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Guide for Readers Page. Amusements A-1Z Comics .B-lc-ii Editorials .A-6 Editor! Articles, A-7 Lost and Found, A-3 Finance .A-li Pace. Obituary .A-lt Radio .B-ll Society.B-3 Sports ...._A-8-8 Where to Go...B>< Woman’s Pace, B-S An Associated Press Newspaper 92d YEAR, No. 36,636. _WASHINGTON, D. C.t MONDAY, AUGUST 21, 1944—TWENTY-FOUR PAGES. ' ★★★ CltyHome DtHvery, Daily and Sunday BE /'tTTivrmC! lOo a Mo.. When 6 Sundays, »0c ® VJliJN 1 o. Bridgehead Set Up Across Seine, Opening Path to Robot Coast; Allied Flags Now Flying in Paris U.S.Tank Columns Advance on Both Sides of Capital BULLETIN. UNITED STATES 3d ARMY HEADQUARTERS UP). — The United States 3d Army stormed across the Seine today south east and northwest of Paris. One crossing was in the Fon tainebleau area, 35 miles southeast of Paris, and the other between Paris and Rouen. (Map on Page A-2.) By the Associated Press. SUPREME ALLIED HEAD QUARTERS, Aug. 21.—American | armored columns speared on both sides of Paris today and Allied flags were reported al ready flying in many parts of the historic capital as an under- j ground army staged a fierce re- j volt in anticipation of early lib eration. American tanks established a firm bridgehead across the Seine at: Mantes, 25 miles northwest of Paris, j opening a path to the flying bomb coast 90 miles farther north, but they were meeting heavy resistance; in that direction. Probing thrusts to the Seine in the vicinity of Corbell. Melun and Fontainbleau. points 15. 25 and 35 [ miles southeast of Paris put the Allies in a position to sweep com pletely around the city and toward the World War battlefields of Reims. Soissons and the Marne. Chateau Thierry on the Marne is 55 miles northeast of the 20-mile Allied front, southeast of Paris.; Soissons is 75 miles beyond Fon tainbleau, Reims is 85 miles be yond. Vanguard Near Versailles. Lt. Gen. George S. Patton's 3d Army vanguards were fighting in i the vicinity of Versailles. 10 miles from the heart of Paris, meeting only negligible resistance. i The German news agency, i DNB, said American reconnais sance forces were in the suburbs of Paris itself. > It was announced today that Gen. Patton's 3d Army in its sweep to Paris had captured 49.650 Germans, killed 11.025 and wounded 48.900— a total of 109,575. Now Gen. Patton’s invasion of the territory north of the Seine at End of War in Sight, Montgomery Says in Message to Troops By thf Associated Press. WITH BRITISH TROOPS IN FRANCE, Aug. 21.—Gen. Sir Bernard L. Montgomery told his troops tonight: "The end of the wai is in j sight. Let us finish off the business in record time.” Gen. Montgomery's special I message said the German armies in Northwest France had suffered a decisive defeat, "There will be many sur prises in store for the fleeing remnants," he asserted, adding that the victory had been "de finite, complete and decisive.” Mantes threatened new destruction of Germans caught in a 75-mile long corner below the bridgeless river. 10.000 Caught in Pockets. At least 10,000 men from the com bat elemnts of possibly 18 enemy divisions were caught in a succes sion of pockets west and east of Falaise and the total bag of Ger mans killed and captured was likely to total 36,000—equal to the number captured in the Cotentin Peninsula. While the Germans made wild efforts to break out of the original pocket, now reduced to an area about 6 by 10 miles, British and Americans were futting it to pieces. Occagnes, Sentilly, Bailleul and Goulet, all about 3 miles north of Argentan, were captured in these slashes. The Canadians were busily en gaged in punching a hole in the Seine corner to the east, where new pockets hiight be carved out. They crossed the Touques River in a 2 mile advance just south of Lisieux. Charging into the Allied bands; of steel, the Germans made two vio lent efforts to break out of these traps, one last night and the other, yesterday, field dispatches reported. All-Night Battle. Using about 70 tanks scraped up from the elements of five divisions, the Germans attacked from the westernmost pocket below Falaise in (See FRANCE, Page A-2.) Subs Sink Cruiser, 18 Other Jap Craft A Japanese light cruiser and an escort vessel were among 19 ships which the Navy Department today reported were sunk recently by American submarines stabbing deep into enemy waters in the Pacific and Far East. The list also in cluded a large tanker. In addition to the combatant ves sels and tanker, the torpedoed vessels included 3 medium-sized cargo transports, 11 medium-sized and 2 small cargo vessels. The sinkings brought to 35 the number of Japanese ships reported knocked out of the enemy's sea-borne supply lines this month. Since Pearl Harbor American submersibles have sunk, probably sunk and damaged 858 Japanese vessels. Of this total 706 have been reported sunk, SI probably sunk and 115 damaged. * * k r Second Wave of B-29s Sights Fires Raging in Kyushu Plahts , Four Super Forts Lost in Double Blow At Jap Homeland; 15 Fighters Downed (Map on Page A-4.) By the Associated Press. B-29 bombers in the second wave of yesterday’s double strike at Japan reported sighting the flames of destruction wrought I by the daylight flight of Super ; Fortresses while still a half hour ! from the industrial targets at Kyushu. Four of the huge bombers were lost to enemy action in the day raid and none in the night attack by the 20th Air Force. The important Yawata industrial section was the target of both flights, the first double blow of the war on the Japanese home islands. The American planes shot down 15 enemy fighters, while 13 were prob ably destroyed and 12 damaged. The text of communique No. 10 iTom headquarters of the 20th Air Force: “Super Fortresses of the 20th i Bomber Command in Sunday night's attack again hit Japanese industrial | targets in the Yawata area of the ! Japanese homeland island of Kyu ; shu following up the daylight attack. ! “Crews of the B-29’s on the night mission reported that they could see fires from the previous attack burning 30 minutes before arriving over the target. Bombing results were reported -in preliminary esti mates as fair. Enemy opposition was rather light and anti-aircraft fire was moderate and inaccurate. 15 Enemy Fighters Destroyed. “Planes making the daylight at tack met relatively strong fighter opposition and revised estimates of results showr 15 enemy fighter planes i destroyed, 13 pro~bably destroyed and (See'SUPER FORTR^SESTa^T Nazis Trying to Cross Seine Are Blasted By Allied Planes Four Principal Crossings Also Hammered in Low-Level Attacks By the Associated Press. LONDON, Aug. 21—RAF Mos quitos and Mitchells raced up and down the Seine River all last night, bombing and strafing Nazi river bank troop concen trations and barges struggling across the 200-yard water bar rier which impedes Germans fleeing Allied armies in France. The Nazis’ four principal crossings at Elbeuf, Duclair, Caudebec and Quillebeuf. were hammered in flare lit, tree-top level attacks as the record scourge from the skies today swept into its fifth day, despite handicapping weather. A line of barges extending for three-fourths of a mile and report edly salvaged from the abortive 1940 > campaign to invade England was blasted near Quillebeuf. American , fighter bombers in daylight and eve ning attacks knocked out 20 others. Many Vehicles Knocked Out. A simultaneous night-long attack , on the belt west of the Seine, j through which the beaten Nazis are streaming from the Falaise trap, ■ knocked out 136 vehicles and 16 j tanks to bring the day's total for j both the RAF and the American Air | Force to more than 350 vehicles and nearly 100 tanks. The original total barge force on which the Germans are depending for their miniature Dunkerque over the bridgeless river was estimated at 1,200 to 1,500. The Germans also have used hinged pontoon bridges, which swing buck against the shrub I shrouded river bank in the daytime, but these are very susceptible to bombing. The attacks are taking place a scant 25 miles down the Seine from the American bridgehead. In addition, the United States 9th Air Force fighter bombers and the 8th Fighter Command reported that the 10-day score up to Saturday night of German transport de stroyed or damaged included 979 locomotives, 8,500 railroad cars. 1,253 road vehicles and 281 armored vehicles. RAF Blasts 114 Tanks. RAF fighter bombers alorie re ported 114 tanks destroyed or dam aged yesterday. Four squadrons of rocket-firing Typhoons did a neat precision job, breaking up the German effort to smash out of the Falaise trap with an assault by 20 to 30 massed tanks toward Trun. Carefully avoiding the almost in terlocked Allied ground columns, the Typhoons destroyed 12 tanks and damaged 8 more. The Germans throw in light aerial opposition. Nine of their planes were shot down, while the RAF lost four planes from 861 sorties. Three Nazi Divisions Crushed by Soviets South of Warsaw Other Russians Yield Slightly to Germans On Baltic Front By the Associated Press. MOSCOW, Aug. 21.—Soviet forces have smashed three Nazi divisions in the Sandomierz sali- 1 ent below Warsaw, while other Red Army units have yielded slightly before costly German at- 1 tempts to rescue possibly 200,000 troops isolated on the Baltic front, a Russian communique announced today. In the Warsaw sector, mean-, while, Russian troops have driven : closer to Praga. suburb to the east of the city, and have captured some I vhal positions to the northeast, j front dispatches said. Marshal Ivan S. Konev’s 1st i Ukraine Army, thrusting up the .west bank of the Vistula, liquidated i the trapped Germans north of San-' domierz. “As the enemy refused to sur render. most of the encircled enemyi troops were killed." the Russian war bulletin declared. New Drive Possible. , The victory freed Konev's forces for a possible drive either southwest on the rail fortress of Krakow', north toward Warsaw, or directly west I across the Polish plains tow ard Ger man Silesia, which would snap the Polish capital's communication lines. The slight Red Army reverse oc icurred in the Jelgava sector near the ! Gulf of Riga, where 1*4 Gentian tanks and self-propelled guns were i reported knocked out. | (Today's German communique said Nazi tank formations push ing west of Tukums in Latvia had crashed through the Soviet cor . ridor to the Baltic west of Riga and "re-established temporarily lost contact” with the 30 or so German divisions in Latvia and Estonia. The force of up to 300.000 Ger mans were severed from land communications several weeks ago. The Germans said a naval flotilla aided the tank force.) In Estonia, Gen. Ivan Maslen nikov s 3d Baltic Army, capturing more than 150 populated places, drove to within 7 miles of Tartu on the Tallinn-Riga railway. 55 Miles From Riga. Below the Estonian sector In Latvia Gen. Andrei Yeremenko's 2d Baltic Army, sweeping up more than 70 places, advanced to within 55 miles east of Riga with the capture of Erglin on the Madona Riga railway. Maslennikov and Yeremenko w'ere hammering back the snared Nazis in the Baltics, cut off by Gen. Ivan C. Bagramians 1st Baltic Army drive which reached the Baltic Spa 25 miles west of Riga several weeks ago. Ever since this wedge was estab lished beyond Riga the Nazis have been hurling counterattacks in an (See RUSSIA, Page A-*/) Toulon Entered \ As 7th Army Extends Gains Forward Elements Are Only 9 Miles From Marseille FRENCH PATRIOTS TAKE TOU LOUSE, now hold third of France. Page A-2 BULLETIN. ROME (A*>.—American forces have captured Valensole, 50 airline miles north of Toulon. The United States 7th Army has entered Toulon. Forward elements are 9 miles from Marseille. On the coast east of Toulon the French captured the enemy stronghold of Re don and Hotel de Golf, a mile from Hyeres. By the Associated Press. ROME, Aug. 21.—Hard-driving French troops virtually encir cled Toulon, breaking through to within 3 miles of the naval base, while American infantry, within 15 airline miles of Mar seille. fanned out today through the Durance Valley and headed for the Rhone against disor ganized enemy resistance. The Americans sped forward on both sides of the town of Pertuis, 11 miles north of Aix en Provence across the Durance River, and joined French patriots who had sur rounded Nazi troops within the town. Another of Lt. Gen. Alexander M. Patch s 7th Army American columns charged on several miles to the northeast of Aix, key junction of seven highways, 15 miles north of Marseille. Another Unit in Outskirts. Another unit was last reported in the outskirts of Aix and today pos sibly had completed occupation of that town. i The German radio said Allied warships shelled Toulon yester day. It claimed hits on one of • several" battleships and one of nine cruisers in the attacking fleet by Nazi shore batteries, which, it was claimed, also struck a destroyer andjtorpedo boat. 'The German news agency Transocean said La Ciotat, about halfway between Marseille and Toulon, was "heavily shelled by an Allied invasion fleet and was also bombed from the air.” The agency speculated that “this may indicate an Allied landing here.”) A dispatch from Joseph Dynan. Associated Press correspondent with French troops driving on Toulon, said French Commandos, joined with patriot forces and former mem bers of the French Navy, were dom inating the Faron area just north of Toulon. The Nazi garrison in Hyeres, about 8'2 miles east of Toulon, was vir tually isolated, Mr. Dynan said. No Indication of Real Stand. The Germans have given no indi cation of strength or determination to make a real stand in or near the mouth of the Rhone Valley, the natural invasion highway for a juncture with Gen. Eisenhower in Northern France. Disorganization among the Ger mans indicated the Nazi command might be resigned to eventual liquidation of the entire area and can hope to salvage only a portion of its beleaguered units. The eastern sector of the bridge head facing toward Cannes and the Italian frontier was reported "mostly stable,” without reference to new gains. In most sectors of the rapidly ex panding Southern France bridge head, the 7th Army followed the effective tactic of by-passing enemy strong points. The count of prisoners passed the 14,000 mark and more were coming in hourly. German General Captured. Among the newest captives were Maj. Gen. Hans Schubert and his entire staff of 6 officers and 30 men. Gen. Schubert, chief of a district liaison staff, was described <See RIVIERA, Page A-2J IkkpoutJT PRIWE CONFERENCE} NO ADMITTANCE. Uninvited Visitors to the Peace Discussions Allied Warships Shell Remaining Defenses In Bayonne Area German Forces Pull Out South of Port, Leaving Installations in Ruins By the Associated Press. IRUN. Spain, Aug. 21.—Three light Allied cruisers shelled al most nonexistent German de fenses in the Bayonne area of Southwestern France before dawn today. Spanish residents of this border town 18 miles to the south had a grandstand seat. The cruisers which first patrolled the coast south of Bordeaux evi dently were feeling out German de fenses. but drew only an occasional reply from two or three coastal bat teries near Bayonne. , Germans Pull Out. South of Bayonne. Hitler's At lantic Wall no longer exists, for the Germans pulled out last night, leav ing their defense works in ruins. Meanwhile, an American motor ized column was reported to have passed through Angouleme. 130 giiles south of Nantes on the Loire River ! and 165 miles northwest of Bayonne, without encountering resistance on i its way toward the Spanish frontier. The three Allied warships were plainly visible from the Spanish coast when the fog veiling their approach had lifted. Shelling Lasts Half Hour. They shelled the coast line me : tnodically for more than half an I hour. Splashes of shells in the j war around the cruisers from the light German counterflre were also , seen, but no hits were observed. The warships eeased fire about ,7:45 a m. and disappeared north ward. but heavy explosions from the 1 Bayonne region continued as the last remaining Germans apparently | went on with a systematic destruc tion of their fortifications. Japanese Cruiser Sunk Off China by U. S. Bomber By the Associated Press. CHUNGKING. Aug. 21—A Lib erator bomber of the United States j 14th Air Force has sunk a 14,200 | ton Japanese cruiser in a sweep off the Chinese coast east of Hong Kong, Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell's headquarters announced today. The attack took place Saturday, the announcement said. The Liberator made four bombing runs over the cruiser, scoring three direct hits and one probable, the an nouncement said, and "on the fourth run the crew saw the enemy war ship sink.” Invasion Veteran Killed By Hit-and-Run Driver By the Associated Press. NEW YORK, Aug. 21.—A 23-.vear old veteran of the Normandy inva sion died yesterday—victim of an automobile accident on a quiet road in Long Island. He was Pvt. Virgil T. Peavler of Mooreland, Ind. Just 30 hours ear lier he had been returned to this country by ambulance plane to re cuperate at a Long Island hospital from injuries received In a motor cycle crash near Cherbourg. Associates Say Nelson's Trip To China May Be Cut Short Forecast Return Within a Month as Signs Of Production, Reconversion Problems Grow By JAMES Y. NEWTON. Associates predicted today that Chairman Donald M. Nelson of the War Production Board will return from China within- a month, as signs multiplied that neither war production nor the reconversion program are run ning smoothly. Friends of the production chief said that if the White House an nouncement was correct—that Mr. Nelson’s mission to Chungking with Mai. Gen. Patrick J. Hurley would require months to complete—it would amount to virtual exile for him so far as his leadership in production and reconversion mat ters are concerned. They said cir cumstances would not permit Mr. Nelson to be away from his desk nearly that long. Some officials said President Roosevelt made a political blunder in removing Mr. Nelson from his job at this time. They pointed out that Gov. Dewey has made re conversion a major campaign issue and that the China mission will not hurt the governor's case. In Mr. Nelson’s absence, WPB and reconversion will be under the com-: mand of Charles E. Wilson, WPB' vice chairman, who has strongly 1 opposed most of the Nelson plans! for early and gradual changeover i of industry from war to peace. ! Members of Congress and asso ciates of Mr. Nelson expressed sur Iprise at his new assignment just ' 'See NELSON, Page A-4~> i Pearl Harbor Facts Will 'Shock World/ Church Tells House Blames Washington; Roberts Report Called 'Political Document' By the Associated Press. Representative Church, Re publican, of Illinois told the House today that the full story of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor ‘Vlll* shock the world” and added: , “Washington was to blame." Mr Church spoke in connection I with a public letter addressed to1 ■ Senator Truman. Democrat, of Mis ! souri by Rear Admiral Husband E. Kimmel who was removed from i ! active command after the Pearl Harbor disaster. Admiral Kimmel told Senator Truman a report on! the attack prepared under the chair manship of Associate Justice Owen J. Roberts of the Supreme Court i "does not contain the basic truths of the Pearl Harbor catastrophe” I and that a magazine article by Sen i ator Truman contained “false state- ! ! ments." Mr. Church told the House that the lieutenant at Pearl Harbor who. when informed by a private that detectors indicated planes were ap proaching, told the soldier to forget it, was Kermit A. Tyler. Mr. Church said that since Pearl Harbor Tyler has been made a lieutenant colonel. “Political Document.” “The Roberts report is nothing more than a political document,” (See KIMMEL, Page A-4.) Late Bulletin OWbA Time Limit Voted The House Ways and Means Committee today voted tenta tively to limit to one year after the war the life of the Office of War Mobilization and Re conversion. Senate-approved legislation, provides two years of Government assistance for reconversion processes. The committee’s action is subject to a later formal vote. (Earlier Story on Page A-3.) Willkie and Dulles i Will Confer Today On Security Plans Neutralization of Ruhr Is 'Must' Objective, Dewey Declares By J. A. O LEARY, Star 8tmff Corresponden*. NEW YORK CITY. Aug. 21.— Although Wendell L. Willkie is due to meet here today with Gov. Thomas E. Dewey s spokesman on international affairs, John Foster Dulles, this move toward co-operation between the two Republican leaders on world peace appears to have left un answered the question of what part Mr Willkie will take in this year's presidential campaign. This development overshadowed Gov. Dewey's proposal to neutralize the Ruhr Valley, industrial heart of Germany, after the war. The New York Governor revealed i in Albany yesterday that he invited! Mr. Willkie, 1940 Republican stand-! ard bearer, to Join him in a discus sion of foreign policy over the week end, but the exchange of telegrams was confined to international prob lems and threw no light on Mr. Willkie s campaign plans. Mr. Dulles told reporters before he! left Albany last night he hoped there could be a joint statement of views after the conversations. He will go to Washington tomorrow to give Secretary Hull a first-hand account of Gov. Dewey's foreign policy be liefs. Mr. Dulles also planned to confer with Congress members. Governor's Objective. In a telephone conversation with a reporter, Mr. Willkie seemed less optimistic of concrete results. He said he would not know until he heard Mr. Dulles fully whether there would be a basis for a joint pro nouncement. Gov. Dewey told reporters at a news conference yesterday his ob jective in speaking out at this time on foreign policy was “to see that every shade of opinion is represented and the whole American people fully (See WILLKIE, Page A-10.) Terrible Slaughter of Germans Goes On as Tolling Bells Call Norman Peasants to Mass By THOMAS R. HENRY, Star War Correspondent. NEAR CHAMBOIS, UPPER NOR MANDY, Aug. 20 (Sunday).— Through most of the day I have witnessed a scene of slaughter un paralleled in this war. I am at a \ (artillery observation post on a hill,* side covered with an apple orchard. Just below, the bell of the old gray steepled church is calling the Nor [man peasants to Sunday mass in | the midst of the cannons’ roar. I Just below us, less than two miles away, is a level valley four miles wide, bounded by a range of black hills beyond. Through the valley a straight road runs northeast to the crossroads town of Chambois. Along this road at dawn German tanks, trucks, command cars, ammunition and troop carriers were coming bumper-to-bumper from the south west as far as the eye could see. Among *them were columns of marching men, columns on bicycles. They were dashing for Chambois, which they believed was a narrow, unclosed gate out of an Allied trap / to safety. They don't know that Chambois was taken last night by the juncture of American infantry and Polish tanks closing the trap. Artillery Man's Paradise. On this road many regiments of American artillery, lined up behind this observation post, were pouring a hail of death every minute during the morning. Several hundred tons of shells of all sorts were poured on this column. Perfect observation made it an artillery man’s paradise. Hardly any shells failed to find their mark. The reports of the guns behind were followed by geysers of flame and great clouds *of black smoke rising from the road. The latter means we have hit a gasoline wagon. Most of the time the valley was under a great black smoke cloud. The enemy have taken shelter in I the woods and ditches as the trans ports are smashed. One can see them through field glasses. Hun dreds of transports are burning. Enemy soldiers are rushing about wildly. Below. American infantry less than 500 yards from the road is pouring into them a hail of mor tar and machinegun fire. The Germans have no time to Set up guns. They run in one direction and then in another like rats in a trap. Prom the hills on the other side Polish tanks are pouring fire. Every now and then Germans crawl through the wheat fields braving death and holding aloft white shirts or underwear as flags of truce. Nasi Hospital Surrenders. When these are seen the artillery fire is shifted, allowing them to make the American lines. Shortly before noon all fire is lifted as a German doctor crawls through and contacts the Americans, saying that a field hospital with more than 300 wounded is caught helpless under fire and wants to surrender. Arrangements are made for a temporary armistice. The hospital, with more than 90 vehicles, comes out. The ambulances are wrapped in Red Cross flags. But most of the wounded are piled on floors of trucks. The hospital is set up next to the American field hospital and more than 2,000 prisoners taken during the morning are combed for medical personnel. Henceforth all German wounded coming into American hanfls are taken to this hospital and tended by their own doctors. While the fire is suspended other prisoners are fcent in with an ofTer to the general commanding an in fantry division, one of the outfits in the pocket, that the Americans would leave a mile-wide path out of the valley free of fire for an hour if he wanted to bring out all his troops to surrender. 20,000 Naxis Trapped. The emissaries were covered with machine gups all the way in. But they did not return from the valley slaughterhouse. The Germans are surrendering only in small groups of 20 to 100 at a time. Evidently the German general ordered a fight to death. This afternoon fierce shelling re sumes. It is belidved that there are' about 20,000 troops in the traps, with I vast amounts of supplies. They are all part of Gen. Guenther von Kluge's 7th Army. This group ahead is under the di rect command of Gen. Hauaser of a German paratrooper division, who himself evidently escaped from the trap last night before the closing of the Chambois gap. His orderly and a first sergeant in the following car were captured. Last night the German general who re fused to surrender today also tried to escape with his staff, riding in five tanks. But they were turned back by artillery fire. Some enlisted men were captured. Slawghter Is Terrible. The trap was closed by troops with a special hatred of the German com mander. “That's for the general,” is a common remark as Long Tom shells explode in the valley. Pris oners report the slaughter in the valley is terrible. They crawl out dazed and covered with blood. All 4 are shaking ana some are speechless. It is hard to imagine anything re maining long alive under such fire. The Are falls off early in the evening. All day long I saw only two German return artillery shots, probably from mortars. There was a dramatic incident this evening when Polish tanks which came in from the north cut off from supplies behind and needing ammu nition. An American truck convoy loaded with ammunition and gaso line made a dash througlr Chambois under German artillery fire to aid our Allies. And there was a dramatic moment last night when Pole and American patrols met and shook hands in Chambois. It meant the inner trap was closed. The kill falls appropriately to a lot of men who have suffered prob ably the most severe casualties of any American outfit to date. They now have Jerry in a noose after a classic march of close to 300 miles in a near circle—fighting most of the way and determined on revenge. Parley Speakers Pledge Voice to little Nations" All Agree on Usel Of Military Power To Curb Aggressors (Text of Hull’s Remarks, Page A-9.) By JOSEPH H. BAIRD. . Th£ *?°pe of a peaceful world in which aggressors of the Nazi Fascist type would be kept'sub jugated by the united military power of orderly nations was of fered today as the postwar se curity conversations opened at Dumbarton Oaks. In their opening talks the* heads of the American, Russian and Brit ish delegations agreed that to be successful the postwar peace organ ization would have to be based on full rights for smaller peace-loving nations. As soon as the present conversa tions are concluded, the Anglo American nations will start talks with China. These parleys are to be followed by a United Nations con ference next fall. Hull Sounds Keynote. Secretary of State Hull sounded this keynote of the conference: “It is generally agreed that any peace and security organization ! would surely fail unless backed by , force to be used ultimately in case of failure of all other means for the maintenance of peace, j "That force must be available promptly, in adequate measure, and with certainty.” Mr. Hulls words found immedi ate support from Sir Alexander Cadogan. head of the British dele gation. who declared: “* * * It is only by the victors re maining both strong and united that peace can be preserved.” Gromyko Sees Early Victory. The Soviet spokesman. Ambassa dor Andrei A. Gromyko, predicting success of the gathering declared that “freedom and independence’’ for the peoples of the world could be preserved only if the future inter national security organization uses “effectively all resources in posses sion oi members ot the organiza tion." . The Soviet Ambassador predicted that victory “was not far off.” The combined efforts of all the freedom loving countries of the world" will force Nazi Germany to her knees," he declared. The unity of the Allies now being displayed in the struggle against Germany was taken by the Ambassador as a "guarantee that the present exploratory discussions will bring positive results." Both the American and British spokesmen agreed that real peace must be based not on a mere ab sence of wir but also on a world system under which, as Sir Alex ander put it, "freedom from fear and freedom from want must, so far as hlman agency can contrive it, move forward simultaneously.” Assurance was given the con ferees by the British spokesman that preconference exchanges of ideas among the three powers had convinced him that they already agreed on many important points. He urged them to work rapidly, so as to have a plan ready when peace dawns in Europe. Session Open to Press. The opening meeting today was held in the former music room of the ancient Georgian mansion, which has been loaned to the conference by Harvard University, its owners. Today's session was open to the press. Hereafter the delegates will meet secretly, their isolation main tained by American military police who have been posted at all en trances to the estate. More than 200 persons, rites&lf newspapermen and photographers, were gathered in the conference room as the delegates took their seats around the table at 10:30 a.m. Mr. Hull, Undersecretary of State Stettinius, Sir Alexander. Ambassa dor Gromyko and the Earl of Hali fax. the British Ambassador, sat at the head of the table. Arranged halfway down the U-shaped table on the right of these dignitaries were members of the Russian delegation. The British representatives were similarly placed on the left side. The American representatives occupied the ends on either side of the table. Mr. Hull spoke first, extending a welcome to the British and Russians on behalf of President Roosevelt. Gromyko Speaks in English. He was followed by Mr. Gromyko, _ who spoke slowly but distinctly in' English, responding to the secw? tary’s welcome and declaring Russia solidarity with its allies and plans to extend present co-operation in the postwar world. Sir Alexander was the last to speak. While the three statesmen were speaking a large battery of moving cameras, placed in an alcove off the room, ground away steadily re cording the scene for history. More (See SECURITY, Page A-5.) Four Cars of Explosives Derailed Near Baltimore BALTIMORE, Aug. 21. —Eight Pennsylvania Railroad freight cars, four of them loaded with explosives, were derailed last night at Cheseco Park, north of here. Main freight lines were tied up more than an hour while wrecking crews got the cars back on a siding, where they had been switched from a freight train. Bar Exam Results m The names of the 70 candi dates who passed their exam inations for admission to the bar of District Court will be found on page A-9. The list was made public today by the Committee on Admissions and Grievances, District Court, on the basis of the bar examination held June 26-28.