese
into this country has but slight signifi
cance. However, the moral effect carried
by the eradication of racial inequality is
stupendous. This is another step toward
the realization of genuine cordial rela
tions between China and the United
States as well as a gain for universal
brotherhood.
What will the Nipponese propagan
dists say? This historical measure cer
tainly deals a deadly blow to their
scheme of destroying the Amerlcan
Chinese united front. On the other
hand, the morale of the Chinese people
will be heightened, and their faith in the
Amerioan democracy strengthened by its
passage. Renee, Chungking and Wash
ington have better reason to collaborate
even more elosely regarding the winning
of our common victory and the planning
of International peace.
JULIA I. R. CHEN.
Haskin's Answers
To Questions
By Frederic J. Hasktn.
When troublesome questions arise
avail yourself of the eervice of this
information department. Send in
your inquiry about any factual mat
ter and you will receive a personal
reply. Advice cannot be given on how
to invest money. Go to a banker for
help in such matters. Address The
Evening Star Information Bureau,
Frederic J. Has kin, director, Wash
ington, D. C. Inclose stamp far re
turn postage.
Q Who was the founder if th«
YMCA?—K. B. W.
A. The founder was Georgs Williams,
later Sir George Williams (1921-1906).
The organisation grew out of meetings
for prayer and Bible reading which
Mr. Williams held among his fellow
workers In a dry-goods business.
Q What is the name of the largest
commercial ship built In the United
States?—V. I. B.
A. The S. S. America, launched on
August 31, 1939, is the largest and fastest
commercial vessel built In the United
States. The liner is now a naval trans
port and has been renamed West Point.
Q. How many different minerals are
used in making a telephone?—P. R. M.
A. At least 25 minerals are used in
makkig a telephone, obtained from the
four corners of the earth. This is true
also of radio, automobile and many
other mechanical devices.
Q. Was the capital of Wisconsin
named for Preaident Madison?—A D H.
A. The city was laid out to be the
seat ol the Government and named
after President James Madison, who
had just died.
Q. Is it true that Victor Herbert wax
able to write several operettas at a time?
—E. L. H.
A. At one time when engaged to writ#
four operettas. ' The Singing Girl," "The
Ameer,” "Cyrano de Bergerac" and
"The Viceroy,” he wrote them ail at
once. There were three low desks in his
study and one high one. As inspiration
moved him, he went from one to th#
other.
Q. Where is Titian's famous painting
“The Assumption of the Virgin" lo
cated?—W. D.
A. It is in the Church of the Fran,
Venice. When Napoleon was carrying
off art treasures from Italy, this paint
ing was so blackened with candle smoke
that the Frenchman decided it was not
worth taking away.
Q. What is the richest turf event in
the world?—S. P.
A. The Kentucky Derby is said to hold
this distinction.
Q. Is there any oxygen in the atmo
sphere of Mars?—R. D.
A. Astronomers recently have learned
that the atmosphere on Mars contains
almost no free oxygen. This reduces the
possibility that life such as we have on
the earth can exist on that planet.
Q What was the extent of United
States trade with England before the
war?—F. F.
A. In the prewar years the United
Kingdom bought approximately $500,
000,000 annually, representing about
two-flithx of the United States sales to
Europe and 17 per cent of total sales
abroad.
Q Why is there a projection at the
southeast comer of Missouri's boundan ?
—M. E, M.
A. The peculiar jog between the
Mississippi and St. Francis Rivers is
said to be the result of efforts of a prom
inent property owner who lived south
of the parallel of 36 degree# 30 minutes
to have his plantation included in the
new state.
Q. Where is th# monument that is
known as the "Ears of the Koreans ?—
C N. R.
A. It is a mound in Kyoto, Japan,
beneath which 100,000 Korean ears and
noses were buried by Hideyoshi, the
Japanese war lord, after the destructive
wars between these two peoples.
Q. How many children had Queen
Victoria?—N. R. B.
A. Nine. They were the Princess
Royal (Victoria), the Prince of Wales
(Edward VIII), the Princes Alfred, Ar
thur and Leopold and the Princesses
Alice, Helena, Louise and Beatrice.
Q. How do labor unions function in
the Soviet Union?—N. E. I.
A. The unions represent the workers
in all matters touching the state which
places at their disposal offices and
grants them various privileges in the use
of communications, including transit by
rail and water, in relations with sep
arate enterprises the trade unions aiw
represented by factory committees com
posed of workers. The duties of these
committees are to safeguard the in
terest* of workers, to represent the em
ployes in matters involving the govern
ment authorities and to improve th#
workers’ welfare, to participate in eco
nomic activity and to make sure that
workers receive the benefit* provided by
law.
Evening
(Bear Trail Hill)
When twilight falls, a cooling damp
ness soon
Pervades the forest groves and
pine-sweet trail;
One hears the distant crying of the
loon, „
And, nearer by, a screech owPs
eerie wail. 2
Birds twitter; crickets churr; a bull
frog thrums
In basso to the mill stream's liquid
tinkle;
Squirrels chatter, and a haughty
pheasant drums, '
As sunset wanes and first sifts
faintly twinkle.
Smoke curls from chimneys; cabip
lamps are lit;
The fragrant smell of bacon /IMj
the air.
Aunt Corrie, cane in hand, cottas
out to knit
A while beneath a blazing fat
wood flare,
Whose light gives golden luster $o
the leaves
Of rhododendron, dingy roof aigt
eaves.
v;«
K. P. STODDARD*
v _

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