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Wttk lulu Msrnlng ESittea. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. WASHINGTON, P. C. The Evening Star Newspaper Company. Main Office: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Avt. _ New York Office: 110 Ea»t 42d St. Chicago Office: 436 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. Regular edition 4 Baadars. 5 Sudan. Evening and Sunday. 80c aer mo. 80c per mo. The Evening Star_ aOc per month The. Sunday Star ... 10c Per copy . Night final Edition, 4 Sandora. 6 Bandayi. Night Final and Sunday 90e me. SI.00 mo. Night Pinal Star_ 86c per month _: f.t Outside of Metropolitan Area. Deli rend.hr Carrier. 4 Bandaye. I Bandars. Evening and Sunday Star. $1.00 mo. $1.10 mo. The Evening St*r_ 80c per month The Sunday Star_ 10c per copy Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United State*. 1 month. 6 month*. 1 yean Evening and Sunday..$1.00 $6.00 $12.00 The Evening Star_ .75 4.00 8.00 The Sunday Star_ .60 2.50 6.00 Telephone National 5000. Entered at the Post Office. Washington. D. C« > as second-class mall matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use for republication of all news dispatches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this pacer and also the local news published heiein. All rights of publication of special dispatches herein also are reserved, A^^^^WEDNESDAYj^ulyJ^mt Proving Its Value A Star article describing the in creased demand by a swollen popu lation for summer recreational facil ities suggests, by comparison with conditions a few years ago, how valuable the two-year-old Recrea tion Department has become to the local community. But only a small part of the story is told in a recitation of what the department is doing now. The most valuable part of its work is in the consistent pressure a unified board of citizens and officials can apply on the proper authorities for meet ing the rather neglected recrea tional needs of Washington. Before consolidation, under the Recreation Board, of the various agencies having to do with recrea tion, too many of them were trying to do too many things—in all di rections. Since creation of the board, one program of development finds united support. Funds in the current appropriation bill for ac quisition of more play areas in the downtown, congested portions of the city—the first money in many years advanced under the Capper Cramton legislation—represent the new emphasis now placed on bring ing play facilities to the crowded parts of the city, instead of creating more park land on the outskirts, beyond the reach of many who need them most. In many other ways the board,, with the single objective of making \ it possible for more people to find j the place and the time for restful j play, is doing constructive work of great benefit to Washington. Von Ribbentrop declares that Ger many will lend Finland enough troops to keep that country in the war. And just to keep lease-lend working, perhaps once in a while Germany will borrow a Finn. Polish Developments Twto events occurred in Moscow last Saturday of prime importance in the Polish problem and Russia’s attitude hereto. The first of these was a decree of the Supreme Soviet granting inhabitants of White Rus sia and the Ukraine which formerly formed part of Poland the right to “adopt” Polish citizenship. These are the regions occupied by the Rus sians in the autumn of 1939 and thereafter declared part of the So viet Union despite the refusal of the Polish government-in-exile to recog nize such changes made without its consent. The most interesting part of the decree is that it rescinds the Soviet pronouncement of November, 1939, whereby all the inhabitants of those disputed provinces were de clared Soviet citizens. If the decree had stood alone, it might be interpreted as a gesture of conciliation by Moscow toward the Polish government-in-exile, because the arbitrary incorporation of the disputed populations into Soviet citizenship, without the privilege of choosing national allegiance, has been one of the sorest spots in the Russo-Polish dispute. However, the language of the decree makes it plain that Moscow is as uncom promising as ever in its assumption that the territories involved are Soviet soil. And, what is even more significant, publication of the decree coincided with a pronouncement of the self-styled Union of Polish Pa triots in Soviet Russia denouncing the Polish government-in-exile at ! London as illegal and asserting that the new Poland would be built around the National Council. Both these organizations are avowedly i pro-Soviet and have declared them selves ready to recognize Russian claims. Spokesmen of the Lon don regime assert that the Na tional Council and the Union of Polish Patriots are alike “fronts” for Moscow, to be used either as levers to force the London govern ment to yield to Russian demands or, if that proved impossible, to set up a regime in liberated Poland completely amenable to Russian policy. This latter alternative seems the more likely, now that Russian armies may soon begin to drive the Germans from Poland with no agreement between Moscow and the London regime. All this is another indication that the Soviet government intends to settle the problems of Eastern Europe unilaterally, according to its own wishes and without leaving postwar readjustments there to joint conference and agreement with other members of the United Na tions. Taken by itself, such an at titude could be justified on many grounds. At the «me time, it does not augur well for future harmony and the establishment of an endur ing peace based on the mutual con sent of nations, great and small. German Losses At this point in the war, it would be imprudent to proceed on any other assumption than* that the Nazis are still powerful enough to wage defensive battles of the blood iest and most violent sort. Yet it is a towering fact that since the beginning of our smashing Allied offensive in Italy, they have been bleeding more profusely, in more places, than at any time since they sliced through Poland and exultant ly set forth to conquer the world. Since May 11, according to reliable estimates, their casualties have numbered between 70,000 and 100,000 men in killed, wounded and prisoners in their disastrous Italian defeat. Since June 6, the toll exacted of them in France by our American forces alone has climbed to at least 60.000 men—a conservative figure which does not include other thou sands accounted for by the British and Canadians. And in a fortnight after the start of the Red Army’s mighty new offensive from the Vitebsk sector they have lost, ac cording to Russian claim, more than 200.000 men. In a period of only about seven weeks, in other words, their losses in fighting manpower, assuming all figures to be reasonably accurate, have added up to the stag gering total of well over 300,000. This is attrition of a kind which armies, no matter how populous or great, cannot stand indefinitely without suffering a major decline in efficiency and morale. It is attrition of a kind that is bound, sooner or later, to cut the heart out of the home front behind the armies. Con sidered along with material losses— losses in planes, tanks, guns and equipment of every description considered along with all the ex penditure of human and physical resources in the years of war prior to last May 11, and, finally, con sidered along with the seeming in ability of the Luftwaffe to strike in force and of the Wehrmacht to balance itself effectively against our concentric Allied offensives, it is something that must leave Germany chilled and hopeless to the marrow. And what makes the picture par ticularly grim for the Reich is that there appears to be nothing in pros pect that is likely to blunt the deadly edge of our Allied sword or slow the frequency of its slashing descents. The Nazi titan bleeds, and bleeds, and bleeds—and seems slowly to begin to totter. Small wonder that at this decisive moment the best Hitler can do to break his long silence is first to deliver a feverish funeral oration over one of his fallen generals and then to appeal dismally to the German people to be cou rageous. to maintain “fanaticism,” and to have faith in his half hysterical promises of victory. Man in the Sky The air travel epoch has been here for some time, but it is still young and novel enough to entrance and surprise the earthbound. Fif teen years from now, ten years from now, even five years from now, we may all be quite used to it, taking it as much for granted as we take, say, the automobile, the racyo or the electric light. Meanwhile, though, at least to a percentage of us, it occasionally seems half a dream, a bit on the fantastic side, and whenever we give thought to it, we are struck by the wonder of it, especially when people who are in our town today suddenly pop up on the other side of the world to morrow. Consider, for instance, General Surles and Secretary Stimson. Only last Thursday they were seen and heard chatting in the flesh at a little soiree here in Washington;, four days later, they were in Rome, more than 3,000 miles away. To be sure, Churchill, Roosevelt, Hull, Stalin, Chiang and other distin guished personages, including Mr. Stimson, have done this sort of thing before, but the air epoch is not yet so old that such flights lack the capacity to startle us a little—par ticularly those of us who tend to be acutely conscious of the law of gravity and who prefer to travel more or less with our feet on the ground, taking the somewhat old fashioned view that it is unnatural and over-bold, if not a bit ridiculous, for wingless bipeds to let their bodies be hurtled through space, in a sitting position and at terrific speed, far above the clouds, where only eagles and the stars should feel at home. Old-fashioned ideas about trans portation, however, are tottering fast. Progress will not be stopped, and it is not the young alone who are responsible for this. It is men like Mr. Stimson as well, men rich in years and wisdom, who in their lifetime have seen the birth of the auto and other marvels which have since grown commonplace, and who now take to the plane with an ad mirable spirit of adventure and adaptability. Bayonet practice is vitally neces sary for the American infantryman. Oddly enough, the essence of the instruction is to see that the infan tryman does not get the point, while the enemy does. A Hoosier Chairman The Democrats have picked a Hoosier to preside at their coming national convention—the first time Indiana has been so honored since Claude Bowers, biographer and United States Ambassador to Spain, keynoted the 1928 convention which nominated A1 Smith for President. Senator Samuel Dillon Jackson, de signated by the committee on ar rangements of the Democratic Na £ tional Convention to be permanent chairman, is a new-comer to na tional politics. 8everal reasons present them selves for the choice of Senator Jackson. The first is that he is “new." He is a baby Senator, hav ing served in the Upper House only a few months. He is only 49 years old, getting away from the Dewey charge that the present administra tion is composed of tired old men. Secondly, he hails from a Midwest State which the President is seeking to woo back to the Roosevelt fold. It went for Willkie in 1940. Thirdly, Senator Jackson is himself a can didate for Governor of Indiana this year. It is calculated that his new Job will do him no harm in this race. The choice of Senator Jackson is, in a measure, a surprise. He orig inally had been considered a pos sible “keynoter" and temporary chairman. It had been thought that the Democrats would select a more experienced man to wield the gavel as permanent chairman. Despite Democratic hopes for a completely I harmonious convention this year, a storm of resentment is in the mak ing against a fourth term nomina tion—as well as platform planks by delegates from Southern States. Even the veteran Senator Barkley of Kentucky, as permanent chairman in the 1940 convention, had his hands full maintaining harmony. The Democratic leaders this year are determined to flatten out op position to renomination of the President and the nomination of whomever Mr. Roosevelt finally selects as his running mate this year —whether it be Vice President Wal lace or another. Senator Jackson’s Job will be to quell, as chairman, any insurgency that may develop from the floor. It may be no easy task. In a war with no quarter for the enemy we need every dollar you can spare. Subscribe to the Fifth Vic tory Loan. If your summer drive is curtailed by gas rationing, console yourself with the thought of the big summer drive going on against the Axis. It should not be too long now be fore the Red Army will put the war in Warsaw. The much-vaunted Japanese em pire definitely is in process of decay. Confidentially, it shrinks. This and That By Charles E. Tracewell. "UNITED STATES CHAMBER OP COMMERCE. "Dear Sir: - “One doesn't have to go to the sub urbs, I find, to observe a good many birds. For instance, a pair of cardinals have a nest in a mighty vine that grows in the spacious yard of the red brick house occupied by the Federal Housing Agency at Sixteenth and I streets. The male perches atop the highest of the four chimneys every morning and signs out: “ 'Whew, tu, tu. tu.* "Usually, he sings about 15 minutes, repeating his performance occasionally until noon time. I have never heard him in the afternoon. “The red brick house, which so many thousands pass daily without noticing it particularly, is a rare piece of architec ture, having an intricate brick design. The architect was Richardson of Boston, who designed the twin homes of John Hay and Henry Adams, which stood so many years at Sixteenth and H streets, until demolished to make way for a hotel. All of the homes followed a similar distinctive pattern. "Mr. Redbird is singing his head off now, as I write. "Sincerely, B. H. L.’* * * * * "PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE. "Dear Sir: "The other day at the Treasury an nex a squirrel got in the elevator at the top floor and rode all the way down with the elevator man. Then when he opened the door, the animal walked out and through the front door as nicely as you please. "In the same building a squirrel— maybe it was the same one—hopped from a tree to a window sill, dashed into an offlce and grabbed a girl’s bag of lunch and would not let go. She tugged and he tugged and finally the squirrel made a lunge and capered away with the lunch. And the girl had to sit in her window and watch him eating her lunch out on a limb. At least this was the way the story was told to me. “Very truly, M. C. B.” There can be no question about the downtown being a good place for nature study. Though there are no longer any horses to speak of, the business sec tion is full of squirrels, and some dogs and cats. The birds downtown number perhaps 20 species, with English spar rows and starlings predominating, al though many other species, including cardinals, song sparrows and others have been noticed, Including a brown creeper. The status of a wandering dog in the downtown areas often excites the com passion of friends of these animals. The traffic is against it, and at times it does not seem to know where to go. There is nothing more pitiful than to see such a dog stop and look into a store door, as if wondering whether his friends could be within. Certainly an owner is very negligent who permits his dog to wander in the downtown, especially during the heavy traffic periods. * * * * The downtown cat has a different status. It is more used to the environ ment, and seems more fitted to it. Most of the cats stay indoors during the day, and hence miss the worst of the traffic. It is only now and then that a friend of these animals will have the sorrow of seeing one which has been run over in the business section. Mostly these animals keep close to the stores and offices they inhabit, com ing out at night to explore. Now and then one will see a cat outside a build ing, sunning itself. Usually it is very dirty. Nothing better can be expected of a cat in the downtown, since it is very dirty there, as any office worker knows on the mornings the janitor for got to dust. It is impossible for a cat to keep itself clean under such condi tions. The irt&ny trees which still remain in (towntown Washington insure the pres ence of thousands of birds and squirrels. A few hummingbirds may be seen, now and then, and meadowlarks and gulls come to the lower park areas. Persons who eat their lunch in the parks should spend a little time looking for the birds. A piece sandwich may work wonders. 1 1 * Letters to The Star Appeals for End of “Kidding" Especially About Strikes To th* Editor of Th* Star: We Americans are great kldders. We like to kid and we enjoy being kidded by the other fellow. Take, for Instance, advertising. We know that our popu larity will not be made possible by I changing our brand of soap; nor our teeth perfect by a tooth paste; nor will cold cream produce a husband; but we like to read that these things are pos sible. We like to be kidded. We know that most divorces are caused by lack of understanding and lack of trying to make a go of marriage, but we secure them by “incompatibility.” Yes, we like to be kidded, even to the extent of kidding ourselves. But this is war, and the time for kidding has come to an end. Strikes are not kidding. They are deadly. We like to kid ourselves by thinking it is the American way to allow people to express themselves and do as they please. But this has gone too far when it imperils the flow of vital materials, medical sup plies, food, ammunition, everything that our men need. Who is striking? Americans. Kidding themselves as usual that they have the right to strike, even though it means horrible death for their fellow Ameri cans. Somehow these fighting men are going to be difficult to kid. They are up against weather, disease, insects, Japs and Germans—and these do not kid. Let strikers and those who tell them when to strike be made to march silently down the wards of Walter Reed Hospital or one of the many other hospitals in this country where the wounded are being sent. The wounded did not get that way in order for those at home to be made to strike whether they wanted to or not, or to strike if they want to. 8top kidding yourself, America. Grow UP- M. L. G. “Debunking” and Good Manners To the Editor of Th* SUr: I see by the papers that Vice President Wallace has visited the shrine of Genghis Khan and that Owen Latti more, adviser to Generalissimo Chiang, has advised him that the bones of the great Khan probably were not in that silver-plated casket, but were in some far-off unmarked grave in outer Mon golia. j But neither Mr. Lattimore nor Mr. Wallace knows, nor do I, that the bones of Genghis Khan are not in that chest. Millions of Chinese believe they are and derive a comfort from believing so. Why not let them keep their faith? We claim that we wish to spread good will. If so, let us make a study of the acts which cause ill-will. Debunking national heroes is one of the habits which causes hatred, often secret and therefore more deadly. Why do we feel that we must put our stamp of approval or disapproval on everything we see the world around? Did any American ever go to any other country and keep his mouth shut about what he saw there? If 60 I should like to meet him. We must either approve or disapprove. We cannot endure foreigners to debunk our beliefs, but we do not hesitate to anaylae publicly their most sacred feelings. We can dish it out, but we can t take it. Such a condi tion leads only to mediocrity or worse. LAURA K. POLLOCK. Molasses, Cement for Enemy To the Editor of The 6tar; A correspondent of The Star questions whether the details of the “motor** that drives the presently publicized “flying bomb” of the Nazis is known in this country. Many years ago I saw a “motor" built by an English young man for operating a propulsion device burning Diesel oil. The principle was that of puleating compression of air and injection of fuel oil, the combustion taking place in a small retort chamber the walls of which were hot from the combustion. The principle applied for carrying out the cycle of operation depended on the well-known principle of the hydraulic ram, air taking the place of water. The injection of fuel was dependent on what is known as the Venturi principle in the mixing passage for air and fuel. Propelling reaction was intermittent. No moving parts were used except several "check valves.” Due to lack of suitable metal these valves, of ordi nary steel, gave out in a short time. That was the only reason the “motor” did not work long. The “motor,” used to drive a bicycle, cost only a small amount and, except for the valve seats, required no precision work. incidentally, I wonder if our armed forces are using a combination of bombs filled with molasses followed by bombs filled with dry cement for shelling certain enemy positions. Under certain conditions such a combination can make things extremely unpleasant for those on the receiving end. Per haps, too, although it must be tried, if it has not already been done, frag mentation shells filled with dry cement, might make it tough for enemy planes, especially for the instruments that de pend upon air drawn from the slip stream for operation. C. J. 8. Natural Phenomenon To the Editor of The Star: When I bought my last Sunday's Star there was a Japanese beetle on it, pre sumably eating or about to eat it. What conclusion do you draw from this fact? Does it attest the universal popularity of The Star or did the beetle mistake it for another newspaper, given to the publication of jucier material? If you are unable to answer this ques tion perhaps, in the interest of science, you should refer the letter to your nature expert Charles E. TraceweU. GEORGE D. WATROUS, Jr. (Editor’s Note: Hie experts say that only a few Japanese beetles know how to read. Those who do read prefer their news fresh, unadulter ated and easily digested. This ex plains the presence of the beetle in the location described.) , A Motto for Money From th« ChleMo Daily New*. The world monetary conference at Bretton Woods, N. H., might do worse than take as its motto words written in lfllfl by the British economist, J. M. Keynes, in "Hie Economic Consequences of the Peace”: "Lenin was certainly right. There is no subtler, no surer means of (Werturn - ing the existing basis of society than to debauch the currency. The process en gages all the hidden forces of economic law on the side of destruction, and does it In a manner which not one man In a mlllimi Is able to diagnose.* 1 « This Changing World By Constantino Brown ror reasons oi military security the British government has not revealed details concerning damage and casual ties caused by robot plane attacks on Southern England. There can be no criticism of British censorship in this Instance. These flying meteors do not hit their targets with any degree of accuracy. If the Germans could find out the "errors” they might make the necessary corrections and their aim would be more accurate. There seems to be no question, how ever, that this new type of bombard ment while not seriously affecting the military forces and the invasion, is more than a "nuisance raid” as far as the British population is concerned. Fran what can be gathered at this time It seems that the emplacements from which the planes are launched are distributed throughout French territory and there appears to be no reason to believe that they could not be launched from the Reich itself. * * * * The load of each of these flying ex plosives has not yet exceeded 5 or 6 tons. According to some reports from Europe, the Nazis have an improved robot capa ble of hurling about 20 tons of high explosives on a given target. How cor rect these reports are is difficult to as certain, since no neutral or Allied agent has actually seen the super-robot. It would seem, however, that Berlin wished this information to leak out for propa ganda purposes in the same manner it permitted the Allies to learn before the invasion that a "secret weapon,” a gun firing several tons of high explosive over a disance exceeding 100 miles, had been invented. The British government was con cerned over the latter report and feared it might be turned loose as soon as the invasion started. British and American aviators were instructed to search for the emplacements of the mystery gun and for a while they have been bombing areas along the Channel coast suspected of concealing these emplacements. The reports about the guns proved false. Instead, the robot plane made its appearance and it is being directed not at the invasion forces but at the civilian population and whatever military in stallations It may be able to hit. There seems to be no question that If the larger type really is available the destruction caused by it on the British Isles would be greater than that caused by the present robot. It will, of course, not affect the actual military opera tions; neither will it change the de termination of the British people to light to the end. But it might con siderably increase the casualties among the civilian population and disrupt com munications between London and the rest of the country. It appears probable that some important centers in Southern England will suffer from time to time. If the present bombardments are speeded up, especially, the larger types of robots are put into operation, the damage will be even greater. * * * * The difficulty of obtaining a precision bombardment apparently has kept the Germans from using this secret weapon in Normandy or in operations on the Russian front. Obviously there is such a large margin for error that the Ger man high command is afraid that in stead of landing in enemy lines the robot might hit German forces or mili tary installations. But there is no question that the new weapon is causing serious difficulties in England particularly because it has been difficult to discover an efficient counter measure against it. The fighter planes are said to have some difficulty in destroying the "flying meteors" because of their great speed— allegedly over 400 miles an hour. More over, the concussion produced when they explode in the air is said to be such that a greater number of fighter planes are lost than in the man-to-man ant) machine-against-machine fights. The anti-aircraft guns, of course, have an easier task and they are said to have been quite successful in the destruction of the robots. Their difficulty is to get the range, particularly when the flying meteors travel at such a high speed. It is generally assumed here that the casualties caused by the weapon in Eng land have been fairly heavy, but not as heavy as during the first weeks of the blitz in 1940. The discomforts caused are greater since the Germans are launching their flying explosives at ir regular intervals which causes the people to seek air-raid shelters mors frequently than four years ago when there were respites of several hours and day bombardments were not as frequent as the night raids. On the Record By Dorothy Thompson In the first Interview which the charm, lng Mr*. Dewey gave to the press, she declared that she hoped that in the White House life would be ‘‘as normal as possible.” She does not, she said, Intend to make speeches or write for newspapers or magazines. Hie question of what is a "normal” life for the wife of a President has been discussed during the present administra tion as a sideline criticism of the incum bent First Lady. Mrs. Roosevelt, some have carped, does not behave "normally. ’ Do they mean normal for the particular lady or normal according to a pattern? Obviously they mean the latter. For the real foundation of the criticism of Mrs. Roosevelt is that as mistress of the White House she has behaved exactly as she would have done anywhere else. She has cultivated the same sort of people that she would have done anywhere else. Vividly interested in social problems she has gone'on pursuing her interests with the enlarged opportunities which her position has afforded. Not being particularly fond of formal society, she has not gone in for it beyond the point of duty. * * * * Mrs. Dewey remarked that although little boys who aim to be President can set themselves for the role, little girls have never been trained to become First Ladies. But though little boys may have am bitions, they are also not trained to be come First Gentlemen, and the manners and behavior of Presidents have been as various as their origins and tastes. This is not a monarchy where either princes or princesses are trained for the throne. Thus Calvin Coolidge was always a man from Main street, Mr. Harding was a cheaplsh politician in the White House and out of it, Mr. Hoover retained the upper middle-class business executive's manners, tastes and style: Theodore Roosevelt, the most literary President in many a-year before or after him, wrote for publications, reviewed books and in vited more writers to the White House than have entered it before or since, and his breezy manners were entirely his own and like his Cousin Franklin's, distinctly upper class. Abraham Lincoln fitted conventional ideas of how a President should behave as oddly as his own clothes fitted him. That President, who wrote the most per fect English since Thomas Jefferson, talked in conversations in ironic fron tier parable and horrified the stuffed shirts. So it is only about First Ladies that there is a convention—strictly Victorian. In a world in which millions of women earn their livings; in which Republican and Democrat women sit in Congress and on national party committees; in which women of both parties are writers, journalists, business executives and even farmers, there is still a persistent prej udice that the exclusive business of the First Lady is to "play house” in an ele gant manner—as though the White House beds would not be made or the meals served on time without her con stant supervision, and as though it were somehow indecorous for her to take a direct interest in the large affairs of the world. * * * * Now that the Republicans have writ ten a plank in their platform calling for a constitutional amendment to assure identical conditions for men and women, can’t we give First Ladies a break? Mrs. Dewey, I understand, once wished to be a professional singer. If she should again wish to pursue this ambition and sing on the radio, wouldn't that be her own business? A great thing about this American democracy is its tolerance for letting people be themselves as long as they keep within the law. And what is normal for one woman is abnormal for another. Mrs. Roosevelt is no more un like Mrs. Hoover or Mrs. Coolidge than their husbands were unlike Mr. Roose velt. I see not the slightest reason why It is more fitting for a lady to be inter ested in the Girl Scouts than in the Women’s Trade Union League, or to visit bridge parties in preference to coal mines, or to roll bandages for the Red Cross in preference to bringing cheer to fronts and hospitals. Let’s have freedom for First Ladies— as long as they are ladies. (Released by the Bell Syndicate. Inf ) Canton Thrust By Maj. George Fielding Eliot The Japanese have started their long expected thrust northward from the area of Canton to meet their forces coming down the Hankow-Canton railway from by-passed Hengyang. This move could not, of course, be initiated until the Japanese forces frpm the north were reasonably close at hand because the Japanese troops around Canton are not numerous and cannot provide a very strong field force. This is because Canton pan be rein forced and supplied only by sea and Japanese shipping has been suffering severely from American air attacks and from American and British submarines. But the situation of the Japanese around Canton and Hong Kong will be vastly improved if the railway can be opened. Gen. Chennault estimates that the line can deliver 75.000 to 100,000 tons of freight a month. Probably the general means net deliveries of through freight— that is, less the amounts required by troops guarding the line. In that case the deliveries might amount to 3,000 tons a day, which is not sufficient to support any very large number of troops when engaged In an offensive, but is ample for several divi sions in an Inactive situation and would permit the accumulation of a consider able amount of supplies against the coming day of need. * * * * This is of great importance when it is considered that of all the available sea ports of South China, Canton and Hong Kong are most valuable as points ef entry because they are the only ones which possess direct rail communication with the Interior of China. They would be the natural objectives of any Ameri can amphibious attack which was seek ing a foothold on the Chinese coast, for one of the first objects of such a move would be to establish firm communica tion with the armies of the Chungking government. But the Japanese In opening the long stretch of railway from Peiping through Hankow to Canton have only solved the first part of their problem. What they are now engaged In capturing is not really a railway but rather a right of way. They must relay the rails, install signal equipment, yards, repair shops and roundhouses—all the essential oper ating equipment. They must find loco motives and cars from Manchuria or from their home Islands. All that they can, ef oourse, do In the owns of time. But then they-must keep the line open for continuous operation. That will be more difficult. We have observed how the Chinese surged back over the Peiping-Hankow line while the Japanese were preoccu pied with the capture of Loyang. In the vast territory south of the Yangtze River it will be still more difficult for the Japanese to guard the long thin line of railway, day and night, against the thousand-fold enterprises which the Chinese guerrillas, aided by the whole population of the countryside, can di rect against it. That is, if the Chinese do not lose heart. That is the danger, from the United Nations point of view. The Chinese people have suffered cruel losses and disappointments in this war. Of them most truly may it be said, that hope deferred maketh the heart sick. Their hopes have been so often deferred, that perhaps they are not to be blamed if they begin to believe that their day of deliverance will never come, or at least is still far off. It cannot mean very much to a Chinese inhabitant of a Japanese occupied town when he heart a report (which far all he knows may not be true) that American troops are storm ing Saipan or that most of the town of Myltkyina Is in Allied hands. * * m * These are things which are happening far away. He has heard of other things 'Which happened far away. He has heard of the fall of Singapore, of the battle of the Java Sea; he has heard day by day the insistent clamor of the Japanese propagandists that Japan has won the war, that Japanese is the permanent ovqglord of all East Asia, that there is for him no real hope save in “co-operation.” How can he realize the truth about the decline of Japanese fighting power and the enormous resurgence of British and American fighting power? How can he realise what the great Russian victory at Minsk, the Anglo-American landing in Normandy may mean to him, or to his Japanese oppressors? It is for this reason above all others that we must hope that the fryi of Vice President Wallace to 'Chungking has been successful in bringing about a clearer understanding of the truth, and a greater degree of political unity among the Chinese people as a whole. (eswtaM, lM^mw 1M ft it sai. mat Willkie Position Seen As Vital to GOP Influence on Independent Vote to Count, Stye Observer * By David Lawrenca Wendell Winkle’s piece in the political campaign of 1944 remains to be defined. To the Republicans who scoffed at Mr. Willkie and who still scoff at him as of no consequence politically, Mr. Willkie's position can’t possibly be a matter of any concern. They have written him off as inconsequential and without influence in the Republican P«rty. But to the independent voters who are not dyed-in-the-wool Republicans or Democrats and who reserve to them selves the right to make up their own minds after all the speeches have been made and all the evidence has been accumulated, the position of Mr. Willkie is of tremendous importance. It ought to be of importance, too, to Gov. Dewey and the Republican stra tegists, for surely they are not counting on trying to win the coming election with just the people who voted the Republican ticket in 1940. If they are, then obviously there are not enough Republicans to assure a majority in the electoral college. Mast Win .Independents. To win, Gov. Dewey must wean away from the 1940 Democratic vote enough independents and retain every one of the Republicans who voted for Mr. Willkie. How many of those who voted for Mr. Willkie in 1940 are party Republicans— men and women who intend to vote the Republican ticket no matter what the candidate says—and how many are in dependents is probably not known to anybody, but it may be surmised that the Nation's voters who are independent number a few million. And a few mil lion votes can swing a national election either way. The regular party men in the Re publican ranks art saying already that if Mr. Willkie Intends to stay in politics, he had better support the ticket and i campaign for it vigorously. If a polit ical party were a social club or an athletic team, then by ail the rules Mr. Willkie should suppress his protests, and make speeches for the ticket irrespective of whether he believes in either the nominee or the platform. XV JC UvUUUCOO Vi UC, iliac 11 imi . v» mniu doesn’t support the ticket this time, he will alienate the regular Republican organization even more than he has— if that’s possible. But it may well be that Mr. Willkie has finally reached that rare attitude among men in public life when he would rather be right than President, rather express his convci tions and exert an Influence on the affairs of his country than to accept the so-called obligations of party discipline or custom in the vague hope of winning a nomination or election for the presidency. Many a man in public life has made himself a martyr to a cause and his name has lived on in history—long after the names of men who actually became President have been forgotten. Wendell Willkie has a chance to do a service to the Nation and to the Republican party in particular by carrying on a public campaign that will hold Gov Dewey tightly to the first part of the plank on foreign policy in the platform and dis suade him from appeasing the isola tionists or nationalists in the party who wrote the second part of that plank. Harding Blunder. Back in 1920 Warren Harding fac«J in both directions and after his election turned his back on the pro-League of Nations Republicans, such as Charles Evans Hughes and Eilhu Root,/■whom many Republicans had followed into the Harding column in the sincere belief that even if the Covenant of League were not accepted a real "association of nations” would be offered in its place as the Republican platform promised. But when Mr. Harding was elected he declared the League dead and he never got behind any real substitute nor did he attempt to bring about a reconcili ation between the existing League and the “association of nations” which the American people were promised. A sec ond World War has come as a conse quence and tens of thousands of Ameri can boys are paying for that blunder with their lives. Wendell Willkie has a big job to do if he can forsake personal ambition and forget that there is a 1948 presidential contest ahead. If he does he can call a spade a spade in this campaign so that the country can make up its mind truly whether it is being asked to vote for a straddler or a positive force, a follower : of Gallup Poll trends or a leader of pub lic opinion. Gov. Dewey's speeches will furnish the answer. Mr. Willkie has congratulated Gov. Dewey on his “opportunity.” Presumably this means that Mr. Willkie, as a private citizen, along with millions of others, will wait to see between now and No vember what the Governor does' with his "opportunity.” (Reproduction Rishu Roorvod.) — Brief but Poignant From the Wichita Safi*. Vice President Wallace is telling the ’ Chinese to be brave. On his way home he should stop off In Alaska and show the Eskimos how to fish. » - ■ ... — Women Who Lie Awake So many women like awake these nights In this our war-swept world, brave sisterhood, Praying the God of Battles for their men. Staring into the dark with sleepless , eyes, Holding their soldiers doss with thoughts of love. Husbands and lovers, sons—where mag they be? Crossing what treacherous sea, what danger sane? Where, meeting winged death, high in the skies? So many women He awake and plead: “God, take care of mine and bring him home.” And J, who five and twenty years have worn My Odd Star proudly, think of one who died At Btlleau Wood, and join their Litany: HOod, keep them safe, these men for whom we pray!” But, Pother, if they may not more come home, Grant them safe bivouac with all the host Of gallant warriors who have gone before, And let the trumpets sound triumph antly, Let martial music ring with welcome tmy, As each ness here leys his weapons deem! A MASH ▼. OAKOTBSM.