Newspaper Page Text
ftp ftening jH«*
with lultMbruu HIUn. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. WASHINGTON, D. C. The EveninK Star Newipaper Company. Mate Office: llth St. gna FennivlvapM tn. New York Office: V10 E«»t 42d St. CSUcmo Office: 436 North Mich lean At*. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitaa Area. SRetnUr Edition 4 lulm 8 Sandora. earn* and Sundar. etc per mo BOcpermo e Evening Star- 60c per month e Sundar Star 10c Per copy „ Night final Edition. 4 Bandar*. 5 Bandar*. Night Pinal and Sundar 80c mo. $1.00 mo. Night Pinal Star_ 65c per month Outside of Metropolitan Area. Delivered hr terrier. Evening and Sundar Star.?$l*0O mo' *$**10 mo' The Evening star- eOc per month The Sundar Star_ 10c per eopr Rate* by Mall—Payable In Advance. Anywhere tn United Stata*. Evening and Sundar AW B: &n,e gft::::: ;8 |5 Telephone National 6000. Entered at the Poat Office. Waahlncton. D. 0.. a* aecond-clau mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Auoclated Pre*« lg eielualvelr entitled to toe use lor republication of all newt dispatches credited to It or not otherwise credited In thle W*r1.lKd ai*° to* local news published herein. AU right* of publication of (pecial dlspatehai herein also are reserved,_ A—10 WEDNESDAY, September 20,1044 KKESXISSSSESEESHESaMESSSSSSSaBESSSBBMHB Recorder of Deeds In his first administration Presi dent Wilson obtained the resigna tion of the Republican incumbent of the office of recorder of deeds, H. L. Johnson, a Georgia Negro. The vacancy was left unfilled for two years, which did not affect the run ning of the office machinery. For in the District of Columbia the re corder of deeds is a title conferred on a useful politician and carries no real implication of public service. The office would run itself—with or without a recorder of deeds. In 1916 local Democrats called to the President’s attention a plank in the Baltimore platform pledging “home rule” for the District of Co lumbia and President Wilson broke away from a well-established prece dent and appointed a Washington man, John F. Costello, long a Democratic national committeeman from the District. While President Cleveland established the custom of reserving the job for a Negro—he appointed Frederick Douglass—Mr. Wilson was evidently unable to find a Negro from the District whose claims to this political reward were comparable with those advanced by Mr. Costello, a popular and able worker for many years in the Demo cratic party. The Senate probably will confirm President Roosevelt's appointee, the Reverend Marshall L. Shepard of Philadelphia, another deserving Negro Democrat, despite the pro tests of Republican members of the Senate District Committee. They object to Chairman Bilbo's informal method of forwarding the nominee’s approval to the Senate from a Sen ate District Committee which never met to consider it and whose chair man, absent from the Capitol, exer cised the right of voting the proxies he held from his Democratic col leagues on the committee. They also say that the job should go to a Washingtonian, which is true. But being outnumbered in a political campaign year, the protest of these Republican members of the commit tee is not likely to be sustained. The real reform which should be pushed in connection with the re corder of deed^ is to remove the office from politics, put it under the District Commissioners, who, under the law, are really responsible for its efficient functioning, and relieve the voteless District of Columbia tax payers from having to pay the freight for maintaining deserving alien politicians in the style to which they have become accustomed. It is improbable that this reform will come at this particular time. It probably will come later from the appropriations committees of Con gress, who are becoming more re sentful each year of the unique status which politics has conferred on this office. It is a relic of the spoils system which is utterly out of place under modern conceptions of the obligations of public office. The recorder of deeds shoulfi be se lected by the Commissioners under the merit system. The generous salary which goes with the job. paid for by local taxpayers lacking any voice in their Government, should reward a deserving public servant rather than a deserving politician. PAC Communists Earl Browder’s statement to a House committee that some mem bers of the dissolved Communist party have affiliated with the CIO Political Action Committee reveals nothing that is new. It has been a matter of common knowledge that the membership of the PAC includes Communists, just as every one knows that the Communist Political Asso ciation, successor to the Communist party, has been working diligently for the re-election of President Roosevelt. There can be no reasonable ob jection to this. The Communists have a right to support any one they please, and the fact that they have thrown their support to the Democratic ticket in this election merely shows that they have the good sense to recognize the futility of their past political efforts in be half of a candidate of their own. What is interesting is the unwill ingness of most Communists, includ ing those on the PAC, to permit themselves to be identified as Com munists. Mr. Browder told the House committee that he would not identify these individiuals, that it was up to them to disclose their Communist affiliations if they chose to do so. But neither the PAC nor the Communists affiliated with it have chosen to make this disclosure. The PAC has become a real issue in this campaign, yet the voters, a vast majority of them being opposed to Communism and all its works, have no way of knowing how many Communists belong to this CIO po litical agency or how great their influence may be. That is a con dition which is not apt to endear the labor politicians to the elec torate, nor is it calculated to en hance the effectiveness of the PAC as a political instrument in this campaign. Finland's Turnabout , The amazing shifts which this war is producing in both diplomacy and popular sentiment is strikingly illustrated by the current trans formation in Finland. Moscow’s announcement that Helsinki has ac cepted the armistice terms comes almost as an anticlimax, because in the brief period since the beginning of armistice negotiations there has come a rupture between Finland and Germany that has ranged those very recent allies against each other in armed hostilities which may soon be formalized by a Finnish declara tion of war. For that rupture Berlin is wholly to blame. Finland relied on prom ises of German aid and braved the wrath of Soviet Russia until it be came obvious that Germany could send no effective help and that the Finns would be left isolatedly in the lurch. Thereupon Finland bowed to the inevitable. But even then the Finns did not callously betray the Germans in their coun try, because they obtained Moscow’s permission to allow the German forces in Finland to withdraw within a short but practicable period. In stead of 'complying, however, the Germans stood pat and even tried to seize strategic points occupied by Finnish troops. The Finns resisted successfully, and fighting is spread ing, with German reprisals upon Finnish civilians and property. Thus a state of undeclared war exists. ornce it is impossible for a small and exhausted country like Finland to fight both sides, and since the German forces in Finland are large, especially in the north, the obvious answer of the Finns to German ag gression is to call in the Russians to help them finish the job. This would indeed mark a psychological as well as a diplomatic turnabout! For generations the Finnish people have looked upon Russia as the hereditary enemy and have feared as nothing else the presence of Rus sian troops on Finnish soil. On the other hand, the Finns were grateful to Germany for having aided them to expel the Russians and establish their independence toward the close of the First World War. This anti Russian and pro-German attitude of the Finns motivated in large part Russian severity towards Fin land. But. if a permanent change in Finnish national psychology oc curs. such severity will no longer be needed, and Moscow’s diplomacy may be subtle enough to take ad vantage of that fact. So, whatever the armistice terms may prove to be, when all the conditions become known, the eventual peace could be much milder than they would indi cate. fSuch an outcome would be beneficial to the entire postwar setup in the Baltic. It .is therefore to be hoped that it may come to pass. Isaiah to Hitler A Nazi newspaper grimly admits that “the hammer of destiny Is striking heavily against us” and that "the wind has changed into a storm that sweeps heavily upon us.” And from another source—perhaps not too reliable—it”*is reported that Hitler, in a mood of hopelessness, has immersed himself in a study of the gentle Buddhist doctrine advo cating pity and kindliness as a means to salvation. It is a question whether the Fuehrer, whose iron tyranny has been based on principles antithetical to Christianity, ever paid much at tention to the Bible. If he had. and if he had absorbed some of its warnings and wisdom, he might well have developed differently, and Germany and the world might now be the happier for it. Be that as it may, however, in these last days of his, he should find Isaiah far more pertinent than Buddha, for the fiery words of the ancient prophet seem singularly apposite to the hour, especially such words as these: Your country is desolaie; your cities are burned with fire; your land, strangers devour it in your presence * * * And what will ye do in the dav of visitation and in the desolation which shall come from far? to whom will ye flee for help? and where will ye leave your glory? • • • They come from a far country, from the end of heaven, even the Lord, and the weapons of his Indignation, to de stroy the whole land. Howl ye; for the day of the Lord is at hand • * • Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee. How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! • • • They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms: that made the world as a wilderness and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners? * • • Stand now with thine enchant ments, and with the multitude of thy sorceries, wherein thou hast labored fro* thy youth * • • Let now the astrologers, the stargazers, the monthly prognosticators, stand up and save thee from these things that shall come upon thee. Behold, they shall be as stubble; and the Are shall burn them; they shall not de liver themselves from the power of the flame • • • Thus shall they be unto thee with whom thou hast labored, even thy merchants, from thy youth: they shall wander every one to his quarter; none shall save thee. Isaiah, of course, like most of the Bible, offers passages applicable to all men and all nations, but at this particular point in history, his words seem to be addressed directly to Hitler, the more so when they speak of mortals who presume to place themselves beyond good and evil, above the laws of God “Who hath measured out the waters in the hollow of his hand” and "sitteth upon the circle of the earth.” Close to his end now, the master of Berchtesgaden must have a new insight into the meaning of “vanity of vanities, all is vanity,” and “Woe to the crown of pride.” Clothing Campaign The Most Reverend Michael J. Curley, Archbishop of Baltimore and Washington, has asked the pastors of all churches within his jurisdic tion to appeal to their people for donations of clothing for the needy populations of the liberated zones ^ff Europe. He is sponsoring the Cath olic aspect of this important cam paign in co-operation with the United Nations Relief and Rehabili tation Administration. With winter “Just around the corner,” thousands of men, women and children in Italy, France, Belgium and Holland are in distress for garments which Americans readily can spare. Cloth ing for small children and infants especially is wanted. So simple and obvious a cause requires no argument. Photographs of civilians*in the areas freed by Allied troops have appeared in news papers throughout the United States, showing people of all ages literally in tatters. It is for aid for such unfortunates that Archbishop Curley petitions his flock. But members of other religious groups than his own likewise are invited to help. A col lection center will be named in every Catholic parish. Meanwhile, Pro testant and Jewish groups likewise are setting up receiving stations to which bundles may be delivered, be ginning Monday. The active assist ance of everybody is desired. There is no denominational difficulty about the Sermon on the Mount of Olives, wherein the Lord declared; “Inas much as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto Me.” Postmaster General Frank C. Walker continues to turn a deaf ear to the Red Cross plea for a postage stamp in aid of the plasma campaign. The design is ready and collectors are prepared to pay the expenses of such an issue. Perhaps the Nation’s number one philatelist ought to intervene in the matter. The Navy flyer who died on a raft in the Pacific thinking of his moth er's cooking was just “one of the boys’’—millions of ’em—who ordi narily get enough rations on the fighting front and yet always are hungry. What they want no GI kitchen can prepare. This and That By Charles E. Traceivell. “DAVENPORT STREET. ! “Dear Sir: "Apropos of blue jays—would like to relate what I noticed the other day. "There was a baby sparrow, rather weak, sitting on top of some moistened bread and eating, when our special Joy, 'Swick.'’ our blue jay. came down to eat. "Will you believe me when I *ay he sa'^bout 5 inches from the food, appar ently waiting—finally taking a few crumbs that were at, his feet—and never went near the main dinner where the baby sparrow was roosting? "He merely hung around as it were for a while, and then left. "Swick, by the way, talks to me often, with many different tones, sometimes rather fussy and other times more in the lullaby vein. “Someimes he brings his food to a bough just outside my window, holding the food with one foot and looking at me so wisely. "I am compiling your column and have what I think is the most wonder ■ ful nature study to be had. Many thanks. “Sincerely, L. E.” Here is more proof, if more were needed, that the blue jay Ls not the bad bird which he sometimes is painted. He ls a real American, native bird from the deep forests, a pioneer, and yet a resident of towm and city. • We have seen him in the downtown parks and bands of him in the suburbs. Hjs distribution is wide, so that everv upright two-legged creature knows him. Likewise the creatures which go on i four legs are aware of his bold and jaunty demeanor, and know that he is I not a bird to be fooled with. Horizontal two-legged creatures—the birds—know him as a friend. He hides bits of food for them to find. He warns them of the approach of hawks and Joins with others in shrieking at and thus driving away such marauders as may be about. All in all, the forest folk welcome him. They would be amazed, in most cases, if they could know that.the vertical two leggers—human beings—often speak of him as a terror to other birds. There are specimen jays, of course, which do harm to others, especially t,o th,’ir fledglings and eggs, but this is true of many other species. A bold, strong bird, it is perhaps not to be wondered at that now and then an outlaw develops among them. The human race, after centuries of educa tion, has not been able to end outlaw ism. Alongside the studious, kindly man is the primitive man. often quite as well dressed, with just as "slick” hair. Every one has noticed how often the criminal, especially the young criminal, is good looking, in the ordinary sense of the word, and how his hair is as thick and glossy and as well kept as that of the gentle, if not more so. No doubt we should not be too severe on the jay. because after all he is only a bird, without the benefit of education, as many know it. The Jay is peculiarly an American partaking In some respects of the facial appearance of the Indian. What a shame it ls, that our native redmen were called Indians! They have no more to do with India than we have. The name of Aztecs would be a better one, perhaps That, at least, is real American. But even “American” Is not a native word. alas. So no doubt we will have to get along with “Indian” the best we can. We like to picture the blue jay as an Indian brave, shouting hus head off in the joy of native pride and vigor. Add to him the cardinal and the robin and you have a trio of native birds of which any land might be proud. The jay will always be the delight of special souls who appreciate beauty combined with boldness and who understand the peculiar rightness of this bird in his setting. No living creature is more ap propriate In his setting nor more Amer ican than the bfaa jay. (*: - / Letters to The Star Members of WASP Defended Against Alleged Discrimination To the editor of The Star: This letter is an answer to your edi torial, “Are They Needed?” After reading all of the available ma terial regarding the recent WASP legis lation, we have come to the conclusion that the proceedings were most unfair to the woman pilots. To begin with, the bill had everything in its favor. It provided for the mili tarization of female pilots, a group of hard-working, patriotic, American wom en who have offered their services and their lives for their country and who have proved themselves successful in every type of aerial work where they have been tested. The bill was intro duced by Representative John M. Cos tello of California, a highly respected and competent legislator; it had the full backing of the military in the person of Gen. Arnold; it had the unanimous vote of the Military Affairs Committee and a favorable commerft by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson. In spite of all this, the bill was defeated. The issue became badly confused. Certainly the debate was not based on the merits and achievements of the WASP. Instead, Congress chose to take up the entire period with a discussion of the problems of a group of male civilian pilots in an effort to determine whether they had been fairly treated. Unreasonable accusations • were made against the women. The bill was referred to as a “society measure” and a “glamour bill.” There was obviously no thought behind these remarks. “Glamour” never passed a flight test for any woman and no inter pretation of the word “society” ever helped a woman to learn and retain information to enable her successfully to complete a written test on technical ground school subjects. These gentle men could know nothing of the installa tion at Avenger Field, or of the work performed by the pilots after gradua tion. The women who eventually earn their wings put in approximately seven months of good, hard work. When they have finished the course they are pre pared to perform the jobs for which they were trained. We also would like to mention the criticism one gentleman made against taking stenographers and beauty opera tors and making pilots of them. Since the time they entered the field, women from all walks of life have made ex cellent pilots. Why should they be con sidered any less capable of piloting an airplane than a boy with experience as a grocery clerk? Ordinarily, we would not consider such remarks worthy of denial, but we mention them here to stress the unreasonableness of the de bate. The WASP have earned and deserve a dignified discussion of their services. It is true that the training of women started as an experiment. It was not known whether women could handle military aircraft, if the experiment proved a success, the intention was to take the woman pilots into the Army Air Forces. If the women had failed, it would be a different story; but the pro gram was unbelievably successful. When the time came to round out the experi ment, to militarize the female pilots, Congress refused to do so, undeniably showing discrimination against women. 8ome of the things that should be considered regarding the WASP are: They have done their work well and, by operating under Army orders, ac tually have served as part of the Army Air Forces: they are the only group of civilian men or women carrying out full time military duties with the armed forces as civilians. Congress has pro vided every branch of the armed forces except the Air Corps with a women s auxiliary: it has voted in favor of almost every other request made by our war leaders in this time of national crisis. Tcdav there are facilities for training women in almost any type of war work they desire except flying. Whether immediate further training of women is necessary is a question that should be left to the discretion of the War Department—the war leaders. So far, they have been capable of ascer taining their needs. We do not believe we now should dictate their needs to them. One report on the WASP points out that their militarization is not all in fav^r of the female pilots. It is de sirable in the interest of the air forces in that it would prevent resignations, give needed controls and make for uni formity and efficiency of operation. The things to keep in mind in con nection with the WASP are these; They are needed until declared unnecessary by the War Department; they deserve to be recognized as a definite part of the Army Air Forces, under which they have served exceptionally well. We aie not familiar with govern mental procedure, but we do not believe this matter should be dropped. If pos sible, the WASP bill should be given further consideration and again be pre sented to Congress for vote. ALISON CASTLES, JEAN SCALET. Friend Speaks Up for Jay To the Editor of The Star: There is a trace of snobbery in Wil liam A. Stanton's letter to The Star in which he takes Jay Carmody to task for his honest review of "While the Sun Shines.” The writer has plenty of very near relatives in England; I am sure if they found "While the Sun Shines” mediocre, they would not hesitate to say so. (They were never timid on remarking on “yours truly'*’* accent.) I much prefer Winston Churchill's delightful saltiness and very often wisely constructive crit icism and frankness to this blanket approval of everything British including ill-constructed plays. Mr. Carmody's reviews are not only instructive and delightful to read but also tend toward charity and fore bearance. An entire absence of that pushfulness so apparent in Mr. Stan ton’s critique, is something, too, of which Mr. Carmody's guardian angel un doubtedly has taken due note. J. A. G. Attention: First Lady To the Editor of The Star: While passing down Pennsylvania Avenue the other day, I was surprised to see the condition of the White House. The paint is peeling; the windows are dirty and bare; the White House is definitely shabby. ( Our Executive Mansion, which so many of our own citizens and Allies come to see, is a symbol of our country. Do you not think that it should at least look clean and neat? MILDRED D. RAITT. ' This Changing World By Constantine Brown War material, which Is the past has been sent in dribbles, is now being rushed to the Southwest Pacific to enable the forces of Gen. Douglas Mac Arthur to proceed toward the first goal of the all-out offensive against Japan, the liberation of the Philippines. Although the war in Europe still re quires large quantities of supplies and large numbers of men, the joint chiefs of staff in Washington can now see their way ojear to divert substantial aid to the Pacific. Admiral Chester W. Nlmltz's forces always have had pri ority. They are overwhelmingly a naval anti marine force which was not needed in the battles across the Atlantic. Hence, the bulk of production from the naval and private yards was earmarked for the Pacific from the beginning of the war. We had only some old battleships and cruisers in the Atlantic and the Medi terranean. The more modern units needed for those areas were supplied by the British, whose share in the war in the Far East up til now has been nominal. This must not be interpreted as a re flection on our Allies. The agreement between the chiefs of staffs of the two forces provided that the British Navy would not take a major role in the Far East until the military problems in Europe were over. But the determination of the Allied strategists to finish the Nazis off before we turn our full attention to the Pacific has left Gen. MacArthur with relatively unimportant ground forces. Until a few months ago he operated on a shoe string. The situation is changing rapidly. While military security prevents the disclosure of the number of men being dispatched to that area, it may be taken for granted that Gen. MacArthur will not lack manpower from now on. With the "softening” of the Luftwaffe, we and the British now have such an over whelming superiority in the air over Europe that much of the production of the American plane factories has been diverted to Southwest Pacific. Landing operations across the Chan nel have ended and the Germans have been exDelled from the coasts of France This enables the joint chiefs of staff to send more invasion barges to Gen. MacArthur. The supplies and rein forcements needed by Gen. Eisenhower are now being taken across the Atlantic in large ships which are able to put in at French ports occupied by the Allies. Not all of the ports have been re paired and the Germans seriously dam aged port facilities before surrendering. ■But the Engineer Corps and the Sea bees are working rapidly and it is ex pected that before long Cherbourg. Le Havre, Antwerp, Marseille and other excellent harbors will be ready to receive large American transports and mer chantmen. Gen. MacArthur’s troops are now en gaged In major operations against the Philippine bases and are being assisted by Admiral Nimits’s men o' war. While a “schedule” for the liberation of the Philippines has been only tentatively established, most observers here believe the Philippine and American flags will be hoisted on Davao before Thanksgiv ing and it is not too far fetched to be lieve that our forces will reach Luzon before, the end of the year. * * * * The strategy of these operations was fully established by Admiral Nimltz and Gen. MacArthur several months ago and was submitted to President Roosevelt during his recent visit to Honolulu, where he hs^i lengthy discussions with the two American commanders. The plans were reported to have impressed 'Mr. Roosevelt as flawless and received his full indorsement. All that is now necessary is to rush the adequate "wherewith.” Gen. MacArthur's amphibious forces and Admiral Nimltz's supporting fleet and men already have formed a pincers around Mindanao. The Japanese are offering stiffer resistance than the Nazis offered when we began the invasion of Normandy. But they do not have the same means at their disposal as their ; European ally, particularly in aviation and communications with the rear. The Japanese garrisons mast fight with whatever is assembled in the island for tresses. The United States Navy takes care that no assistance shall reach them from outside. On the Record i By Dorothy Thompson with the exception of Hungary, all Germany’s satellites are now out of the war. But concerning the conditions under which they have left the Axis camp, we know only about Romania. With the Romanian example in mind, we mav expect to be speedily informed regarding the conditions imposed on Bulgaria as well as Finland. For the chief Allied negotiator in these cases, as in the case of Romania, is the Soviet Union. And the Soviet Union's diplo macy is open. Three weeks after Ro mania ceased military opeytions against the Soviet Union, an armistice was signed and punished. * * * * It is not only we who know the terms The Romanian people know them. They know what confronts their new government, and to what they must adapt themselves. They will lose Bessarabia and part of Bukovina. Bessarabia was taken from the Russiana after the last war, when Russia was in the midst of a revolution. The Bukovina has been part of the old Austro-Hungarian empire, broxen up in the general collapse. They will pay reparations far below the damage they have Inflicted. Other Allied claims are not yet fixed, but since the Romanian war was waged on Rus sian soil other claims must be minor. The amount—*300.000.000— must and can be liquidated within six years, with out disrupting the Romanian economy or finances. For the payments are to be made in kind—in products of Ro mania. With the,loss of the two provinces. Romania will still be larger than prior to the last war. She will keep most of Transylvania,, awarded her in 1919. and taken from her by Hitler. This is im portant. for there are more Romanians there than in the two other provinces. The inference in the armistice that Hun garv may still retain a small portion is both a gesture toward Hungary’, and an indication that the Soviets wish a settlement on ethnographical grounds. For these eminently generous terms Romania is to put everything she has necessary or useful to our war at the disposal of the Allies. There are political terms of great sig nificance. Romania is to extirpate Fascism thoroughly, and under super- j vision. She is immediately to give lib erty to anti-Fascist and pro-Allied pris- I oners. She is to give food, clothing and medical supplies to refugee victims of i Fascism Interned within her borders. 8he is forbidden to treat German and I Austrian Jews as enemy aliens, despite their citizenship. This is the first time ' in the Allied world that such citizens legally, and en masse, are .ecognlzed as Allies and friends of freedom. Even in the United States today. German refugee Jews, who have found asylum here are technically classed as ‘enemy-’ aliens. * * * * One is compelled to compare this arm- I istice and the openness of its terms with the Italian situation. It is not three weeks but over a year since Italy i surrendered. But no one, either In Italy | or in Allied countries, knows th# armi- 1 stice terms except the highest political and military authorities. The present Bonomi government has tried to get 1 consent to publish them, for it is terribly ' difficult to govern with authority when ! the people do not know the restrictions imposed. Though thete are still Ger man troops on Italian soil, they are also on Romanian soil. It has been’said that Romania, wdth 12 divisions, is able to I deliver more to the Allied cause than Italy could. But this is dubious. Italv surrendered a fleet, which ended all ! threats to the Allies in the Mediterra- ! nean, and enabled us to send many more ships to the Pacific. The Badoglio gov ernment wished, from the beginning, to join the war on our side, and in ad vance of an armistice. In this the parallel with Romania is exact. But we refused to negotiate and arrange for this before unconditional surrender. We therefore lost speed, Italian divisions and Italian morale. The Soviet Union has been called an enigma. But the Soviet policy wherever it has the leading influence, is con siderably less enigmatic than that of the Anglo-American powers. (Releaaed by the Bell Syndicate. Inc.I Destruction of Naziism By Maj. George Fielding Eliot /vs me Ainea armies commence their invasion of Germany, we find ourselves face to face with the problems attending the occupation and control of an enemv country for the first time in this war: for Italy was hardly in that category In the full sense of the word. These problems are in part military, in part economic and in part political. Enemy resistance, both organized re sistance and that of a guerrilla charac ter, if it appears, must be overcome. The countryside must be policed, for the maintenance of order and the protection of life and property. The persons of war criminals must be secured. The population must be given a chance to continue whatever means of making a livelihood may be available to them and they cannot be allowed to starve. And the various essential functions of local government and administration must be kept going under adequate su pervision. But there is something much more Important to be done, which cannot be delayed or neglected even at the very beginning of the occupation of German Roil and of direct contact between Allied armies and the German people—the task outlined by Gen. Eisenhower in his message of Monday to the Inhabitants of Western and Southwestern Germany: ‘ The Allied military government will begin the task of destroying National Socialism.” * * * * This vital work, the very core and essence of the completion of victory and one of the cornerstones of that future peace which is the only worth wnile fruit of victory will begin. GenS Eisenhower says, "immediately on the arrival of Allied armies in each area and the inauguration of Allied military gov ernment.” It is notable that Gen. Eisenhower's message is delivered under the supreme "legislative, judicial and executive au thority” vested in him "as supreme commander. Allied Expeditionary Force, and as military governor.” This suggests, though, of course, it is not a definite suggestion, that for the time being, at any rate, there will be no geographical division of authority between Americans and British in tty>se areas of Western and Southwestern Germany which may be occupied by Allied forces under Gen. Eisenhower. That is to say, that as the Anglo American forces come in from the west and as the Russians come in from the east, there will be but two zones of mili tary government, instead of three, as rumor has previously had it: An Anglo American zone and a Russian zone. If this proves td be the case, it will cer* talnly nuke for simplification of the I problems to be dealt with, of which the destruction of Naziism seems to this 1 writer by all odds the most Important in the political field. It will not be easily accomplished nqr quickly, but it is well that it is being commenced at the very beginning, and that we shall not have a set of accom plished facts arising here and there to upset the course of so far-reaching and essential a policy. Perhaps the verv foundation of that policy lies in the early relationships of our’troops to the ' German populace, who may have al ready received orders from Berlin to commence that "campaign of pitv" on which .some German leaders count so pcMc',y M °n* r°ad securin8 « “soft When all the war criminals have been dealt with, w”hen all the visible evi dences of Naziism have been destrojjed, when all the German ermed forces have surrendered and their arms been se questered, there still remain the Ger man people—and if in their hearts there remains the determination to trv again for the domination of the world, as soon as a favorable opportunity arises, that determination can be overcome only by irrefutable evidence that there is no chance of such an attempt succeeding. Of all the Nazi legends, perhaps that most dangerous to the peace of the world was the legend of the "undefeated German Army" of 1918, an army which was not beaten in the field but onlv be trayed at home. No such legend, or its counterpart, can be allowed to take root again. * * * * That is why as the soldiers of the free nations enter into Germany they should carry with them, in their bear ing, their conduct and their every ac tion, the conviction that the power they represent—the power of an aroused peo ple—is a greater power than any which can ever be at thp beck and call of any autocrat. They must demonstrate once and for all, to every German, that there can be no next time, that the ambitions of the German war lords are ambitions which can never be realized, and that any attempt to revive them can only result in even worse disaster for the German people who allow them selves to be made the instruments of such ambitions. It is thus that we may begin to lay the foundations of a just and lasting peace; it is thus that we may hope that the young men of another generation of Americans may not have to march past the war memorials erected to the memory of their fathers on European soil, as those of this generation marched past the war monument in Chateau Thiam the other day. (OoarrWht, 1944, WawTMt Tritaaa tee) Dewey Spoke 'by Book' On Labor, Says Writer Seattle Speech Called Result of Many Months of Study By David Lawrence Gov. Dewey spoke "by the book" when he declared that most of the wartime strikes were due to the Roosevelt ad ministration. This is but another way of saying that there has been too much personal government in dealing with labor and that Secretary Perkins, although nomi nally in charge of the Labor Depart ment, has had neither the power nor the authority nor the influence to handle one of the major problems of the war labor relations. Mr. Dewey's speech at Seattle ap parently was the result of many months of study and consultation with some of the best labor experts in the country. The indictment he makes against the Roosevelt administration is not at all unfamiliar to persons who have studied the labor problem. Thus, William Leiserson, who was chairman of the Railroad Mediation Board and also at one time a member of the National Labor Relations Board, made in a recent address a comprehen sive analysis of the entire problem of the Government's relation to labor and came to virtually the same conclusion which Mr. Dewey now adopts. Football Made of Law. It will be recalled that Mr. Leiserson resigned from the Government in de spair when he found that Mr. Roosevelt made a football of the historic railroad mediation law. It will be recalled also that the United States faced a Nation wide railroad strike last December largely because Mr. Roosevelt and his aides bungled the situation. The truth about this near-catastrophe has been constantly soft-pedaled, but it is a chapter in Jabor history that is well known to the railroad brotherhoods, for example, and to the railroad heads themselves. There already had been established a useful and successful method of han dling disputes on the railroads, but Mr. Roosevelt by-passed that machinery and attempted to handle the matter per sonally, with the result that the awards finally made were much larger than would have been the case if the regular machinery had been used. This now is conceded by both railroad executives and by railroad union labor officials. When Mr. Dewey said that labor has been made the football of politics he was telling the absolute truth. The real reason why Sidney Hillman and the CIO Political Action Committee are working so aggressively for the re- . election of Mr. Roosevelt is their belief that such groups will have the inside track in the White House and the next administration if Mr. Roosevelt is con tinued in office for a fourth term. Inevitably such favoritism leads to re actions and repercussions in an entirely different direction. The moment favor ites are played in any game resent ment is felt by those who are not the beneficiaries. Must Go Even Further. Mr. Dewey has gone a long way toward gaining the confidence of the labor union groups by calling a spade a spade and by saying frankly that col lective bargaining and the National Labor Relations Act are here to stay. He must go even further and assure the labor union leaders that, if elected, he is not going to be “taken in" or manipu lated by those employers who have been notoriously hostile to union labor throughout the years. Labor union leaders are too keen in their understanding of political person alities to be deceived by a few speeches. They must know thatf Gov. Dewey will stand four-square in handling the labor problem and will not lean to one side or the other. While it seems probable that Mr. Dewey will not get the majority of the labor union vote, all that it is necessary for him to do is to divide that vote sufficiently so that it will not go over whelmingly for the Democrats, as it has in the last three elections. Mr. Dewey has made an intelligent approach to the libor problem. His Seattle speech was a masterpiece of factual statement and logical argument. But he needs to go further before the campaign is over in order to disclose to the American people more of his point of view on the handling of the labor problem, which looks as if it will be one of the most difficult of all the problems of reconversion and reconstruction. (Reproduction Rights Reserved.) Free World Press From the Dallas Morning New*. Global freedom of the press, sought In both Republican and Democratic plat forms. will not be easy of attainment. As pointed out the other day by Dr. De Witt Reddick, University of Texas Jour nalism professor, only the English speaking countries have had much ex perience with genuine freedom of the press. In other countries, newspapers gen erally have been official mouthpieces, organs whose editorial policies were for sale to the.highest bidder or mere black mail sheets. The war, with its shutting off of news sources and its strict cen sorships, has given a setback to free dom of expression everywhere. In most of Continental Europe and In some countries of Latin America, people find it hard to understand newspapers that are published and edited in the interest of their readers. When some thing favorable appears about an indi vidual or an organization, they assume its insertion has been paid for. When something unfavorable appears, they assume blackmail has failed or that some enemy or rival has paid for the item. Even in as freedom-loving a country as France, many of the leading news papers accepted subsidies from foreign governments or from departments or factions of their owm government. Al most until war was declared, some were in Nazi pay. These discouraging conditions, how ever, should deter no one in the fight for a free press as a bulwark against war. So many International antagonisms have arisen from the suppression of news and the substitution of propa ganda in controlled newspapers that the same mistakes must not be made again if they can be avoided. Mountaineer For him there is no world beyond the edge Of sky that leans to meet the lifted crown Of spruce-blue mountains. Where the rugged ledge Of stone crops out, his weathered cabin * stands, With wide and friendly fireplace where his brood Ingathers at dusk and his woman’s hands Shape pones of bread, sweet as solitude. ALMA ROBISON HIGBEE.