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With Sandar Morning Edition. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. WASHINGTON, D. C. I'll* Evening Star Newspaper Company. I M»ta Office: 11th St. and Penn*ylv*ni» Ave. New York Office: 110 East 42d 8t. Chicago Office: 435 North Michigan Ava. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. f Regular Edition. 4 Sundays. 5 Sundays, venrng and Sunday.. 80c per mo. flocper mo. 5® 5,venJn* Star — 60c per month he Sunday Star._ 10c per cony w Kd,i*®n- * Sundays. 5 Sundays. e1*!?! E}n*i »nd Sunday BOcmo. Sl.OOmo. Night Final Star..._ 65c per month Outside of Metropolitan Area. Delivered by Carrier. Pie Evening and Sunday 8tar__$1.00 per month The Evening Star- 60c per month !The Sunday Star_ 10c oer copy Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere In United States. _ 1 month. 6 month*. 1 year. Evening and Sunday..Sl.QO SH.Ou *13.00 El Sunday f&ZZZZ ftp Telephone National 6000. Entered at the Post Office. Washington. D. C., as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press la exclusively entitled to the uae lor republication ol all news dispatche# credited to it or not otherwise credited In this JKd *lso the local news published herein. All rights ol publication ol apeclal dispatches herein also are reserved. mssmi^MBssnssssnsssKSB^sssss Singling Out the Flaws Many years of work on annual District appropriation bills have given Representative Karl Stefan of Nebraska an intimate knowledge of local affairs which one might wish could be more fully shared among the members who exercise exclusive legislative control of this Capital. For if more of his colleagues could have the benefit of his own close observation of District-Federal re lationships in governing the Capital, there would be fewer of those in equities which he singled out for discussion in his interview in The Sunday Star. Mr. Stefan does not criticize his colleagues on the Appropriation1 Committee; in fact, he finds much to commend in their efforts to re port an appropriation bill which represents, as nearly as it is pos sible, the wishes of the local tax payers as interpreted by the Com missioners. The inequities which he mentions require an understand ing and a sympathetic desire for correction on the part of Congress as a whole. Congress, for instance, evidently did not anticipate the grossly unfair condition which has developed gradually in recent years—the supply of free water, at District taxpayers’ expense, to the vast new Federal establishment which has developed across the river in Virginia. That condition merely perpetuates and magnifies an in equity which developed years ago in the District as an offshoot of other inequities. It is so involved now that its removal requires an entirely new approach to water sys tem financing, requiring action be yond the scope of an appropriation bill. Free tuition in the public schools for Virginia and Maryland residents, the inequitable division of National ,Zoo expenses, the curious division of costs of the Federal courts, the steady increase in the amount of tax-exempt, Federal-owned prop erty within the fixed boundaries of the District—these and other matters mentioned by Mr. Stefan urgently require correction. Yet they remain as the result of an inertia resulting as much from lack of interest and understanding as from any unwillingness to correct them. Mr. Stefan performs a pub lic service in singling them out for discussion. Yugoslav Imbroglio Youthful King Peter’s drastic shakeup of his cabinet, highlighted by the removal of General Mikhail ovitch as Minister of War, represents a desperate attempt to heal the fac tional rifts that are tearing his unfortunate country to tatters and to broaden the present government in-exile into a genuine coalition regime for united prosecution of the war of liberation against the Ger mans and their Balkan satellites. Allied pressure doubtless is partly responsible for the experiment. But its success, while eminently desir able, appears dubious in face of the obstacles that must be overcome. Yugoslavia is probably the tough est national problem in all Europe —which is saying a great deal. It was an outstanding instance of nation-building undertaken at the peace settlement which closed the First World War. Yugoslavia means “Land of the South Slavs.” The western half of the Balkan Penin sula is inhabited mainly by this group, kindred in blood and speech but historically separated from one another by differences of religion, culture and outlook. The main line ot division is that between the Serbs with their Greek Orthodox faith, their Byzantine culture and their background of long subjection to the Turks on the one hand, and on the other hand the Croat-Slovenes, who got their religion and culture from the Latin West «nd lived for cen turies under the Hapsburg Empire. But there are still other groupings like the large Mohammedan minor ity in Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Dal matians of the Adriatic coast with their legacy of Italian influence, and the Macedonians who are partly Bulgarian. Besides these genuine Yugoslavs there are various alien minorities—Magyar, German. Alba nian, Bulgar and Turkish—further to complicate the problem. Obviously, the highest good will and statemanship would have been needed to weld this complex popula tion Into a spiritually united nation state. Above all, time was needed. But time was lacking. Less than a quarter-century after its founding, Yugoslavia was thrown into the cauldron of the Second World War, and the event proved that its diverse elements had not yet “jelled.” So tfjiay we see Partisans and Chetniks, 4. Serb Quislings and Croat “Ustachi” nationalists, Moslems and the alien minorities engaged in a furious struggle against one another as well as for or against the Germans. King Peter and his govemment-in-exile have stood for the monarchy and Serb primacy. Tito and his Parti sans have a revolutionary program of radical economic and social change coupled with looser political federalism. The internal situation is so confused that the true picture is hard to visualize. If, under such circumstances, harmony could be achieved, it would be little short of miraculous. But seeming miracles sometimes do occur in the lives of nations and peoples. At least, ft is being tried. The Spots Remain The election of Earl Browder as president of the Communist Politi cal Association will not come as a breath-taking surprise to any one who has followed the maneuverings of the American Communists. The Communist Political Associa tion is the old Communist party under another name. It had been found, according to Mr. Browder, that the organization of Commu nists as a political party was an “obstacle” to that whole-hearted collaboration in the working out of American problems in the American way, which is so dear to the heart of a Communist. Hence, the party is disbanded and the political asso ciation emerges. Curiously enough, however, there are many points of resemblance. The members of the association are the same persons who were members of the party. All of the members of the governing body of the old party are members and a majority of the new national committee. And now Mr. Browder, general secretary of the party and twice its presidential candidate, has the good fortune to be elected president of the new as sociation. io complete the record, two real changes should be noted. In ad dressing the convention, Mr. Browder began with "Ladies and Gentle men" instead of the more familiar “Comrades.” Second, the new and somewhat larger national commit tee includes five more or less promi nent trade union officials, where only one had served on the govern ing body of the old party. Mr. Browder said this constituted a “timid step" in drafting trade unionists to the committee which will be expanded in the future. Despite these minor changes, how ever, the Communist organization remains substantially as it was. For the moment they are 100 per cent behind President Roosevelt and fervently in favor of an all-out prosecution of the war. Yet, as the New York Times recalls, they are the same men who, in 1940, adopted a Communist party platform which said: Combat the imperialist acts and policies of the President. • * * No aid to the imperialist warmakers in London. • • * Oppose all war loans and credits to the Warring imperialist powers. * • • stop the sale and ship ment of munitions to the belliger ents. * • * Resist the militarization and armaments program of the ad ministration and Congress. • • • Not a cent, not a gun, not a man for war preparations and the imperialist war. That was when Russia, under its nonaggression pact, was a de facto partner of Nazi Germany. Now that Russia is at war with Germany the American Communists have adopted a new line and changed their name. But the spots remain the same. The one nice thing about every body not knowing anything about the time of the coming invasion is that nobody knows more than any body else. How refreshing it is, at long last, to be able to feel that the experts are as poorly informed as the rest of us. A great leveler, ignorance. Freedom's Fifth Column In inaugurating a series of ‘‘opera tional orders” to the peoples of oc cupied Europe, General Eisenhower’s headquarters has placed a new strain upon the enemy's nerves. As a starter, in powerful and impres sive cross-Channel radio broadcasts, the Danes, the Norwegians, the Bel gians, the Dutch and the French have been admonished to begin at once to observe all Nazi military movements as closely as possible and to gather detailed information about roads, rivers, bridges, etc., likely to be of use to our invading armies. The reaction of the Nazis to this new development has been immedi ate and reflects a considerable de gree of worry. Thus, speaking over the Vichy radio through the mouth of Philippe Henriot, Laval’s infor mation minister, they have threat ened “terrible and bloody reprisals” against Frenchmen who help us in any way. “The Allied invasion,” according to this warning, “is a gamble and its success is very open to question” and everybody will be wise, therefore, not to listen to General Eisenhower. Undoubtedly this sort of thing will be drummed into the ears of Hitler’s victims from now until the invasion takes place and for as long after that as the Goebbels propaganda machine can operate. Nazi concern in this respect is thoroughly understandable. Ger many is completely surrounded by a vast army of Europeans whose main interest in life is to see Hitler and his system destroyed. Indeed, at this moment, within the Reich itself, there are millions of non Germans who are eagerly waiting for the day of our liberating invas ion. Potentially, all these people are the equivalent of many armed divisions already landed on the con tinent to aid our Allied cause, and now that General Eisenhower’s headquarters has begun to address them with specific instructions, the enemy has real reason to be jittery. This would not be so true, per haps, if Hitler's victims were merely an unorganized mass or if there were no leadership in existence to give them direction when the proper time comes. But the fact is that there are underground resistance movements in every occupied land and that these groups, headed by brave, intelligent and war-wise men, are in constant contact with our Allied forces. Taken together with the timing and nature of General Eisenhower’s new series of “opera tional orders,” this is a reality that must weigh heavily on the Nazis; ironically, as the great organizers of fifth columns against liberty, they now find themselves encircled by the biggest fifth column in his tory—a fifth column dedicated to freedom and poised to strike with us against Hitler when the day of invasion dawns. I - Judicial Experiment Magistrate J. Roland Sala of Brooklyn is trying an experiment in the administration of justice which is as interesting as it is unorthodox. A petty neighborhood squabble had resulted in a woman bringing a disorderly conduct complaint against a man. She agreed to withdraw the charge, however, if the man woul(! contribute $25 to the Red Cross. The man said he had no money, but offered to give a pint of blood instead. The woman refused this offer, and the man’s attorney said that he would make it two pints. When the complainant declined this proposal, the magistrate suggested that she donate the third pint, and offered to give the fourth pint him self. This was satisfactory and the four of them went to the donation center, with the result that the Red Cross is better off by four pints of blood and the complainant and de fendant have parted amicably. Magistrate Sala thinks he has hit upon a pretty good plan for han dling the multitude of nuisance cases that come into court—a plan which, incidentally, would increase the list of blood donors by many thousands if it should be generally applied. The sticklers for correct judicial procedure may balk a’t the scheme, but a great many other people will be inclined to think that the Brooklyn magistrate has got something. This and That By Charles I. Tracetoell. “EIGHTEENTH STREET. "Dear Sir; “During the past month I have had occasion to drive through Rock Creek Park several times; the route taken was from Pierce Mill, following the creek by the spring with its copious flow of cool and pure drinking water, to the East-West highway, where I turn and retrace the route in order to ob serve and listen to the songs of the great variety of birds that have their homes and habitat in the woods of this famous park. “Upon several occasions, and espe cially on Saturdays, I have encountered, gangs of boys ranging in ages from 10 to 16 years, and in numbers of 8 or 10, each carrying a .22-caliber rifle, looking up into the tree branches for birds as targets and tests for skill at marksmanship. “One boy had a beautiful cardinal dangling from his belt, another a jay carried by its legs in his hands, grin ning and proud of his prowress and skill. “I remonstrated with the young nim rods for their vandalism, as I can think of no other word that adequately describes the acts, and I was met with curses and threats of a similar fate if I did not attend to my own business. * ¥ * * “During the summer and spring there is no telling of the number of our beautiful feathered friends destroyed by these young marauders. Would it be possible for you to take up with the Park and Planning Commission, offering the suggestion that a closer vigil and a more frequent inspection of the park roads and paths be made by the officers of the park, especially on holidays? “Upon one occasion the boys had two dogs with them for the purpose of rout ing and chasing both birds and squir rels so as to offer targets for their guns. It is certainly against the law for any person to carry firearms of any kind in our parks, or to discharge them within the District. “No doubt the baby ducks that at tract so many residents and visitors to the parks will come in for their ratio of destruction by these vandals, as they are now being hatched in nests along the banks. “You have done so much to add to the beauty and attractiveness of our wonderful parks through your inter esting and instructive editorials in your column in The Star, that a suggestion from you will accomplish the desived result, I am sure. "With best wishes always, I am “Yours sincerely, W. M. M.” * * * * •n wuxu man vanaausm 10 ae scribe such acts is "sabotage.” While the fathers and brothers of these misguided boys are giving their lives to keep the Germans and Japs from coming over and destroying our natural resources, these boys are doing thought lessly the very things our enemies would do if they could. Those who destroy our natural re sources are doing exactly what our enemies would wish them to do, and thus are working against their own fathers and brothers. Fortunately, there are only a few boys who indulge in such sabotage. Most of our boys have learned in their schools and homes something of the beauty and wonder of bird life, and how the songsters each year consume mil lions of inimical insects, and thus tend to keep tha Victory gardens free of them. There are plenty of laws and regu lations to prevent such sabotage on the home front; the trouble comes when they are not enforced. It was Napoleon who said, "I would rather live wild in the woods, than in a community without law,” and he might have added “than in a community where the laws are not enforced." One of the reasons why they are not enforced is that many persons do not wish to insist on their enforcement, but want some one else to do the in sisting for them. Surely there is something all wrong on the home front, when bands armed with firearms can roam without hin drance in the parks, endangering not only our natural resources, but the lives of picnickers and others who are obeying the laws. w Letters to The Star Officer Opposes Courtmarrial ol Pearl Harbor Commanders To the Editor of the The Star: Having lately heard and read much about demands for the trial of Gen. Short and Admiral Kimmel, I feel im pelled to come to their defense in my small and probably ineffectual way. I have served in the Army from pri vate to captain for the past 27 years and during that service have been on duty in the Philippines and Panama Canal Departments and have stopped in China, Japan and Hawaii. Until the time of the dastardly sneak attack by the Japs on Pearl Harbor, I never had seen or heard of either of these officers. My . interest In them is only the natural interest of an average American to see fair play. I don’t like to see anybody made a “goat’’ just be cause some people think “goats” are necessary when something happens to go wrong. To begin with, very few of us seri ously believed the Japs would attack so far from their home bases, and many of us doubted if they would attack us at all. Those few who did sense that an attack was imminent naturally ex pected it to commence in the Orient. While it evidently is true that warn ings had been given to these com manders in Hawaii, they doubtlessly felt that attack was anything but likely and therefore failed to take extraordinary precautions. It is a natural failing of the human race to disregard warnings as can well be understood by the num ber of auto drivers who come to un timely ends through disregarding warn ings not to drive too fast? They feel that “it just can’t happen to us,” but unfortunately it does. I understand also that one of the listening posts heard planes approaching. Now the last thing the listeners would expect would be the approach of a large num ber of enemy planes on a calm Sunday morning. Even if they instantly had recognized the fact that this was an attacking force (which was extremely unlikely) and given the alarm, it would have taken quite some time to get the defenders at their posts and planes in the sky. It wasn’t long after they were detected by the listening post that the attackers arrived in full force. No doubt many men either lived at or were visit ing in Honolulu over night and still were asleep. Also one must remember that an attack could come from any direction within a radius of 360 degrees and that dozens of our planes could have been in the air and failed to detect the presence of the enemy in sufficient time to get the defense organized. The time of the attack was greatly in favor of surpgse. It is quite clear that Qen. Short and Admiral Kimmel did not believe attack was Imminent, likely or, for that matter, possible; this in view of the distances involved, -the strength of Pearl Harbor and, most important of all, the fact that at the moment of the sneak at tack the Jap emissaries were engaged in so-called "pea& talks” in Washing ton. Naturally enough, they were lulled into a false security and felt that ordi nary precautions were sufficient. There may be some who talk of "par ties” and censure these officers for tak a few drinks while off duty. But there is no reason in the world why these officers should not frequent their fav orite clubs or amusement places after duty hours and if they cared for a few* beers or cocktails, that would be their business and not that of anybody else. I do not know or care whether these of ficers did happen to attend a "party” on the night of December 6, 1941, but if they did, it was their inalienable right to do so if they desired. Just because Gen. Short and Admiral Kimmel happened to be so unfortunate as to be in command at the time of this surprising and unexpected attack, it Is, in the minds of some of our "holier than thou” citizens, just cause to demand courtmartial proceedings against them. These people should pause a moment and figure out what they would have done in the same posi tion as these officers, prior to the at tack, to prevent such surprise attack, if possible. It is my studied opinion that if ques tioned, 95 per cent of our generals and admirals would tell any one the same thing could have happened to them (and these in my opinion would in clude our present great leaders, Gen. MacArthur and Admiral Nimitz). The other 5 per cent, who honestly believe it couldn’t have happened to them, are either extremely egotistic or gifted far beyond the powers of Dunninger. It is extremely narrow minded, if not downright silly, to place the blame for the terrible morning at Pearl Harbor upon the shoulders of these two of ficers. The Japs alone are responsible for this sad happening. Their cunning and clever planning, plus the element of complete surprise and timing, probably aided in no small degree by their spies on the Islands, plus a duplicity of which only they could be capable, is the real cause for our lack of adequate de fensive action on the fateful morning of December 7, 1941. It has been my experience in the serv ice that generals definitely do care for the personal welfare of their men and I have no doubt but that our admirals are the same in this respect. Don’t you suppose that the general and the admi ral already have suffered almost beyond human endurance, through humiliation, and, if they really feel that they are to blame even in the smallest degree, through excruciating remorse? In closing, I wish to state that I for one am emphatically against any trial of these officers. Their extreme mental suffering to date no doubt has atoned in full for any lack of foresight of which they may have been guilty. Further punishment would not bring back one life or limb lost at Pearl Harbor. If "the powers that be” are de termined that these officers must be tried by courtsmartial, I for one hope that they will be found “not guilty” of the serious charges which may be placed against them. In case they are tried, and the court decides these officers are guilty of any charge, I can only trust that due consideration will be given to their long and faithful service and to the extenuating circumstances which clearly are portrayed above. Always remember that any one can "second guess.” Even I know the win ning horse after the race is over. WARREN B. FOULKROD, Capt., M. A. C., A. U. S. Gulfport, Miss. This Changing World By Constantino Brown in a full dress session of the House of Commons this week, Prime Minister Churchill and Foreign Secretary An thony Eden will give the English peo ple and the world a glimpse of what has been decided at the Important Im perial conference and also Britain’s po sition after the war is over. The two British statesmen are ex pected to deal mostly with the pattern of the postwar world and the desira bility of a close political, military and economic co-operation among the big three, who have now concentrated In their hands the bulk of the economic, political and military power of the en tire world. Nothing will be said, of course, about a peace conference after the Reich has been defeated, in most well-informed Washington quarters there Is a strong belief that after the European branch of the^xls has surrendered there will be no need for a peace conference simi lar to that at Versailles after the World War ended. The fate of Germany and her satel lites has been definitely settled. Of course, various committees will be formed to take into consideration the wishes and desires of minor members of the United Nations, particularly con cerning territorial compensations from Axis countries to compensate for some territorial cessions they may have to make to other members of the United Nations. This will be particularly true in regard to Poland, which Premier Stalin has suggested should be given a slice of Germany—East Prussia—as compensation for the territories Russia is determined to take Into the Soviet Union. v * * * Brtain realizes that a certain eco nomic and political period of chaos is bound to follow the defeat of the Reich despite the emergency measures which are now being prepareded In Washing ton and London. The British government has been in full collaboration with the United States In an attempt to make this period as short as possible. Following the same trend of thought, some of the problems which are bound to arise between Amer ica and Britain, particularly In connec tion with the thorny communications question, are now being worked out by British and American committees. Prime Minister Churchill Is fully aware that these questions contain many ex plosive matters and unless carefully handled might Jeopardise intimate col laboration of the big three. According to reports from London, there is a goodly number of British parliamentarians, reflecting the opinion of their constituents, who believe that Britain’s policy has been too subservient to that of the United States and that Mr. Churchill himself has been in the pocket of President Roosevelt for too long a time. * * * * The same criticism frequently has been voiced, in reverse, in this country. Political observers in London expect the British Prime Minister to make a candid statement of relations between the United 8tates and Britain and it is hoped that he will touch—within the framework of military security—on the nature of relations between him and the White House. Many requests for information ad dressed by committees of the Senate or the House to the State, War or Navy --Departments contain the phrase "provided it does not conflict with the public interest.” In this manner an official censorship has been im posed even on the representatives of the people of this country. The same occurs in Britain, where in time of war indiscreet questions can be brushed off with the general statement that certain questions may be contrary to the public interest. * * * * Because of this situation, a number of rumors have been circulated in Lon don and Washington about which of the two leaders is "in the pocket” of the other. These rumors Inevitably have percolated to the people, who have become concerned over a situation which may or may not be real, and the British masses have instructed their representatives in Parliament to make the proper inquiries. No such question can be addressed directly to the President of the United States, who cannot be cross-examined by members of Congress, in Britain, however, the situation is different. Any member of Commons can ask of the Prime Minister or any other member of the cabinet from the floor of the House any question he may desire. The Political Mill By Gould Lincoln Thirty-eight per cent of America’s in come goes today for taxes. The Federal Government will collect, in round num bers, $45,000,000,000 from the people and business in 1944. This is more taxes in volume and more per capita than any nation under the sun is paying or has paid. What a people can and will stand in wartime is one thing. What it can and will stand in peacetime is quite another. It behooves the administration and Con gress to give the postwar fiscal policies of the Government attention, immediate attention, in the opinion of Representa tive Carlson, Republican, of Kansas, a member of the House Ways and Means Committee. Congress has just put through a so called tax simplification bill, designed to make it easier for the taxpayers with in comes up to $5,000. It does not reduce their taxes, but they are permitted to make a simplified tax return. Of the 50.000. 000 Individual Income taxpayers, 30.000. 000 are relieved of the necessity of filing a regular income tax return and of ascertaining their tax. They merely an swer three or four questions on the back of the withholding receipt, now fur nished to employes by their employers. Mr. Carlson pointed out that the bud get of the Federal Government this year is $104,000,000,000, mostly for war pur poses. In other words, Government ex penditures will be more than double the Government income from taxation. It is borrowing the difference. He esti mated, as others do, a total national debt of $300,000,000,000 when the war comes to an end. * * * * With peace, Government expenditures will drop off tremendously—but not all at once. With peace, also, the national income will drop off, too. The billions which Government has been pouring into war industries of all kinds will be greatly reduced. Taxes and the rest of the Government's fiscal policies must be so arranged as to give industry and the people a chance to move over from war economy to peace economy. If this is not done, the people will face a terrible period of inflation or debt repudiation or both. Not only will the American people face the Interest and retirement charges on a $300,000,000 debt—the interest charges alone may run to $6,000,000,000—but they will be faced with a much higher level of Government expenditures for peace time than in the past. They will have to pay to maintain a big Army and Navy. They are committed to help rehabilitate war-torn countries and our Allies. They are committed to muster-out payments to the armed forces, along with hos pitalization. Indeed, it has been esti mated the Federal Government’s ex penditures will continue, after peace, at a rate of from $18,000,000,000 to $30,000, 000,000 a year. * * * * ‘'Suppose,” said Mr. Carlson, "we let some of our professional business bait ers have their way about taxing pri vate industry. Suppose rates which now range up to 95 per cent are car ried over into the postwar period.” He pointed out that this would make it impossible for business—of all kinds— to spread out and make up the gap which will come when Government contracts stop. Without the actual production of goods and their sale, there will be too little on which the people may live—and certainly too little with which to meet the tax burden. "Our national policy in taxation,” Mr. Carlson said, “as well as in other mat ters, must clearly encourage our people to depend upon themselves first and upon Government second. * * * One of our greatest contributions to the future peace of the world can be to put our own financial house in order.” * * * * He put forward a six-point program which, he contended, would help meet the postwar financial situation. First on the list was a proposal for stimu lated civilian production, freed of gov ernmental control. Farms, factories, mills, everything, must earn money if taxes are to be paid. They will haye no income to tax, no money to pay wages, if Government continues “di rectives, regulations, priorities and con fiscatory taxes.” Second, small companies must be spared at least part of the tax respon sibilities of established concerns until they are on sound footing. Third, the flow of capital into productive industry must be encouraged—by allowing proper earnings. Fourth, an “incentive tax program” must be evolved, with further simplification of the tax structure. Fifth, improvement of the administra tion of the tax laws—with far less .cost to Government and private citizen. Sixth, an intelligent tax levy which will not reach a point of diminishing re turns—or go beyond 25 per cent of the national income. Vital Hidden Army By Maj. George Fielding Eliot vxcii. i-zwiftiiu lj. £jiaciuiuwcr» ilLSLruc tions to the underground forces in oc cupied Europe seem to emphasize the great importance which these forces may have in helping the invasion, es pecially in helping our air-borne forces. We have already seen in Burma what air-borne troops can do under condi tions when the enemy air opposition is well-nigh negligible. This will not be the case in Europe. The Luftwaffe is badly battered, but It is certainly ac cumulating planes for a desperate fight when the invasion actually begins. The German air command is gambling: the stake they are throwing on the board is the damage which may be done by our bombers because of lack of German fighter defense, as against the results the Germans may obtain by conserving their lighters for resisting the invasion. One of the tasks for which the Ger man fighters will be called upon will be to resist our air-borne attacks. It is therefore all the more necessary that we should have accurate information as to the German dispositions, as to the location of likely airfields, and as to every detail of enemy preparation within the areas in which our air-borne troops are going to operate. * * * * Obviously, in order to use air-borne troops in any large numbers, and with any sort of heavy equipment, we must first have airfields. To get airfields, we must have soldiers on the ground to kill the German guards and to free the field of obstacles, and thereafter to guard it until our troop-carrying planes and gliders can come in. It will not be easy to do this by means of landing forces; it may be desirable to seize air fields far behind the coast line during the first stages of an attack. This can be done only by parachutists; and against enemy air opposition, it can probably be done only under favorable conditions of visibility—that is, at night, or at least during the hours of morn ing or evening twilight. That means that when the para chutists hit the ground they will need a lot of help as to local conditions. However well they may have been briefed by their intelligence officers, they will still need guides, local infor mation and direction. The under ground can be of the utmost value in this respect; Indeed, information re ceivea irom unaergrouna sources will make the original briefing far more useful than it otherwise might be. It is not idly that Gen. Eisenhower tells the underground: “In no more valuable way can your help be given than by Information about the enemy. * * * Let nothing escape you. Pool your knowledge. Observe more and more closely. • * •” * * * * Imagine the captain of a company of parachutists who has just been dropped on a dusk-shrouded field in Prance. Somewhere ahead of him there is an airfield toward which his company and two other companies to his right and left are supposed to con verge. He has a map, he knows the route he is to take. Runners come up from his platoon leaders, report the platoons moving forward according to plan. Then two more figures appear in the semidarkness. “Sir, this man says he is a member of the French underground with im portant information.” The Frenchman gives the identification formula, and tells the captain: “About 300 German troops moved from the village of X an hour ago and took up positions cover ing the bridge at point 345, with ma chine guns commanding the road and mortars posted at the edge of the wood at this position,” pointing to the map. The captain makes some hasty cal culations, sends the runners racing to the platoon leaders with new orders. Without the underground he would have run into a trap. With it, he is able to outflank the Germans and take them by surprise. This is merely one of the ways in which the underground can help our invading forces. Their help may make a great deal of difference. Indeed, in many cases, it may make the difference between success and failure. (Copyright, 1944, by New York Tribune.) Warning to Vets rrom the Atchison Globe. Thousands of crooked schemers are readying their choicest confidence games to separate the returning war veteran from his mustering-out pay; they are already grabbing for the War Bond savings of his family. South Seen Worried By Leftist Democrats Union Slush Funds Disturb Congress Members By David Lawrtnc* Democratic members of Congress from the Southern States are very much con cerned over the political news they have been reading lately. For one thing, they do not like to see the Dem ocratic party taken over by the Amer ican Labor party, the Communist party and the so-called "Liberal” party, which was formed recently out of the right wing of the American Labor party. The fact that Bari Browder and the Communists have indorsed Presi dent Roosevelt for a fourth term and will now become active in the Demo cratic party is not relished by the Democrats in the South. Also, it is apparent that a large slush fund has now been made available for the left-wing groups to enter the Dem ocratic primaries and unseat the reg ular Democrats. Although Congress, while writing the Smlth-Connally law, adopted a provision unending the Fed eral Corrupt Practices Act so as to pro hibit labor unions from making polit ical contributions, this has not as yet cramped the style of the CIO Political Action Committee or any other labor unions. Bayonet Aids Due* Collection. Many millions of dollars have been collected by assessments, membership dues or otherwise from the labor union members throughout the country. This drive is, curiously enough, being as sisted by the Federal Government it self, which is using the armed forces of the United' States to compel em ployers at the point of a bayonet to accept clauses in union contracts whereby members of the union cannot withdraw from such unions once they join. This helps increase the amount of dues collectible by the unions. Some of the constitutions of the unions do not permit withdrawal of members, and there Is no statute which authorizes the War Labor Board or any other gov ernmental agency to vitiate labor union contracts. There really is no authority In law either for the maintenance-of membership clauses, but the President feels that he has sufficient power as Commander in Chief to use the bay onet to compel maintenance of mem bership in labor unions. The Federal Corrupt Practices Act was written originally many yean ago by Congress to prevent the use of slush funds in political campaigns. It was aimed at corporations which used com pany funds to Influence elections. The statute has been very effective In pre venting corporate funds from being applied to elections. Although Indi vidual businessmen have made contri butions of a limited nature out of their own pockets, corporate funds have pretty generally been kept out ef the campaigns because of the Federal Cor rupt Practices Act. Now. under a ruling by Attorney General Biddle, It is apparent that any sum spent by corporations or labor unions in primary campaigns will not result In prosecutions. The Federal Corrupt Practices Act Itself defines election as a “general or special elec tion,” but does not include a primary election or convention of a political party.” This means that the CIO Political Action Committee can use its funds to enter primaries, especially in States where the outcome of a primary elec tion is equivalent to the final ratifi cation in the autumn election. The Southern Democrats are the ones who hsve the most to fear from the use of the CIO uhion fluids. Already a cam paign fund of nearly one million dol lars has been set aside by labor unions for “political action.” Difficulty «f Investigation. Congress, of course, can protect itself by adopting a statute at once to make the Federal Corrupt Practices Act ap ply to primary elections as well as gen eral elections, and it would sot be surprising if something of this sort is done, though it may come only after a general inquiry by a congressional committee. The resolution is pending, and doubtless will be passed by the House very soon. The difficulty about a congressional committee investigation is that the ad ministration can put rubber-stamp members into control of the committee. The usual congressional investigating committee consists of five members— two Republicans and three Democrats —but, since the Speaker of the House appoints whoever the administration wishes appointed, it means that almost any congressional investigation can be squelched at the outset. It may be that Speaker Rayburn, who comes from a state which is vitally interested in thfe CIO Political Action Committee, may find it desirable to appoint com mittee members who are not going to whitewash the use of slush funds by labor unions in political campaigns, but this is the very question which is now being debated in the cloakrooms on Capitol Hill. Eleven years ago when the Roosevelt Adiministration came into power, it talked a good deal about driving the "money changers from the temple." It professed high ideals. It spoke of itself as a "liberal'’ administration. But it has turned out to be not a bit dif ferent from its Republican predecessors —ready and anxious to use political funds and public power to perpetuate itself in office. (Reproduction Right* Reserved.) Boy in School Behind his book he hears the drowsy humming. The sound of honey bees with dusty wings Out in old man Romey’s field of clover Beyond the fence, and marvels at the things That grownup folk sets store by, never learning The little roads worn smooth by tiny feet, Nor the barefoot feel of smoke-balls in a meadow, Nor tang of wild strawberries, cool and sweet. They never hid deep in a fern-dark hollow To watch the secret way a ground squirrel took, Nor learned that fragrant scent of young May apples Was something never found in any book. He dreamed of the swimming hole be neath the willows. Blue-green in the changing, dappled shade, And large black print across his third grade reader Became the small, moist tracks a raccoon made. ALMA ROBISON HI OB EE.