Newspaper Page Text
Weather Forecast Light rain and warmer tonight. Tues day clearing and colder. Temperatures today—Highest, 48, at noon; lowest, 37, at 5:55 a.m. Yester day—Highest. 58, at 4:10 p.m.; lowest, 39. at 12 a.m. __Lote New York Markets, Poge A-17 Guide for Readers Page. Amusements .. A-12 Comics _B-18-19 Editorials _A-8 Editl Articles ..A-9 Finance ..A-18-I7 Lost and Found A-3 Page. Obituary_A-l* Radio .B-19 Society.B-3 Sports.A-14-15 Where to Oo . B-20 Woman s Page B-14 An Associated Press Newspaper 91st YEAR. No. 36,377. _WASHINGTON, D. C., MONDAY, DECEMBER 6, 1943—THIRTY-EIGHT PAGES. *** SfaSA. THREE CENTS. 52£h<2r™ 5th Army Captures New Italian Heights; Marshalls Hit Again Position Commands Road to Rome West of Mignano By the Associated Press. ALLIED HEADQUARTERS, Al giers, Dec. 6.—The American 5th Army, by - passing German strong points, has captured new heights commanding the road to Rome west of Mignano, while the British 8th Army's drive has carried to the Moro River, 10 miles beyond the Sangro, Allied headquarters announced today. The Nazis launched strong coun terattacks against American and British infantry in bitter hand-to hand battles, and threw in fresh reinforcements including mecha nized carriers against the 8lh Army in a desperate attempt to halt the smashing Allied drives. A flame throwing tank was captured by the British. A counterattack west of Venafro was hurled back by the 5th Army With severe enemy losses. More High Ground Taken. Lt. Gen. Mark W. Clark's head quarters announced that the Ger mans, who are fighting stubbornly for every inch of ground, had been driven from three more commanding elevations by the Americans who are smashing into Nazi fortifications in the area of the rugged slopes of Mount Maggiore. British infantry of the 5th Army are rooting out Nazi defenders in the equally-rough area of Mount Camino. From their newlv-won positions the Allied troops could gaze out across the valley to Cassino, and be yond it to the \ alley which leads northwest into Italy's capital. In one sector, small units of Ger mans still holding out on the sum mit of a ridge were cut off by the Allied drive well beyond. Destroyers Aid Offensive. British warships, steaming boldly within range of enemy shore bat teries. were disclosed to have sup ported the 8th Army's drive up the Adriatic coast in recent days with bombardments of German supply routes, bases and shipping. The British destroyers bombarded the coastal road between Pescara and Giulianova. sent shells into the coastal towns of Ancona and San Benedetto, and sank three enemy coastal craft and a merchant vessel. Aerial support of the Allied ground forces was limited by bad weather, but the enemy-held Yugoslav port of Split was bombed yesterday by medium bombers and a floating dock at Orbetello. on Italy's west coast, w'as hit and left burning. The 8th Army’s drive to the Moro River represented a gain of about two and a half miles from San Vito, capture of which was announced yesterday, and carried the Adriatic offensive to within 14 miles of Pescara. German losses on the Adriatic front were described officially as heavy. “In some places on the mountains the Germans had dug into solid rock to a depth of 8 feet, and had to be driven out in hand-to hand combat.’’ a headquarters spokesman said. Gen. Clark's 5th Army punched on through similar formidable defenses. Mount Maggiore and Mount Ca mino are about 3 miles southwest. of Mignano. through which winds Highway No. 6. the road to Rome. Allied headquarters said the Nazis had thrown nine divisions. 100.000 to 135.000 men. into the defense of the line they had hoped to hold through the winter. Although no mention was made of forces the Germans may be hold ing in reserve nearer Rome, it is known that Nazi forces have been pulled southward from Marshal Er win Rommel's pool in the north. fresh Allied forces. Reinforcements also have reached Italy for the great Allied offensive, a. belated dispatch from an Allied held port disclosed yesterday. It said Canadian tankmen and motor ized troops had arrived after an un eventful crossing. Reports that an Italian army of more than 50.000 men was poised in the Abruzzi Mountains in the line of the German retreat before the British 8th Army came, meanwhile, from non-belligerent Spain. An Argentine just arrived at Bar celona from Italy said there were reports that the Italian Army was preparing for action against the Nazi rearguard in the Adriatic sec tor. Chinese Pursue Japs Retreating in Hunan By the Associated Press. CHUNGKING, Dec. 6.—Japanese forces in Northern Hunan Province have been defeated and Chinese forces are continuing to attack the retreating enemy, a Chinese com munique announced last night. The communique said reports from natives In the area declared that the Japanese were retreating “in a most disorderly condition,’1 and were carrying "a large number of wounded.’’ In fighting in various sections of Hupeh Province the Chinese com munique announced gains and said 300 Japanese troops had been killed in the northeastern section of King men on the Kingmen-Tangyang highway. Delinquent Tax List The first installment of the 1943 delinquent tax list for the District of Columbia will be published in The Evening Star tomorrow. 100 Carrier-Based Planes in Raid, Tokio Reports B? the Associated Pres*. NEW YORK, Dec. 6.—A Tokio broadcast quoted Japanese im perial headquarters today as saying that a fleet of 100 car rier-based Allied planes had raided the Japanese-held Mar shall Islands yesterday morning and admitted that the attack had caused some damage. The broadcast, recorded by Ped eral Communications Commission monitors, declared that 20 of the raiders had been shot down. The Navy Department announced last night in Washington that Army Liberator bombers had raided Mili Atoll in the Marshalls and Nauru Island Saturday, but it was not im mediately clear whether the Japa nese were referring to this attack. The fact that the Japanese said the raid was carried out by carrier based aircraft, however, indicated they were referring to a different operation or that they were mis taken about the type of planes in volved, for Liberator bombers are too large to operate from carriers. The Tokio communique also re ported that Japanese naval airmen had pursued the Allied task force and had sunk one medium-sized air craft carrier and a large cruiser. A large aircraft carrier and a cruiser were damaged, the bulletin added. Aussies Repulse Japs In Wareo Counterattacks SOUTHWEST PACIFIC ALLIED HEADQUARTERS, Dec. 6 — Australian troops with the aid of artillery and air cover pressed steadily toward Wareo on the stra tegic Huon Peninsula of New Guinea today after repulsing three Japanese counterattacks. The Aussies, victors of Sattleberg four bitter miles to the south, turned back the counter thrusts Saturday with the help of artillery. Attack planes ripped up the Japs' rear positions. These Australians were spurred on by the likelihood of early support from two other digger elements also closing in on Wareo's strongly- ■ defended heights. One unit cap tured Bonga 4 miles to the east last i week and pushed inland, and the j other was coming up from the southeast. ; Bombers of the South and South west Pacific commands likewise pushed their ceaseless offensive, dropping heavy bomb, loads which left targets aflame on Bougainville and New Britain Islands, while the 7th Army Air Force reached deep into Japan's defense perimeter to start fires at Hare Island in the| lonely Central Pacific atoll of Ka pingamarangi. only 400 statute miles; southeast of the major Japanese base of Truk. Liberators also bombed Mili Atoll in the enemy-controlled Marshall group, starting fires and destroying a grounded medium bomber and set an oil dump afire on Nauru Island southwest of the newly-conquered Gilberts. Fifty tons of bombs were dropped on Mili. The Japanese made their first re taliatory attack on American forces which captured the Gilberts. After three previous unsuccessful tries, enemy bombers got through to Ta rawa Atoll, where they caused slight damage and wounded three men. and to Makin, where no damage was done. Japanese positions just south of the American beachhead at Empress Augusta Bay on Bougainville took a 95-ton aerial pounding which wiped out a 250-foot bridge and 40 buildings, including barracks and warehouses. Sixty-three tons of explosives were dumped on Cape Gloucester at the southwestern tip of New Britain Is land nearest to New Guinea. Here 179 tons were unloaded the day be fore. Fires were started and gun emplacements silenced in the newest attack. Heavy bombers hit enemy shipping in the Bismarck Sea. possibly dam aging an 8,000-ton transport which ; was part of an 11-ship convoy and leaving a 1,500-ton cargo vessel out of control nearby. The Japanese sent 25 torpedo and dive bombers against an American troop and supply convoy moving into Bougainville from the west, but our fighters swept into action and — (See-PACIFIC, Page A-16.) ALLIES AT CONFERENCE—Heads of the triumvirate of Rus sia, the United States and Britain, meeting with their military chiefs, pose on the portico of the Russian Embassy at Teheran, Iran. Seated <left to right*: Premier Stalin, President Roose velt and Prime Minister Churchill. Standing in back • left to right): Gen. H. H. Arnold, chief of United States Army Air Forces: an unidentified British officer. Admiral Sir Andrew Browne Cunningham, chief of naval staff, and Admiral Wil liam Leahy, Chief of Staff to President Roosevelt. 'Other Pic tures on Page A-3.' —A. P. Photo from 12th Air Force. Reds Near Mogilev, Key Railroad Center In White Russia Other Soviet Forces Squeeze Nazi Defenses In Gomel Sector By the Associated Press. LONDON, Dec. 6.—Smashing ahead northwest of Propoisk. the Red Army today was threat ening Mogilev, one of the last important German-held rail centers in White Russia, as other Russian units squeezed the Nazi defense lines near Zhlobin and Rogachev in the Gomel area. A Soviet communique said the Red Army hurled back German counter attacks and swept forward north west of Propoisk to capture the heavily fortified strongholds of Var odol. Bahki and Zabluka. Front dispatches, telling of deep Russian penetrations virtually from one end of White Russia to the other, said the Germans were be ginning to show signs of a lack of reserves and were using engineers as first line troops in some sectors of the snow-swept front. To the south in the Kremenchug area, the Russian war bulletin said, Soviet units captured several strong points after fierce engagements which often developed into hand-to hand fighting. Large losses were declared inflicted on the Germans. Nazis Attack Near Cherkasy. The communique said the Nazis were continuing to attack in the Cherkasy area, between Kremen chug and Kiev, but all their assaults were repulsed. Four hundred Ger mans were killed at one point, the bulletin said, after a tank and in fantry smash was beaten back. The German radio, in a broadcast recorded by Reuters, said the Rus sians had broken through the Nazi line south of Cherkasy, but ‘'the greater part of the penetrating force ' was wiped out.” I A Gsrman communique said yes terday that the Russians had launched fierce new attacks in the Crimea from their bridgehead northeast of Kerch, but were hurled back. Rumanian satellite troops, the Nazi bulletin said, broke through Soviet positions south of Kerch and dashed for the coast. The Russians \ See-RUSSIA, Page A-3.» Mrs. Roosevelt Plans to Check On Colored Housing Situation Mrs. Roosevelt is worried about spread of both disease and immorality this winter among the colored people living in crowded Washington slums, she said at her press conference to day. The President’s wife said she in tends to make a personal tour of colored slums soon to check on re ports there was a larger colored population and at the same time less colored housing than ever before in the District. She had been told, she said, that extensive public building in colored slum areas has cut living facilities for colored people so much that as many as 10 families are living in some homes intended for one family. Although she knows that plans for additional housing projects are underway, Mrs. Roosevelt added, she believes these will not be ready until spring. Thus the overcrowding will continue throughout this winter, she said.—“the worst period for sick ! ness." i “These colored slums are danger ous to the entire District." she con cluded. because disease cannot be re stricted to the area in which it originates. Turning to her domestic affairs, the President's wife disclosed that she is for the first time entertaining within the White House the military police and antiaircraft detachments which have been guarding the ex ecutive mansion since Pearl Harbor. She Is showing movies of her South Pacific trip tonight. Thursday night and Saturday night. “It will be the first time that many of our guardians have ever been in side the White House," Mrs. Roose velt commented. Air Forces Alone Now Exceed All Troops Abroad in Last War Arnold Says Enemy Is 'Reeling' Under 'Unceasing Pressure,' Foresees Victory By the Associated Pres*. The Army Air Forces, now numbering more men than all United States branches were able to move into Europe in the First World War. have destroyed or damaged 13.500 enemy planes since the Pearl Harbor attack two years ago. Swelled to 2.300.000 men. the air arm has flown more than 225.000 individual plane flights, fired 41. 000.000 rounds of ammunition and chewed up 2.000.000 000 gallons of gasoline in that time, Gen. Henry H Arnold disclosed the magnitude of the air operations in an article written for the Army and Navy Journal issue dedicated to the second anniversary of PeaW Harbor and he summed up the ac complishments with the assertion: "Today in every theater of combat the enemv is reeling from unceasing pressure Target after target is being demolished. The offensive will con tinue to mount until the Axis has neither the will nor the ability to resist." Foresees Heavy Fighting. Navy Secretary Knox, contributing to the same issue, forecast some of the heaviest naval fighting of the war next year. ‘ It is believed that 1944 will find the United States naval service sail ing into a number of ports of call on the long road to total victory," Secretary Knox wrote, i The year 1944, the secretary said, 'See KNOX. Page A-3.i Mila Form of Flu Sweeping District, Physicians Report Stress Ailment Is Not Same Type as Fatal 'Pandemic' of 1918 By HAROLD B. ROGERS. A mild form of influenza, which has been increasing in Washington and vicinity re cently. now has reached what appears to be epidemic stage, according to officials of the Dis trict Medical Society. Neither doctors nor officers of the District Health Department were alarmed, however, over prospects of the disease developing into the fatal j "pandemic" of 1918 which swept ! the country with high death rates. Dr. George C. Ruhland, District health officer, conferred with some of his aides at the District Building shortly before noon to discuss the j situation. He planned to issue a | statement later in the dav with recommendations to the public. Pharmacies Swamped. Pharmacies are being swamped with orders for prescriptions, ac cording to druggists. The only all night drugstore in the city, at Thomas Circle, did a land-office business last night. Owing to the shortage of pharmacists, it has not been possible to open any other stores, according to Augustus C. Taylor, president of the Board of Pharmacists, and Louis F. Bradley, president of the District Pharma ceutical Association. The demand for prescriptions is almost as great as that during the 1918 epidemic, said Dr. Taylor, who also is an official of the People's : Drug Stores. In his capacity as president of ' the Board of Pharmacists. Dr. Tay lor has asked the District Minimum Wage Board to permit women phar macists to work more than 48 hours a week. But no decision has been reached, he said. Men pharmacists are working much longer than 48 hours a fc'eek. he said. The supply of drugs in the city is adequate for an emergency, he indicated. Thousands of Cases. Dr. William De Kleine. chairman of the Public Health Committee of the Medical Society, said today there are thousands of influenza cases in the city. He warned patients to stay in bed during the fever which accompanies the disease. The trouble began about 10 days (See INFLUENZA, Page A-16.) " ABC Board Opposes Rationing of Liquor; Lacks Adequate Staff Commissioners Planning Public Hearings Soon On Recommendations The Commissioners and the Alcoholic Beverage Control Board today issued a joint statement in which they said public hearings would be held "at a very early date” on de tailed recommendations made by the liquor board to make available more widely spread distribution of liquor merchan dise now available in the Dis trict. At the same time the ABC board announced as a policy that it would not recommend rationing of whisky, since it was not prepared legally to do so and lacked the means 01 en forcement. Once its recommendations have been reduced to writing ov tne ABC board, hearings will be ordered Highlights of Recommendations. Highlights of the recommenda tions made by the board to the Commissioners follow: An increase in the number of per mit inspectors to the board which now has only three inspectois. and detailing of "a limited number of police officers- to check the books of licensees on their revenues, and pos sible violations of general laws and regulations. The ABC board Was instructed to confer with Budget Officer Walter L. Fowler on the ap propriation for new inspectors. The regulations should be amend ed so that retailers will be required to display a certain percentage of their whiskies on their shelves as is now required in South Carolina I and Tennessee. Tins does not mean.: however, that a dealer has to sell to anybody. Tt is recommended that there be (See LIQUOR, Page_A-16d 1 Shop Early Christmas will soon be here. Do your shopping the early days of the season and the first hours of the day and the early days of the week, thus saving yourself inconvenience and probable disappointment. Housewives' Revolt Seen by Mrs. Norton In Backing Subsidies Declares Big Farmers Are Behind Opposition; Forecasts Roosevelt Vefo BULLETIN. War Food Administrator Marvin Jones asked Congress today to decide now whether Government food subsidies are to be continued or abol ished so that price control agencies and the farmers can map their 1944 programs without delay. He objected to a Democratic movement in the Senate to postpone a showdown on subsidies for 60 days. —— • Warning members of Con gress they are "just beginning to hear from the people back home'" on the food subsidy ques tion. Representative Mary T. Norton. Democrat, of New Jer sey today predicted it would be come a real political issue in months to come ' when prices go up.” Declaring American housewives 'are staging a revolt against a lobbv ridden Congress,” Mrs. Norton, who is chairman of the House Labor Committee, protested the big farm organizations—“who never did rep resent. the little farmer”—had made a " very selfish fight.” They saw a chance to raise prices on the necessities of life and are taking advantage of it. she asserted. Reporting she had received hun dreds of telegrams and letters from individual housewives, mothers' clubs and settlement houses, as well as national women's organizations rep resenting 'millions” of organized women, she predicted there later would be a change of heart on the part of Republicans who have voted to kill food subsidies January 1. Forecasts Presidential Veto. Saying she would not be surprised if the Senate followed the House on t_hp subsidy issue, she predicted a ' See SUBSIDIES, Page A-16,) Herman Lohr, English Song Composer, Dies By the Associated Press. LONDON. Dec. 6.—Herman Lohr. 72, English composer whose best known songs were "Little Gray Home in the West” and "Where My Caravan Has Rested.” died todav at Tunbridge Wells, Kent. Born at Plymouth, he was a pupil at the Royal Academy *bf Music, where he won the Charles Lucas Medal. Era of Peace Based On Atlantic Charter Mapped at Teheran Complete Accord Reached On Scope and Timing of New Blows at Germany (Texts o/ Declarations on Page A-2.) By JOHN F. CHESTER and WILLIAM McGAFFIN. Associated Press Staff Correspondents. CAIRO, Dec. 6.—President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill and Premier Stalin have agreed completely on “the scope and timing of operations” to smash the German Army from three sides, an announcement signed by the three statesmen in a four day meeting in Teheran, Iran, and released here today disclosed. The Allied leaders also charted a peace era in which all na tions would be invited to join "a world family of democratic nations" based on the reaffirmed principles of the Atlantic Charter. The history-making conference of the heads of the world's most powerful military and political combine was held in the Iranian capital from November 28 to December 1. attended also by scores of top-flight military chieftains and diplomats from the United States, Britain and Russia. • The declarations made no mention of demanding the “unconditional surrender” of Germany. Story on Page A-2.1 General Staffs Back in Cairo. Heavily underscoring the urgency of the military phase, the combined British and American general staffs subsequently re turned to Cairo, scene of the November 22-26 meeting of Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek with President Roosevelt and the Prime Minister, and staged concentrated planning sessions from last Friday through today. Mr. Churchill joined in these and other sessions, leading to the probability that other disclosures of paramount international importance are still to come. Axis Speculates On Turks' Future Role in War Conference Reported To Have Followed Parley In Iran By the AwMCUttd Pye««. LONDON, Dec. 6.—Turkey* future role in the European war was the subject of isgjous AX* speculation today after an as sertion by a German news agency yesterday that Turkish President Ismet Inonu had con ferred with President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill in Cairo Saturday. The conference, about which a communique is expected Wednesday or Thursday "after the return of the Turkish statesman,” followed the history-making Iran conference of the chiefs of staff of Britain and the United States with Russian Premier Stalin, the Nazi news agency Transocean said, quoting Ankara dispatches. See No Change in Policy. The Germans said Inonu was ac companied by Numan Menemen cioglu, Turkish foreign minister, and the general secretary of the Turkish Foreign Ministry. 1116/ asserted also that Emir Mansur, son of King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, and Imir Fahad. nephew of the King, arrived in Cairo Saturday, presumably •'to take part in some Cairo conference." The German news agency DNB said no change in Turkish policv was expected as a result of the re puted conference, but the Nazi-con frolled Vichy radio, significantly per haps. quoted Franz von Papen. Nazi Ambassador to Turkey, as saying on his arrival at Istanbul from Berlin that "Germany is anxious to con tinue its friendly collaboration with Turkey so that this country can be saved the horrors of war." A Turkish declaration of war against the Axis, which would af ford the Allies new air bases for operations in the Black Sea. the Balkans and the Mediterranean, has been believed by some to be increas - inglv possible since Menemencioglu conferred with British Foreign Sec retary Anthony Eden after the Mos cow conference. Closer to Derision. An Associated Press dispatch from Ankara, written last Friday, said that each day and each political event in the United Nations' war planning was bringing the Turkish nation closer to a decision as to what part she will play in the war. Asserting that it could no longer be denied that the Allies wanted Turkey to participate in the war the dispatch said both Allied na tionals and Turks in Ankara were agreed that Turkey was rapidly ap proaching the point where she must say definitely to the Allies that she is in the war on their side or that she plans to remain rigidly neutral throughout. Cairo dispatches, meanwhile, dis _'See TURKEY. Page A-16.) ' Roosevelt and Stalin Toast Churchill on 69th Birthday 3y the Associated Press. TEHERAN, Iran, Nov. 30 (De layed!.—President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill and Premier Stalin matched elo quence tonight in a-demonstra tion of mutual admiration as the British Prime Minister, at an enthusiastic birthday dinner he gave himself, eased into his 70th year amid the applause of his two fellow-statesmen. Premier Stalin, who set the key to the evening’s atmosphere, breezed into the British Legation talking freely through an interpreter to the assembled guests, rggpved his great, coal and lifted a glass to friend Churchill, The dinner-jacketed Mr. Churchill, an ubiquitous, ebullient host, shep herded his guests into dinner in the Victorian setting of the legation din ing room. Thirty-four sat down around the long mahogany table under the stern gaze of Queen Vic toria, who looked down from one wall. Prom the other wall there, looked down the sympathetic counte-! nance of Edward VII. Mr. Roosevelt sat on Mr. Churchill's right and Mr I Stalin on Mr. Churchill's left. Mr. Churchill's five-star guest list,' besides Mr. Roosevelt, who was the1 Tsee DINNER, Page A-16.) 1 rf President Roosevelt's where abouts since the Teheran con ferences was not disclosed how ever. Two Teheran declarations, signed simply, ‘ Roosevelt. Stal in. Churchill,” and dated De cember 1, announced these results: War—'Our military staffs hav* joined in our round table discus sions and we have concerted our plans for the destruction of the German forces. We have reached complete agreement as to the scope and timing of operations which |Wlll be undertaken from the east, ,'west and south. Relentless, Increasing Attacks. I ‘‘The common understanding which i we have reached guarantees that victory will be ours "No power on earth can prevent our destroying the German armies by land, their U-boats by sea and their war plants from the air. Our attacks will be relentless and in creasing." Peace—“We are sure that our con cord will make it an enduring peace. We recognize fully the supreme re sponsibility resting upon us and all the United Nations to make a peace which will command the good will of the overwhelming masses of the peoples of the world and banish the scourage and terror of war for many generations. We shall seek the co-operation and active participation of all na tions. large and small, whose peo ples in heart and mind are dedi cated. as are our own peoples, to the elimination of tyranny and slav ery. oppression and intolerance. W« will welcome them as thev mav choose to come into a world family of democratic nations." The concluding paragraph of one declaration devoted to the status of Iran as an ally of the three na tions apparently was the kev to the envisaged "world family of demo cratic nations " I barter Principles Reaffirmed. After expressing their respect for Iran s independence and territorial integrity, and promising economic aid to that country which has fa cilitated the flow of Allied supplies to Russia, the three leaders said: "They (the United States. Britain and Russia' count upon the partici pation of Iran together with all other peace-loving nations in the establishment of international peace, security and prosperity after the war in accordance with the princi ples of the Atlantic Charter, to which all four governments have continued to subscribe." The Atlantic Charter declaration by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill after their sea rendezvous in August, 1940, set out these general Allied principles and postwar aims: 1. They seek no territorial or other aggrandizement, 2. No territorial changes which do not accord with the "freely ex pressed wishes of the people con cerned." 3. Respect for the right of all peo ples to choose their own form of government: restoration of "sov ereign rights and self-government" ( See CONFERENCE, Page A-3.) ^ Stalin Praises U. S. Production As Victory Key By Ihf Associated Press. TEHERAN (Delayed >. — Premier Stalin solemnly get to his feet one night at a dinner attended bv Presi dent Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill. He looked soberly about him at the assembled military and diplo matic leaders of the United States. Great Britain and Russia and lifted his glass to American war produc tion. "Without American production the United Nations could never have won the war." the Soviet leader was reported to have declared. The response to Premier Stalin’! unexpected gesture was terrific.