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With Sunday Morning Edition. THEODORE W. NOTES. Editor. WASHINGTON, D. C. The Evening Star Newspaper Company, Main Offlce: 11th 8t. and Pennsylvania Ave. New York Offlce: 110 East 42d 8t Chicago Offlce. 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. _ Betnlar Edition. 4 Sundays. 5 Sundoyt. Evening and Sunday SOc per mo. 90c per mo. 33?* Evening Star- 50c per month The Star 10c per copy Night Final Editien. 4 Sandayi. B Sundays. SJ*ht E*nal *nd Sunday 90c mo .41.0(1 mo. Night Final Star_ 05c per month Outside of Metropolitan Area. Delivered by Carrier. The Evening and Sunday 8tar..41.00 per month 32?* fi*r- fiflc p*r month The Sunday Star_ 10c per copy Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United States. Senlgg and Ainday 1 $l0.ooh' 6 ShOO*”' $12*00 Jtefe::: ?0 i® M Telephone National 5000. Altered at the Poot Office. Waahington. D. C., a* second-class mall matter. Member of the Associated Press. Tho Associated Press Is exclusively entitled to Ki.R!V?r "Publication ot all news dispatcher credited to it or. not otherwise credited in this the local news published herein. AUrlsht* of publication of special dispatches horoin also are reserved._ A^^^^^TUEgDAY^MayEjlMd Congress Should Act The decision of a three-judge Federal court that the Interstate Commerce Commission has failed to establish its jurisdiction to regulate bus fares between points In the District and Federal establishments In nearby Virginia merely confirms what has long been more or less obvious—namely, that the real so lution to this problem lies In spe cific congressional action. Alter a protracted hearing, the ICC last January issued an order intended to regularize fares charged by three transportation companies serving the Pentagon Building, the Navy Annex, the Army Annex and the airport. The commission itself was sharply divided over the ques tion of jurisdiction, and the order which was finally handed down failed to provide rates of fare that were uniform among the several carriers, although it did lower some fares that were manifestly too high. The principal question involved in the appeal to the court was that of jurisdiction. The ICC relied in the main on what it deemed to be spe cific statutory authorization, but also asserted a blanket claim to jurisdiction under the “national transportation policy,” as defined by Congress. It was unable to sustain this position in the judicial pro ceeding, however, the court holding that the commission lacked specific statutory authorization to issue the order, and that it had failed to make any findings to support its asserted claim to jurisdiction under the national transportation policy. This brings the matter to a point where two courses of action are possible. The commission might move to reopen the case, with a view to establishing proper founda tion for its blanket claim of juris diction^ TWs is not promising, however, since the courts, in con trolling decisions, have tended to frown on invasion by the Federal authority of areas normally reserved to the States for regulation. The other course, and the more desirable one in the circumstances surround ing this local situation, would be for Congress to enact appropriate legislation to deal with a condition which has developed almost entirely as a result of Federal policy in locating important establishments in nearby Virginia and Maryland. When Senator McCarran was chairman of the District Committee he looked favorably upon legislation which would invest the District of Columbia with jurisdiction over this matter of bus regulation and possibly other questions arising out of the Federal occupancy of the adjacent areas. Congress presumably can clear up the existing muddle in a manner equitable to all concerned if it wants to act, and the court’s decision should make it perfectly evident that action ought to be taken now. New*Moscow Mission If the Russian-arranged visit by Father Stanislaus Orlemanski to the Soviet capital was intended as a propaganda stunt to win favor with American Poles and Catholics it has proved to have the boomerang quali ties that could easily have been de tected by any one familiar with the workings of public opinion in this country. Father Orlemanski is the pastor of Our Lady of the Holy Rosary Church of Springfield. Mass., and is not well known in the United States. Yet the Soviet authorities, for rea sons which have not been made clear, selected him to make this trip to Moscow, and upon his arrival accorded him a reception such as is generally reserved only for the world's most prominent personali ties. Father Orlemanski reached Moscow Tuesday and was received by Foreign Commissar Molotoff the following day. Friday night he was summoned to a conference with Premier Stalin at the Kremlin, and on the following day Moscow's official press gave prominent display to reports of the meeting and posed photographs of Stalin, the priest and the Foreign Commissar. The State Department co-operated to the extent of supplying Father Or lemanski with a passport at the request of the Soviets, but whether he made the trip in a Russian plane has not been disclosed. It is gross understatement to say that all of this is unusual. It is, in fact, extraordinary, and has led, naturally enough, to considerable speculation as to the underlying motives. Father Orelmanskl has been quoted as telling reporters in Moscow that he planned upon his return to the United States to cam paign for a democratic Poland friendly to the Soviet Union. If this is the sole purpose of this latest “mission to Moscow,” however, it is not apt to be productive of much that will be beneficial to the Soviets, for Father Orlemanskl will find that his “campaign” has been prejudiced at the outset by the circumstances surrounding his visit. There remains, of course, the possibility that Stalin has other purposes in mind, such as the use of the incident for his own propa ganda ends in Poland itself as the Red Army moves into that unhappy country. If this is the real motive, time should soon establish the fact. The Imperial Conference There are several reasons ior re garding the current conference of Prime Ministers which con vened yesterday in London as of deep and special significance. The first of these reasons is that it should be held at all and at this particular time. Imperial confer ences are infrequent, if for no other reason that it is hard for the execu tive heads of parliamentary govern ments simultaneously to absent themselves from their respective countries, take world-girdling jour neys, and be away for relatively protracted periods. The last impe rial conference occurred in 1937. The exigencies and vicissitudes of nearly five war years have hitherto not sufficed to bring another into being. It is thus logical to presume that highly pressing motives induced this particular convocation of what London commentators term the British Empire’s “family council of war.” Undoubtedly one motivating fac tor is the imminence of the war’s supreme test, the gigantic invasion of Western Europe, wherein the pooled resources of Britain, the em pire and the American ally will be flung. Before that decisive opera tion begins, It is obviously desirable that the empire’s responsible lead ers should confer together, explore the vast field of possibilities, and concert some general lines of policy for both the war and postwar pe riods. The first topic will doubtless be the invasion preparations, but the full agenda will reportedly in clude such matters as armistice terms for Germany, rehabilitation of a redeemed Europe, treatment of enemy states, plans for the subse quent crushing of Japan, and the empire’s structure and position in the new world order envisioned for the postwar future. That is a heavy schedule, and the exalted conferees are expected to deliberate for several weeks. Indeed, a quick collapse of Germany might prolong their ses sions into the greater United Na tions’ conference which would in evitably follow the end of the Euro pean war. -» Although Winston Churchill will naturally play the host to his col leagues from Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa, he will be strictly one among eqmUr^EftP Statute of Westminster, passed in 1931, legally confirmed the complete equality of Britain and the domin ions defined in the (Imperial Confer ence of 1926 as “equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or foreign affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Na tions.” The best proof of the valid ity of this formula is the absence of one important member of the com monwealth—Eire, which voluntarily chose neutrality in the present war and was not constrained to enter it, despite general disapproval of its decision. Eire, however, is the ex ception which proves the rule. The rest of the empire is today reaffirm ing in the London conference its basic unity, solidarity, and will to a constructive future. Found at Minturno An Associated Press dispatch from the headquarters of the Fifth Army in Italy tells of the discovery of rare books and manuscripts “worth millions of dollars” in a ruined church in the front-line town of Minturno. The explanation of how such treasures came to be where they were found by American troops is that they were “looted” from the University of Naples by Germans intending to carry them to Rome. What matters is that one hundred and seventy cases of literary mate rial well worth careful preserving has fallen by the accident of war into the hands of two American officers abundantly qualified to appreciate such a responsibility. One is Captain Allan J. Oppenheim of San Francisco, a printer and a collector of rare books; the other, Lieutenant Vincent H. Naramore of Orewell, Vermont, a student of classical languages from Syracuse University. They were led to the trove by Sergeant Calvin Timmons of Dearborn, Michigan, who may not be an “authority” on cultural relics of the past but who nevertheless understood the significance of the collection when he laid eyes upon it. Obviously, the books and manu scripts have had a narrow escape. The same observation also applies to every other accumulation of humanity’s heirlooms in Europe and much of Asia. Among the “loot” at Minturno, it is said, are "many original drawings” by Leonardo da Vinci, the celebrated Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engi neer and natural philosopher of the fifteenth century, perhaps the great est “all-around” genius who ever lived. Any scrap of paper bearing his autograph is priceless, not simply because he was a famous Italian and created two of the most notably popular pictures extant—the “Mona Lisa” in the Louvre in Paris and “The Last Supper” in the Church of Maria delle Grazle in Milan—but because the natural instinct of civilized people responds to honor able endeavor to benefit humanity at large. The essential difference between the effort of the United Nations and the resistance of the Axis enemies lies exactly in that circumstance—the free peoples fight and work and strive to save the common inheritance not for them selves alone. Washington in Bloom Perhaps its contrast with other things that fill our minds these days is what gave an added touch to the beauty of this spring in Washington. Certainly the city has never been more lovely, despite the sprawling growth of temporary buildings that has taken over so large an area of the park system. The results of an orderly program of planting, designed for a series of striking displays to herald the com ing of spring, are already apparent. They will improve with the years. The sequence begins with a display of golden bell on a terrace in Dum barton Oaks in Georgetown, where the park officials are preserving and adding to the collection of rare plants begun by Robert Woods Bliss before that part of the estate be came a public park. The overpub licized cherry blossoms around the Tidal Basin usually follow within a week or so, along with the magnolias in Rawlins Park, between the old and new Interior Buildings. Soon thereafter (it was Sunday a week ago this year) the flowering crab apples in Anacostla Parkway reach full blossom and this week the lilacs in many of the small parks and the grove of dogwood near the District War Memorial in Potomac Park are at their best. The pansy bed near the Jefferson Memorial, off the ap proach to the Highway Bridge, is another spot worth visiting this week. It sets the stage for the roses, later on, near the same spot. One of the finest displays of lilac, in a year or so, will be foi^pd be tween the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and the Tidal Basin In the parking between the new roads, where plants were set out this spring. For later on in the season, collections of rare water lilies are being assembled for the fountains in Meridian Hill Park, Rawlins Park and the Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool. This and That By Charles E. Tracewell. "G 8TREET S.W. "Dear Sir: "This is from the gentleman who phoned you this morning about the ar rival of the swallows, at about 10:30 a.m., April 31. “Despite Inherited prejudices against sparrows (English) and starlings, I have found them among the most entertain ing of birds. “Like the poor, we have them always with us, with a line and abundant op portunity to observe them more than any othf* Wrd, wtrjfcsmmt entertain ment. And they are muon more inter esting in their conduct than, for in stance, cardinals, of which a fine pair come to the backyard under my win dow, but . that. is entertaining. ^ “He is now feeding her, so. of course, they are nesting, or soon will be. Many birds, Including pigeons, do that dur ing the laying season. “Here’s a little story of sparrows and starlings. I put out a whole slice of bread on the ground—a whole slice so that it cannot be carried away and deprive me of the entertainment. “If broken up each one grabs a piece and flies away with it. The sparrows come first and are followed in by the starlings, which watch the sparrows dropping down and follow them Just as buzzards, seeing one drop out of the sky, follow it down. "A large and bossy starling, known to me, came and took a peck or two at the sparrows, then monopolized the bread, 'but between bites he must take a run with open mouth at the nearest sparrow. “To my surprise a certain sparrow— mostly they are meek enough to the starlings—was standing right up to this starling and pecking at him. "I thought, ‘What a nerve he has!' Then, watching closely, I saw that this sparrow, when the starling came at him open-mouthed, with his beak full of bread, was picking the bread right out of the starling’s mouth, beak, bill, or what have you. • “Very cordially yours, G. G. W." Chimney swifts arrived in Southwest Washington and at other points on the same date, April 21. Wood thrushes were first heard in the suburbs at 6:25 p.m. on April 23. Their usual date of arrival is April 28. The chimney swifts came in at 10:30 a.m. Their date of arrival was April 25 last year. And the English sparrows and the starlings greeted them! These two species afford a great deal of instruction and entertainment to the person who, as our correspondent, will really watch them. There is an old saying that you never get out of anything more than you put into it. This aphorism rase in the pre psychology days, but it was based on close understanding of human nature. Many honest persons fail to realise the fun of watching sparrow's and starlings simply because they need a slight change of heart. They should think of the English sparrows as belonging to a mighty family. The starlings, too, they should re gard as among the most intelligent of all feathered things. Their feat of forming new migration rour.es in a strange land entitles them to mucn re spect. As our correspondent shows, if one is willing to look with open eyes and heart, he will see much in their con duct that is amusing. He will find that this much-abused species is one of the few 'birds which actually does altruistic deeds. This col umn has carried the tale of the old starling which rescued a young spar row from drowning. Their intelligence is shown by the feat of one old fellow standing on the back of another to keep its feet warm in the snow. An old saying is that some one "hasn’t got enough sense to come in out of the rain.” The starling will seek shelter in a rain and often will fly into a feeding box and stay there until the downpour is over. The,, massed flights of these birds present as splendid a picture and as fancy flying as may be seen anywhere In the world. Letters to The Star Mr. Davis Explains Restrictions On OWI Activities. To th* Editor of The 8t»r: In yesterday’s Star Frank Kent com plains that we are not doing enough to counteract German lies in this coun try, and suggests that we distribute a pamphlet to the American people ex posing these lies and answering them one by one. Mr. Kent is suggesting that we vio late the law. The National War Agencies Appropriations Act, 1944, pro vides that "no part of this or any other appropriation shall be expended by the Offlce of War Information for the prepa ration or publication of any pamphlet or other literature except the United States Government Manual for distri bution to the public within the United States.” In conformity with this act we have not issued any pamphlets to the Amer ican public for almost a year. There are, of course, other ways of dealing with Dr. Goebbels’ lies. For the past 18 months our Foreign News Bureau in Washington, as part of its regular service, has been exposing these lies day and night by a wire service direct to all the leading news agencies and to the New York offlce of any newspaper which wishes to have the service. The result is that lies which might otherwise be circulated are ex posed and denatured before they gain circulation. The story of America’s war effort, which the Office of War Information has been telling through its news re leases and other channels day by day, is a living refutation of the Goebbels’ falsehoods. As for Allied and neutral peoples overseas, and to those under enemy domination as well, our overseas branch has been exposing Dr. Goebbels continually by short-wave radio across the Atlantic and Pacific, by leaflets dropped from planes, by pamphlets, motion pictures and other media, and now by the new American broadcast ing station in Europe which began medium-wave operations only a few days aga If Mr. Kent wishes any of our over seas publications, which we are for bidden by act of Congress to distribute to the American people, he is, of course, welcome as a newspaperman to see any of them. ELMER DAVIS, Director Offlce of War Information. Readers Debate Ward Casa. To the Editor of The Star: The editorial in The Star of April 36, in which you berate the Montgomery Ward Co. management for its action in the current dispute with a labor-union and with the Government is so very different from most of your editorials, which are based upon sound Judgment and clear reasoning, that I cannot re sist the temptation to express my sur prise. Surely you do not sanction any such high-handed seizure of private property as this when there is no law to authorize the Government’s proce dure in the matter. Suppose that we were to substitute for the Ward company The Evening star Publishing Co., would you approve of totalitiyian tactics? 1 think that you would see the matter in a different light. It is logical and reasonable to as sume that, if the Government can seize .the property of the Montgomery Ward Co. to appease arrogant and wholly unreasonable labor leaders, the same Government can take away from any citizen, by force and without any legal right, whatever property it may deem to be to the Government’s political interests. As a loyal subscriber to your valuable paper and as a citizen who believes in absolute freedom of the press, I wish to register my protest against your edi torial. I have ample reason to believe that there is much more Involved in this outrageous act on the part of the administration than appears on the surface. I think that you should get all of the facts in hand before you write editorials which tend to uphold the New Deal in acts which clearly wllL lead to a complete dictatorship if per mitted to go unchecked. Inasmuch as your newspaper is one of the most influential institutions in Washington, it naturally follows that you should uphold the Constitution and at the same time deplore every act of lawlessness, regardless of the fact that in this case the offender clearly is the Government itself. Every intelligent citizen should wonder at where we are headed when such acts of violence are perpetuated by the Government against private citizens. EARL. O. WILSON. To ihe Editor of The Star: The word "seizure,” it seems to me, is being misused in the Montgomery Ward case. Sewell Avery is not the owner of the company, nor has the Government seized” his plant in the sense of ap propriating it. The owners are the stockholders; their Interests are being safeguarded by the Government and profits are flowing into the company as usual. It Ls merely that Mr. Avery has had some of his managerial functions temporarily taken away so that the company, without his interference, can show proper obedience to the law of the land. DR. J. K. WILLIAMS. Wants President to ‘Sacrifice/ To the Editor of The Star: Thousands of our boys are sacrificing their lives in foreign lands to eliminate an outside threat to our form of gov ernment. And yet, on the other hand, there have been, and still appear to be, thousands of people here at home who are unwilling even to sacrifice so much as a meaningless political affiliation to eliminate an inside threat to it. The designers of our form of govern ment strongly advised against more than two terms for a President. They clearly let it be known that nonobservance of their advice would establish a potential bridgehead for an inhereditable grip to be attained on the presidential office, which, of course, would be nothing more or less than a return to the form of government our forefathers so bitterly contested. No one better knows the soundness of the designers’ advice than Mr. Roosevelt. Therefore, why doesn’t he heed it by substantiating his appeals for sacrifices on the part of the people to preserve our form of government with the sacrificing of a fourth term for himself? Surely we will have gained little by knocking down dictatorships in other nations if we pave the way for one in our own. J. J. SPERRY. This Changing World By Conatantine Brown Washington observers who have been watching closely the progress of the war in the Pacific have revised some what their views as a result of two recent disclosures which they believe may have an important bearing on the battle against the Japanese. First was the announcement that Gen. Douglas MacArthur, commander of the Southwest Pacific, and Admiral Chester W. Nimiti, commander of the Pacific Fleet, had held their first con ference of the war; second was Gen. MacArthur’s statement withdrawing, once and for all. his name in connec tion with speculation over this fall’s presidential election. Ever since the Casablanca conference between President Roosevelt ,*nd Prime Minister Churchill in January, 1M3, there has been no hiding the fact that Hitler has been made the Allies’ No. X enemy, with the Japanese taking sec ond place as far as a real offensive operation was concerned. The fight against Japan was to remain a defen sive-offensive operation and Gen. Mac Arthur and Admiral William F. Halsey, commander in the South Pacific, were to receive only sufficient men ahd ma terial to conduct their part of the global war on that basis. * * * * Now, however, in view of the Nimite MacArthur conference and the tone of Gen. MacArthur’s statement, observers here are speculating on the possibility of a stepped-up drive toward the Philippines or the Kurile Islands coin ciding with the forthcoming Allied in vasion of Western Europe. This possible blow at the Japs may take the form of a strike at the Philip pines, south of Japan, or it may reach to the north and land on the Kuriles, Tokyo’s important holdings southeast of the Russian mainland. It is recalled that Secretary of the Navy Knox said shortly before his death that the Kuriles would be invaded by American forces. but he did not My'when. It could well be that the late Secretary waa thinking of an early attack tying up with the cross-Channel assault on Europe. The fact that Admiral Nimltz and Gen. Mac Arthur never had conferred prior to their recent meeting is no sign that there has not been the greatest co-operation and co-ordination between ground and naval forces in the Pacific theater. Admiral Halsey and Gen. Mac Arthur have worked hand-in-hand in their drives to recapture territory. * * * * ' Press dispatches from Gen. MacAr thur's headquarters on April 6 pointed out that most o( America’s recent fight ing against the Japs had occurred in Gen. MacArthur’s Southwest Pacific command and that the general’s forces had virtually effected a juncture with those of Admiral Halsey to the east. It also was reported that there would be no change in the Mac Arthur com mand regardless of any future change in the status of the South Pacific area. There had been rumors that Admiral Halsey would be assigned to a new im portant post. Subsequent dispatches have thrown no further light on this speculation. * * * * Last fall Washington observers held little or no hope-for the recapture of the Philippines before 1946. They point ed out that Gen. Mac Arthur was re ceiving only small numbers of men and small quantities of material and that he could not expect to launch an Intensi fied offensive unless he were given more. Today they are more optimistic. They point out that as far as the invasion of Western Europe is concerned most of the men already are at their em barkation points and the equipment they need already is available to them. The light against the Japs is far ahead of schedule, we have been told, so why couldn’t it be stepped up even further? The Political Mill By Gould Lincoln Four year* ago President Roosevelt appointed two Republicans to key places in his cabinet. One was Col. Prank Knox, whose death last Friday lost to the country an effective and hard-work- < ing Secretary of the Navy. The other was Col. Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War. The appointments were made at a time when the crisis in Europe was extreme, just before the Republican National Convention. The two Repub licans, despite the fact that a presi dential campaign was in the making, accepted the appointments as a patriotic duty. They were bitterly attacked at the time by some of their party leaders, who charged they were selling the OOP down the river. That bitterness has long since passed. Both Secretary Knox and Secretary Stimson, from the beginning of their tenures of office, avoided politics, par ticularly in the conduct of the tasks allotted to them. The Republicans were not the only critics of the appointments, however. There were important Demo crats who contended that these high offices should have gone to faithful and deserving Democrats. The death of Col. Knox has left a vacancy which the President must fill, either by appointment of another Re publican or a Democrat. The logical thing for him to do, it has been urged, is to advance Undersecretary of the Navy James V. Forrestal and make him a cabinet officer. Mr. Forrestal is on the Job already—up to his neck in the administration of the Navy Department particularly the upbuilding of the Navy. He has all the details at his finger tips. Mr. Forrestal is a Democrat. It re mains, therefore, for the President to determine whether he wishes again‘to place a Republican in the office of Sec retary of Navy, and so continue in the same ratio what has been called a po litical "coalition” in charge of the war effort, on the theory it helps to unite the country. dr dr * * The first name that springs to mind, in case a Republican is to be appointed, is that of Lt. Comdr. Harold E. Stassen, now serving in the South Pacific. He was three times elected Governor of Minnesota and showed himself a line executive, resigning his office a year ago to enter the Navy. Mr. Stassen is. however, virtually a candidate for the Republican presi dential nomination. He has expressed his willingness to run for the presidency if he be nominated, although he said at the same time he was not a candidate. Delegates to the Republican National Convention, ready to support Mr. 8tas aen for the nomination, have already been chosen. Further, should Mr. Stassen not be nominated for President, there Is the chance he might be named for second place on the Republican na tional ticket. How available he would be, therefore, for appointment to the Roosevelt cabinet Is decidedly a question. Unless the President should deem it necessary to make an Immediate ap pointment under the war conditions to All the vacancy in his cabinet, Mr. For restal will continue to be Acting Secre tary of the Navy for the immediate future. It will be remembered that when a vacancy occurred in the office of Secretary of War, due to the death of the late Secretary Dern, the Presi dent kept the then Undersecretary of War, Harry Woodring, as Acting Secre tary for many months before Anally appointing him to the cabinet. Mr. Woodring was a former Democratic Governor of Kansas. When he retired from office he turned away from the New Deal administration. In recent months he has been actively opposing a fourth-term nomination of the Presi dent. » f f ? It has been suggested that the Presi dent may turn to Admiral William D. Leahy, “chief of staff to the Commander in Chief,” and make him Secretary of the Navy. Such an appointment would be excellent. <t***M9w men, if any, have given more de voted service to their country than Secretary Knox. An Army veteran of two wars, Col. Knox literally worked himself to the final limit in the present JOS: H* was a hard worker who never SpATef himself. When he took the office of Secretary of the Navy he knew that he would be criticized by other Republi cans. He declared, however, that he was an American first and that if he was able to do anything to help build up the defense of his country he would do it. Although he was past the age of active military service. Col. Knox carried on, giving to himself harder tasks than are assigned to many younger men. He not only devoted himself to the job of build ing up the Navy to proportions that have made it the greatest fighting force that ever sailed the seas, but he also gave his attention to its co-ordination, in fighting zones, with the British Navy. Indeed, it was Col. Knox’s idea that in the postwar period the American and British Navies would present a ready made police force to help maintain peace. An idea which has been en thusiastically received in other Quarters Plans Keep Nazis Guessing By Maj. George Fielding Eliot Analysis of the air warfare over West ern Europe for the past two weeks brings out some interesting points. Beginning with Monday, April 17, there has been a major air attack or attacks daily. There has been a great daylight attack every day save one. There has been a great night attack every night save five. No period of comparable activity comes to mind in the history of our air offensive against Germany. Railroad targets have been under very heavy pressure. The widespread night attacks of the night of April 21, which plastered rail centers in Germany, France and Belgium with 5,040 tons of bombs, were followed on the 22d by a 2.000-plane attack on the great mar shaling yard at Hamm, which did heavy damage It was, of course, to be ex pected that there would be especially high congestion in the Hamm yard due to the damage done the night before at the various surrounding rail centers. A night raid on the 23d struck at rail centers in Belgium and France, doubtless to interfere with and disrupt the repair work in progress. On the 26th the RAF struck the rail yards at Essen and Schweinfurt, and on the 27th and 30th there were day attacks on rail centers in France. This business of attacking railways is a specialized and carefully planned part of our air offensive, and will be discussed in greater length in a subsequent article. * * * * Special attention also has been given during the past two weeks to enemy airfields. These have been attacked in daylight on April 22, 24 and 25, over France, Belgium and Germany, followed by a concentration on French airfields on three successive days, April 28, 29 and 30. Coastal defenses and “military in stallations” have come in for their share. These raids have been concentrated in Northern France, and appear in two closely grouped periods: April 19, 20 and 21, and again a heavy continuous at tack during April 27, 28, 29 and 30. This should be considered in connection with the continuous attacks on enemy air fields in the same region during the last three days of April. Finally, industrial targets in Germany have not been neglected. Daylight raids against specific industrial areas took place on April 19, 24, 26 and 29 (the last being the great raid on Berlin), and night attacks are to be noted on April 23, 24 and 27, plus the attack on the Oslo airframe factory on the 28th. But the emphasU U clearly passing from industrial targets to those more immediately connected with military operations: Rail centers, airfields and military installations. It may be too much to assume that this means that invasion is imminent, but it certainly suggests that the time is drawing near. The Germans claim that, invasion has "already begun”— that is, that these air attacks are part of the immediate preliminary effort, part of the invasion scheme as a whole. * * * * The Germans are, of course, fishing for information when they say such things, but there is a modicum of sense in the claim, nevertheless. The shift to military targets from targets of a purely industrial nature is a matter of timing. Injury done to industrial targets reduces the enemy fighting ef fort as a whole, but it does not reduce it immediately; it reduces his ability to send manufactured war materials to his depots, but it does not reduce the stock already in the depots, nor the movement of that stock to the fighting forces. The pohit on which the Germans would like information is the timetable to which the Allied operations are geared. How soon after the shift to military targets begins will the actual invasion start? Or will there be two or three shifts, forward and back, be fore it gets under way? Will there be a final grand preparatory bombing of the whole defensive area along the coast, followed by landings—or will the land ings come suddenly, in a period of nor mally distributed air attacks, to take advantage of the surprise element? * * * * This used to be argued, from the ar tillery preparation point of view, in the last war; some holding that prolonged preparation, while it did some damage, was really giving notice to the enemy of our intention to attack, while others held that it was an absolute essential for softening up the enemy’s defenses, regardless of the loss of surprise. Whatever the particular method may be, however, and whatever degree of preparation may be considered neces sary at one point or another, we may be reasonably sure of this: That Gen. Eisenhower, who so successfully achieved surprise in Tunisia and in Sicily, will seek to achieve it again, and that all he does now is in accordance with a well-thought-out plan, the purpose of which is—in the words of Stonewall Jackson—"mystify, mislead, surprise.” (Copyright, 1644) 'Betrayal of Trust* Administration Has Used War To Put Over 'Closed Shop* By David Lawrence When the soldier* went away to war in 1917 they had no idea that the war emergency would be used to foist pro hibition on the country and when they came back they had a feeling that, ex pressed in their own way, “something had been put over on them." Today, with the vast majority of the younger men of the country away from home, the administration is engaged In a betrayal of trust which far over shadows the experience in the World War. In the guise of war emergency and after having given explicit pledges that the war situation would never be used to alter the status quo by permitting either labor or management to exploit the emergency for their own advantage, the administration has deliberately set in to put over the "closed shop” in America. The administration denies vehemently that the "maintenance of membership” idea is a "closed shop”, but the element of compulsion remains. The fact is that having elicited a no-strike pledge from labor, the administration has felt it necessary to pay labor for adherence to the job by giving it a "maintenance of membership" advantage. There can be no doubt that if there were no war on, the country would be besieged by an epidemic of strikes and that the "maintenance of membership" clauses would be won in very few cases. Economic warfare would result Just as it has in respect to the "closed shop." Congress has never set forth as a national policy either the "closed shop" or "maintenance of membership” co ercion. But notwithstanding this fact, the administration has made “mainten ance of membership" a cardinal policy and is willing even in the critical months of this war to stir up a bitter contro versy and call in troops to enforce that basic labor advantage. This business of using the war to put something over which in normal ttm— labor unionism could never achieve for itself Is a misuse of governmental power. The administration has insisted on com pelling employers to sign contracts with the “maintenance of membership” clauses In them and has threatened to seise and has seized properties when employers have not obeyed. To enforce policies of this kind at the point of bayonets when they have never been sanctioned by Congress Is to the fact that the New Deal Is willing for the sake of the labor vote to risk the rest of the vote of the country. Only a misconception of political ad vantage, could have motivated the Roosevelt administration to use military force to compel adherence to a labor policy of Its own choosing, evidently It is believed that the labor vote will more than compensate for the looses In other directions. Actuary me administration risks far more than the votes of those who have been following labor controversies. It risks the votes of many millions of citizens who up to now have regarded as fantastic the idea that the adminis tration would use its war powers to put something. over on the public. Until now there has been no real demonstra tion of totalitarianism or disregard for law. The cries of would-be-dictatorship have been academic. Now. however, overnight to the Mont gomery Ward case confirmation has come that the highest officials of the President’s cabinet think it more im portant to put over a “maintenance of membership’’ policy in a labor union dispute than to preserve the civil rights of the citizens generally. Congress is about to take some action to curb the powers of the Executive. One thing that has long troubled mem bers of Congress Is how to prevent of ficials from abusing power and taking high-handed action. The simplest way is to add to the criminal statutes so that officials of the Government are Just as responsible for violation of the law as are citizens. Today a high official can violate the l*w, and the wont that can happen is that some court may apply a restraining order. If damage has been sustained, the citizen can go into the Court of Claims and maybe his great-grandchil dren will see the end of the litigation. But if a citizen violates a law he can be put in Jail. Perhaps the simplest way to put an end to capricious handling of govern mental power is to put a criminal clause in the statutes so that any violation of the Constitution by an official will be subject to a severe penalty. (Reproduction rlrhte referred.) Waste of Coal From the Halifax Herald. Canada will never supply her own coal needs so long as antedeluvian methods prevail, so long as we are content to dig coal out of the earth and shovel it raw into fire-boxes, wasting many of its most valuable properties. Why, apart from a few installations to burn pulverized coal, we are no further ahead today than we were in our grandfathers’ times. It’s just the same old process of dig it out of the ground, hoist it to the surface, dump it into cars or boats—and then go about hat in hand pleading for "markets.’’ In one breath the “It Can’t Be Done” bri gade calls for "markets” and in the next tell us there isn’t enough coal to go around. Well, at least we might be working out effective plans along mod ern lines to mine and distribute within Canada what we can supply. And we might be giving some positive thought to greater improvements in the use of what we can mine, in processing, in methods for the extraction of by-prod ucts, for the production of electrical energy, for the integration of our coal policies with those affecting other forms of fuel also produced in this country. The Pilgrims' Chorus A far-off singing rises among the moun tains, Gathering strength and beauty. Like dawn light swiftly brightening, The great song sweeps onward, A marching music, golden and tri umphant. The pilgrims are approaching— Are close at hand— Are passing. The joy of their song is the joy of a soul set free. The burden of sin unshouldered, Faces set heavenward. They have gone their way through the valley. Hills fold them in. Behind them, the music flows in a shining trail, Diminished, fading. Silence then is a closed door, Where tears beat writh the urgency of rain. INEZ BARCLAY KIRBY.