Newspaper Page Text
With laafay Memlni E dittos. THEODORE W. NOTES, Editor. " WABHlNOT6Nr~D~Tr 8Ur New»P»per Company. 'f/oWM *"• Chlcsgo Office: *35 North Ulchtcan Ay«. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. MS Ka?r^°dV: uf& "»• Hotos by Mall—Payable In Advance. Aajrwfcere to Called State., Bunday.. “i°ooh $£?.oo «W» ifcr::: $ W 1:88 . Telephone Matlonsl 6000. Catered at the Po»t Office, Washington. D. C.. a* lecond-clat. mall matter. Member of the Associated Press. 1* exclu.ively entitled to Jhd BJi *?r tewollcatlon ol all newi dl.patche. ^r.*£‘ted V °t nof otberwiae credited In tnl. 4i*0 the local new* published herein. AU tlsht* of publication of special dltnatcne* herein also are rtatrred._ ^^^^^SIONDAT^FebruarySjlMS American Weapons Although there has been consid able talk about how Nazi weapons— particularly tanks—are better than ours, Major General Levin H. Camp bell, Jr., Army ordnance chief, makes out an Impressive case to the contra ry. Returning to this country after a tour of Inspection of the western and Mediterranean fronts, he quotes General Eisenhower as saying that “we have a general superiority in quality and quantity” and he cites testimony from such experts as Gen .erals Bradley, Devers and Patton to answer critics who maintain we are lagging behind the Germans in ar mored warfare. As far as tanks are concerned, ac cording to General Campbell, Ameri can commanders neither need nor want anything like the Nazis’ 73-ton Royal Tiger. Actually, only 20 of these have “been encountered so far, and the men who have come up against them regard them as me chanically inefficient and apparently hot too well adapted to offensive operations. Elaborating on this point, General Campbell declares that our armored forces do not use tanks as things designed to shoot it out with other tanks, but as fast mobile weap ons meant to slash up lighter forces behind the enemy’s lines. Heavies like the Royal Tiger can be—and have been—taken care of by our tank destroyers, our new assault tank and other weapons, and no matter what some critics have been saying, the simple fact is that Gen eral Patton and others have told General Campbell that they just do not want Royal Tigers of their own. They prefer lighter models like the General Sherman, having found them much more maneuverable and much more effective for attack pur poses. The proof of the pudding, after all. is in the eating. Perhaps, under certain conditions, the German Royal Tiger is better than the Gen eral Sherman, but the over-all battle record since the break-through in Normandy certainly points to any thing: but enemy superiority in ar mored warfare, the fact being, as General Eisenhower has written to General Campbell, that we have knocked out twice as many tanks as we have lost in Western Europe. Similar figures—notably in the field of artillery, in which the Nazis have lost eight pieces to every one lost by us—can be cited to show that we have been by no means backward in developing and using our ground weapons. Earlier in the war the Germans may have had the edge on us in certain types of arms, and they may still have the edge on us in things like rocket bombs, but on the whole we certainly have a clear superiority now, qualitatively and quantita tively. Our foremost commanders in the field are unreservedly on record to that effect, but even if they were silent on the subject, Germany’s present position would most elo quently and most convincingly sup port General Campbell’s claims. Not the Thing to Do The fact that approximately half of the 184 arrested members of the 716th Railway Battalion have al ready been convicted of selling Army cigarettes in the French blackmar ket would suggest, at first glance, that an inordinately high proportion of the American Army is composed of young men with definite criminal tendencies. The arrest of the 184 men means that from one-fifth to one-fourth of the battalion’s per sonnel were operating in the black market, or were suspected of such activity. It would be absurd, how ever, to assume on this basis that one man in every five In the Army is a criminal'type. How, then, may the derelictions in the 716th Battalion be explained? A dispatch to the New York Herald Tribune from Russell Hill, one of its war correspondents, advances the plausible theory that the attitude of the offending soldiers is much like that of many American civilians during the prohibition era. They know that it is technically wrong to pilfer cigarettes in transit and sell them In the blackmarket. But, Mr. Hill says, they do not consider it morally wrong, but rather look upon it as the normal “thing to do.” Many of the men, in the correspondent’s opinion, began by selling their own allotment of cigarettes. From that, it was an easy step to lifting a carton, and then a case, from the vast quantity of cigarettes passing through their hands. The evidence at the court martial ■ proceedings did not indicate that the men of the 716th profited greatly from the blackmarket. A “high aver age,” Mr. Hill says, would be $250 a month during a two-month period. Ybt sentences ranging up to forty five and fifty years in prison have been imposed. Whether these dras tic penalties will be modified when the war ends remains to be seen. But for the present they should con vince all soldiers that the Army does not look upon the stealing of mili tary goods as “the thing to do.H and it may be assumed that this was uppermost In the minds of the au thorities when the severe penalties were Imposed. _ * % Back to Manila General MacArthur’s return to Manila brings us back to what was, in a sense, the real starting point of this war In the Far East. There was a certain amount of wishful thinking in this country when the Japanese first attacked the Philippines. Although we knew that every military advantage lay with the enemy, the hope persisted that the American and the Filipino troops under General MacArthur would contrive some means of checking the Invaders, that they might even throw them back. But that hope died when the Japanese marched into Manila on January 2, 1942. With the “Pearl of the Orient” in enemy hands, the truth was too plain to be doubted: The Philippines were doomed, and no man could say where the Mikado’s troops might eventually be halted. That was three years and five weeks ago. The Japanese swept on, conquering thousands of miles of the Pacific and driving to the outer defenses of Australia, where General MacArthur had gone to begin the slow organization of the counter offensive that was to redeem his pledge to return to the Philippines. There is no need to dwell on the deep satisfaction that must be his as the American flag flies once again over the heart of Manila. The achievement of General MacArthur and his men, and that of the Fili pinos who have kept up the fight, are beyond praise. We would be short-sighted, indeed, however, if we did not note that the American Army which has driven from Lin gayen Gulf to Manila in 26 days is a vastly different army from that which went down to defeat three years ago. The difference is one of equipment and training and num bers. We lost the Philippines be cause we were shockingly unready to defend them, and we have returned to Manila because our deficiency in military power has been more than made good. But it has been a costly experience—too costly if the lesson of the Philippines is not to be taken to heart. Meanwhile, what of the Japanese? The boastful Yamashita, who "wel comed” the invasion of. Luzon as offering him opportunity to destroy the Americans, has put up little more than token resistance. His army has been sliced up and now may be destroyed in detail. There is no indication that the Japanese can even pretend to hold Luzon, which means that in addition to the loss of face that accompanies their in ability to defend Manila, they must accept the military penalties inci dent to American use of Luzon as a springboard for future attacks and as a base for the cutting of Japanese supply lines to the south west. Only the harshest necessity could have induced the Japanese to ac cept this result without the bitterest fighting. And so' the liberation of Manila may be taken as a symbol of Japan’s decline, even as its capture three years ago heralded the open ing of an era of Japanese conquest that was to stun the Western World. New Landings in Europe? That the tottering Reich, already exposed to massive land attacks from both east and west, may soon have to face a seaborne invasion is Indicated by a press interview Just given at Supreme Allied Headquar ters by Admiral Sir Harold Bur rough, newly appointed naval com mander in chief under General Dwight D. Eisenhower. The admiral pointed out to his journalistic listeners that “the coasts of Germany and the remain der of Western Europe still occupied by the enemy offer an opportunity for the use of sea power, such as the assault on* Walcheren Island, which turned the key to the port of Ant werp.” And he went on to disclose that vigorous though small-scale amphibious operations were actually going on to clear the Germans from the remaining islands of the Rhine delta which block access (o the Dutch port of Rotterdam. A glance at the map will reveal both the possibilities and difficulties In sea-borne operations against the coasts of Nazi-occupied Europe. In any such survey, Norway should be logically excluded, because its libera tion, though useful to the Allies in many respects, would not entail a major threat to the Reich itself. The potential zone of large-scale Allied landings embraces the stretch of North Sea coast from Holland to Denmark. With its sinuosities, this coastal zone has a length of about 600 miles. That offers a considerable range of choice for Allied strategy, against which the Germans must mount guard with their rapidly di minishing resources of manpower and equipment, including aerial de fense. Experience in France, Italy and the Pacific proves that large scale invasions can be made on open beaches by special landing craft and can be maintained through the elaborate “triphibious” technique which Allied strategy and turtles have evolved. It should be further understood that such landing* on the North Sea coasts would offer rela tively few natural difficulties, be cause this littoral is uniformly low, with long stretches of sandy beach or dunes. However, the mainland is largely masked by chains of outlying is lands which the Germans preeum ably have fortified heavily. The one sizable gap in the chain occurs Just where the big German rivers, Weser and Kibe, empty into the North Sea, and up their estuaries lie the great German ports- of Bremen and Ham burg. But this approach to the Reich is stoppered by the Island of Helgoland, a German Gibraltar whose long-range guns pretty well sweep the waters on either side of it. Reduction of some of those island bulwarks would be a necessary pre requisite to mainland landings at any vital point. Yet the Allied margin of sea power is now so great that the Job could presumably be done with out excessive sacrifices. Whether such operations actually impend is. of course, a moot point. But their feasibility is fairly ob vious, and Admiral Bur rough’s point ed remarks should, at least, give the German high command an addition al headache. Out in the Open A few years ago public sensibilities would have made impossible the type of publicity Inspired by “Na tional Social Hygiene Day.” But over the country there are meetings today for the discussion of progress made and plans laid in the fight against venereal disease, with the annual luncheon of the District Social Hygiene Society merely one of some fifteen meetings and three radio broadcasts in Washington devoted to the subject. Health Officer Ruh land’s encouraging report in yes terday’s Star spoke of the comple tion, a year ago, of Galllnger Hos pital’s 100-bed rapid treatment center as having given greater strength and stimulation to “the building up of a community aware ness of the city’s venereal problem and the possibilities for successful control of this ancient scourge” than anything yet accomplished. All of these things contribute to the crea tion of a public opinion which frankly recognizes the existence of venereal disease and its devastating effect as eradicable and which lends the weight of its influence to the discovery and practice of the best means of eradication. The fight Is no longer handicapped by darkness. It has been brought out into the open and Is beginning to assume the sem blance of a popular crusade. Washington used to have some right cold winters in the old days, but it lacked the modern “double freeze,’’ teat of Old Man Weather and tee one on' certain goods and materials. “Tannenbaum. * O. Tannenbaum” is probably still a popular song in Germany, but anything like “Tan nenberg, O, Tannenberg” has now lost its one-time great appeal. Recent events take a good deal -of the punch out of the slang phrase, “It shouldn’t happen to a dog I” This and That By Charles E. Tracewell. “FALLS CHURCH, V*. “Dear Sir: “Greetings from a small but charmed and devoted family group of readers in suburban Falls Church. I might say a privileged group, too, for we are privi ledged to live in a sequestered woodland spot and our neighbors are the feath ered tribes and small animals of the woods; and there daily we are privi ledged to read your column in The Star, and glean so much of interest, which from your observation and experience you are passing on to your readers. “Tonight it is again the blue Jays. I want to tell you of a blue jay I once knew. It was down at Camp Winna t&ska in Alabama, a summer camp for boys. This jay was found aground, either with a broken leg or wing, by one of the leaders. The injury was bound and put in splints. And long before the bird was well he was thoroughly tamed and, in fact, quite familiar with every one at the camp, taking rides on heads, shoulders or any part of the body that seemed to provide a perch. “The writer himself had the ex perience while lying upon a bunk of having Jiggs, as he had been dubbed, make a progress up the front of his shirt, pecking at each button he en countered on the march. "When the camp closed, Jiggs accom panied his rescuer and healer to his home, and later to Washington and Lee University, where he remained for some time, but one day he went out and never returned. So far as I have heard, Jiggs is the only jay ever to enter col lege or university. "With best wishes and assuring you of our appreciation and unflagging in terest in your column, I am “Very truly yours, R. A. L.” Blue jays, being naturally wild birds in a peculiar sense, always fly away ulti mately, no matter how long they have been captive. We have heard of a Jay which was the house guest of a nearby family for eight months. It had the run of every room, and was beloved by all, but one day It flew out and away and was never seen again. This particular bird had made a pre vious excursion into the open, and had been set upon by a band of Jays and driven In again. For several months he seemed willing to stay inside, but at last showed signs of distress. The blue jays make interesting pets, and certainly those who help them in time of need have a right to keep them for a time, at least When a young bird owes its life to some human’s Intervention, it often shows a great fondness for human so ciety. Probably most of the friendly birds one encounters have received such train ing, at some time or other. We have carried here, from time to time, accounts of particularly friendly wood jays, robins and bluebirds. Most of these were rescued, as orphans and brought up “by hand." No matter how much-they like the society of their two-legged friends, so Infinitely larger, they at last reach the state when the very air of wntnUnit grows tiresome to them. Perhaps they scent the murder and stupidity which blot out the fair name of humanity. *At any rate they fly away, and the sensitive person who raised them will wonder what was wrong. Nothing is wrong. Everything is right. It Is right for a bird to be outdoors, wh«r» it belongs, rather than to the stale air of the Indoors. The outdoor air must have an eoulsite tafreaee and rightness to til the wild creatures, a lure which is utterly un known to all bid a few woodsmen, poets end saints.' « Letters to The Star Dr. Brown Sees Nothing Evil In Power Politics as Such To tho Miter of The Star: The ungenerous critics of the har rassed statesmen now trying both to win the war and plan the peace are crying out excitedly against “power polijlcs." As If politics could ever be divorced from power! As if the peace of Europe from 1870 till 1814 had not been maintained by power politics! As If any nation had never been Justified In seeking understandings and alli ances to protect its own security! What la wrong with power politics Is not the fact of their employment but their occasional misuse. Bismarck, though believing In a policy of “blood and Iron" also believed In friendly al liances of the nature of “Insurance" and "reinsurance.” He thoroughly dis approved of the truculent and clumsy use of power politlos by Kaiser Wilhelm n. Hitler made the most cynical use of power politics and never to make friends or ensure peace. Stalin, following closely the tradi tions of Czarist Russia, has been much concerned about the Baltic and the Balkan States. Great Britain likewise has been gravely concerned about the Mediterranean and the route to the Far East. Neither Russia nor Great Britain know of any other existing safeguards than power politics. The alternative policy apparently ad vocated by these critics of power poli tics Is to rely on some plan of universal security through a world organisation not yet created or able to function ef fectively. They seem to ignore the ex istence of regional interests such as in Central Europe, the Balkans, Asia, and in this Western Hemisphere. There are special - neighborhood Interests which compel nations to enter into arrange ments of a mutually protective nature. To ignore these by denouncing power politics would seem strangely myopic or naive. mere need oe no incompatibility be tween a system of world security and power politics. On the contrary, the recent agreements between Great Brit ain and Russia, between Russia and Prance, or between Russia and Czecho slovakia, may prove in the near and the longer future to be the necessary Implementation of a universal organiza tion such as is contemplated by the Dumbarton Oaks proposals. They prop erly might be likened to the flying but tresses of a cathedral which relieve the pressure on the walls from the great weight of the roof. The superstructure of a world organization may be sub mitted at any moment to dangerous pressure, particularly by smaller na tions which may not be able to meet the Immediate responsibilities of the greater powers in maintaining calm and order in time of stress. No institution or system will work automatically. All depends on the good faith and good Intentions of men and nations. Power politics are always in volved and are inevitable. What we must hope and plan for is their right use for noble ends. PHILIP MARSHALL BROWN, President, The American Peace Society. Argues Fate and Responsibility To the editor of Th« Star: In his sermon, "I Shall Not Die,” by Rabbi S. H. Metz, he says: “God * * ■ cannot be indifferent to the injustices of fate.” Pate is understood to be that part of one’s life over which one has no con trol. In a recent novel another author says: “What you are depends on three factors: What you’ve inherited, what your surroundings have done to you, and what you’ve chosen to do with your surroundings and inheritance.” By "Inheritance,” of course, the au thor means the physical and psychical characteristics of a person. It is to be inferred from these two statements that the individual is not wholly responsible for his conduct in life. The rabbi speaks of “the injus tices of fate”; the author of the novel speaks of “what you’ve inherited” and “what your surroundings have done to you.” All of which are factors influ encing one's conduct by forces beyond personal control. While the novelist’s third factor, “what you’ve -chosen to do with your surroundings and inheritance,” leaves one free to make choioes, that freedom is conditioned by the “injustices” of fate, inheritance and environment, and therefore varies in scope and quality with the person. As well as tending to challenge the prevailing idea that man is fully re sponsible for his conduct, it seems also to conflict with the suggestion-that all men are born free and equal. If the quoted statements stand, no one is born entirely free, and all are born unequal. Since to be free implies a total absence of restraining condi tions (within the law), and to be equal all factors of heredity and environment should be identical, which, in both in stances, is not true. PRED YENDELL. Recruiting Nurses’ Aides To the editor of The Star: Your splendid editorial on Nurse's Aides was a great help to us in our re cruitment drive and I wish to extend to you the thanks of the Public Rela tions Department and the Nurse's Aide Corps. You will be interested to know we more than met our quota of 250 daytime aides. Over 275 have registered to date plus 360 night aides. Many thanks for your generous co operation in making this record pos sible. MRS. EDWARD J. FITZGERALD, Director, Public Relations Dept., American Red Cross. The Young Man's Chance From ths Quebec Lc SoleU. Since the beginning of the war more than a thousand engineers and tech nicians have each year swelled the ranks of the army technical services. Graduates of the scientific and poly technic faculties have been put Into the military engineers and technical personnel to the somewhat restricted > number of 1,500. Civilian Industry, for its part, has maintained Its qualified engineering personnel at the level of before the war in spite of the extraor dinary expansion which has overflowed all fields of action. These careers, ac cordingly, are offered to youths who have completed their matriculation courses, as to those demobilise from tbs war who have undertake their secondary studies. The field is vast and propitious. The prospects of advancement and suc cess are brilliant in face of the huge program of reconstruction which the This Changing World By ConsUntint Brown . Among the many matters believed to be on the agenda of President Roose velt and Prime Minister Churchill at the meeting of the “Big Three” Is the question of a supreme commander in the Pacific. They will discuss the ad visability of appointing a high ranking officer for the over-all command of the ground, naval and air forces operating against the Japanese* At present Gen. Elsenhower is in supreme command of all Allied forces in Western Europe; Field Marshal Sir Harold Alexander commands the hete rogeneous Allied forces in the Medi terranean. But there Is not unified command in the Pacific where the, war may be expected to expand on several fronts in the near future. Up to now there has been no crying need for an over-all command in the Pacific. The MacArthur-Nimitz team has worked splendidly. Frqm the stra tegic point of view both men agreed wholeheartedly cm the operations we are now witnessing in the Pacific, while tactically each commander supported the other with everything he had at his disposal. The result of this remark ably close co-operation between the Army and the Navy commanders has re sulted in the spectacular successes in Luzon where the American ground forces, thanks to the splendid assistance given by the Navy, are reaching their objectives well ahead of schedule. In the meantime. Admiral Nimitz has been regrouping some of his overwhelm ing forces for another drive which is expected to be both spectacular and im portant. For the time being the gen eral direction of the American strategy points to a drive to Tokyo. * * * * In recent weeks, more naval forces have been added to the already over whelming American fleets. The Brit ish are reported to have sent one or several task fleets to operate under the command of Admiral Nimitz, while the Japanese broadcasts speak of the pres ence of French, Italian, Dutch and even Greek naval units In the South Pacific. There la no official confirmation that the ships of our Allies and former en emies are actively participating in the fight against the Japs.. But it Is reason able to suppose that some of them may have been detailed to the Pacific. And while It Is obvious that the Mac Arthur-Nlmltx team believes that mili tary and naval operations culminating In a landing on the Japanese homeland should continue to be the basis of the American strategy, other military heads are Inclined to favor a landing on the Chinese mainland. They suggest such a landing despite the obvious advantage the Japanese may have because of their large forces In China, their well-pre pared positions and the much greater facilities of overland communication lines. Strictly speaking, both Gen. Mac Arthur and Admiral Nlmltz would like to be left alone, should the organized re sistance of the Germans end In the near future, transports, supplies and new forces could be made available for the Pacific in a few ween. Tljese would greatly strengthen the American land and air forces—we already have all the naval forces we need to defeat the Japanese at sea—and we could then proceed with operations unhampered by any political considerations except those serving the purposes of this country alone. If their uniforms did not prevent them from speaking out their mind publicly, it is believed that Gen. Mac Arthur and Admiral Nlmltz would say that at this time the British would help most by expelling the Japs from Malaya. Burma and the Netherlands In dies, where the Japanese are strongly fortified. The fighting forces in the Pacific are satisfied with the present setup. Should the leaders who are now gathered far from Washington decide that a su preme commander In the Pacific if essential to the war effort, it is hoped that an American will be selected for that important position. On the Record By Dorothy Thompson “• • • captives sick and sunless, all a labouring race repines, “Like a race in sunken cities, like a nation in the mines. “And many a one grows witless in his quiet room in hell, “Where a yellow face look inward through the lattice of his cell, "And he finds his God forgotten, and he seeks no more a sign— "(But Don John of Austria has burst the battle line) “Don John pounding from the slaugh ter-painted poop, “Purpling all the ocean like a bloody pirate’s sloop, “Scarlet running over on the silvers and the golds, “Breaking of the hatches up and burst ing of the holds, “Thronging of the thousands up that labor under sea, “White for bliss and blind for sun and stunned for liberty. “Vivat Hispania! Domino gloria! “Don John of Austria has set his people free!” G. K. CHESTERTON, in “Lepanto." “No incident of the campaign has given me such personal satisfaction. I have awarded the commanding officer of the rescue mission the Distinguished Service Cross, all other officers the Silver Star, and all enlisted men the Bronze Star for this heroic enterprise.” —Gen. Douglas MacArthur. * * * * Chesterton’s immortal ballad me morializing the campaign of Don John of Austria against the Sultan, whose armies had engulfed Christendom, ends with its high note on the rescue of the captives. And Gen. MacArthur can well say, that above all other triumphs the Incident that gave him most “per sonal satisfaction” was the rescue of 486 American prisoners from the Japa nese Internment camp in Luzon. Not only the relatives and friends of the rescued men "wept for joy.” We all wept. More than all the speeches, and the bloody battles won, this little inci dent lifted our war to a point of glory. It taught us what liberation means. The European people know. Now we know. Liberty is to be safe amongst one's comrades. Liberty Is love. Yet this Incident has no military sig nificance at all. The freeing of prisoners Is usually the consequence of winning a war. Seldom are prisoners liberated in the course of a campaign. No military campaign Is designed for such a purpose. Prisoners are among the expendables whose fate must await the final outcoipe. A Commando raid to free prisoners Is hazardous. From a military view point It Is dubious. The enemy Is not weakened even by its success. And yet, of this I am sure, no single thing that has happened during this war has so strengthened the morale of our armies and so lifted the hearts of our people, as this rescue of a mere 486 men. For it has removed a sting from our souls. * * * * In such a moment no one could ask: What Is the meaning of this war? Why are we fighting, far away, from our homeland? We are fighting to rescue our family, and warn the world that it is dangerous to touch an American. Dangerous be cause they are dear to us. So dear that we will cross the world to pull 486 of them out of a prison. The men who carried out that raid deserved the medals they got. But they did not need them. After many battles, some perhaps more dangerous than this, what will they tell their children? Sol diers after war are reticent; they speak little; they try to forget. But this story they will tell their children and their grandchildren. It will be ever sweet. “I was once a savior." Thus, far away on Luzon has been written a piece of American folklore, comprehensible to every mind—part of folklore tha^ gives sense and meaning to a nation. (Rdensed by the B*U Syndlc»t», Ine.) Two-Front Squeeze By Maj. George Fielding Eliot The German concept of two-front war has always been based on the theory that Germany could deal with enemy threats in succession, one after another, and not have to meet co-ordi nated blows simultaneously. Thus the Schlieffen Plan of the 1900's wps basically a plan to overwhelm France by concentrating everything ex cept a small eastern- covering force against the French army before the British could train a large army to come to the aid of the French, before the Russians, with their slower mobilisa tion, greater distances and insufficient railway net, could become a real men ace to the eastern frontiers of Germany. The plan failed because the western drive was mishandled, and also because at the crucial moment the chief of staff, the younger Moltke, lost his nerve and switched troops from west to east. The Hitler plan was based on smash ing first Poland, then France, and it worked that far. But Hitler lost his nerve and failed to attack Britain while he had the golden opportunity; and from then on the margin of success went Increasingly against him, as it had against the Kaiser after the First Battle of the Marne. The British just managed to pull through with their fighter command; the Russians, with the extra time to prepare gained for them by the daring British adventure in Greece, Just man aged to make a stand in front of Mos cow and so throw the Germans into a winter stalemate; and after that there was no chance for Hitler. But he kept on dealing with his en emies in succession, though he had to fall back again and again. - He pro tracted the life of his bloody regime by many weary months. How much longer he will be able to drag out the struggle depends in part on how much internal freedom of movement he can manage to retain, and on how closely, on the other hand, his eastern and western op ponents can co-ordinate their blows. * * * * As to his internal freedom of move ment, that is being gravely com promised by Allied strategic air power. Of this, Saturday’s huge attack on Berlin was an example -certainly only a single example, for it will be repeated as often and in as great strength as opportunity permits. The lack of lighter protection over the Reich capital shows very clearly the difficulties which the Luftwaffe is hav ing. It must provide some counter ef fort against the Russian tactical air force. It must try to defend the vitally important synthetic oil plants and unless it can guess where and when the great bombers am going to sMfea. th* defense of other targets must be left to antieimraft guns. The targets esleetsd within the Berlin wrew for the great attack as* vary railway stations, a great freight yard, and the Reich Chancellery, the Air Ministry, the Propaganda Ministry and the Gestapo headquarters. Thus the attack had a double pur pose—Pint to Interfere with the move ment of troops and supplies through Berlin, especially to check the transfer of the troops from the western front whose trail the heavy bombers have followed so relentlessly all the way from the Rhine to Berlin, and second, to smash the nerve center of the whole Nazi power-system, interfering with the tight co-ordination and the constant flow of orders from above which is so essential a part of the German conduct of war and particularly so when the iron hand of the regime must tighten its hold on a frightened and even panicky populace. * * * * We should not expect the results of these or other such attacks to be de cisive. They will not prevent all troop movement; what they will do is to delay the arrival of troops at the time and place expected, and reduce the num bers of the troops and equipment that do get there. They will not destroy the German railways for good and all; they will, however, destroy locomotives and cars; they will compel the Germans to waste time, material and labor in making repairs; they will snarl up traffic and compel it to be rerouted— and the net result will be seen in Ger man inability to carry out military measures as promptly and effectively as they have planned. Commanders on the eastern front will be shrieking for the promised reinforce ments that do not come; surrounded garrisons in towns like Schneldemuhl will listen in vain for the sound of the guns of the relieving column that the radio has told them was due day before yesterday. The Russians will be able to advance where otherwise they might have been checked for days. It all adds up to a gain of time in the direction of final victory by depriving the Germans of the ability to take those clever, resourceful counter-measures on which they had counted to wear us all out until ws ware ready to make peace. It all comes to this: That the Ger mans now are faced with the certainty of simultaneous attacks in the east and the west and that the link between those attacks is the air power of Amer ica and Britain, striking relentlessly from the skies against the German means of meeting the ground attacks. The closer the two fronts corns, the more concentrated will be the effect of the bombing. The time for Gorman cleverness is Just about over; tbs Wehrmacht is get ting down to the point where it will have to stand, either on tbs Bhtns and the Oder or within the mountain walls e( some inner fortress, *nd slug tt out or potato.- ). (Owrrlsat, IMS.) Check on Key Posts Via George Bill Urged Writer Cells for Clause to Limit Terms of Cabinet Officers By David Lawrenca A constitutional adjustment of major significance in American history could evolve out of the Wallace-Jones con troversy. It could bring a constructive result that would go far toward giving the American people the same close check on the operations of their Gov ernment which la available to parliamen tary governments in Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom where the mere prospect of a change In cabinet ministers overnight Is often sufficient to prevent the adoption of policies manifestly out of harmony with the wishes of the people. A simple amendment to the George bill, now pending In the House of Representatives, could create a prece dent of far-reaching Importance. Such an amendment could provide that the term of all cabinet officers hereafter shall be one year, which would mean that once a year the appointment would have to be sent to the Senate for con firmation or a new name submitted in its place. The same thing could be done with respect to the Federal Loan Administrator and all other key posi tions In the Government to which vast powers have been delegated by Congress. Appropriations must be submitted once a year so it Is logical that the persons who administer them shall be re examined too. The House of Representatives and one-third of the Senate must go before the people every two years and there is no reason why executive posts created by Congress should not likewise be sub ject to periodic review by the people's elected representatives. Power Allowed to Lapse. Congress has always had the power to fix the term of office for executive appointees and yet in recent yean this power has been allowed to lapse in favor of appointments to last as long as the President desired. The growth of executive power in America has been due, to no small ex tent, to the tendency of Congress in recent years to make broad grants of discretionary authority. Delegation of power, however, has become inevitable as the United States has grown in pop ulation and the problems^ of Govern ment have become more anti more com plex because of their inter-relationship with the economic life of the country. Commerce has been declared national by the Supreme Court, which in 1937, by a new interpretation of the com merce clause of the Constitution, gave Congress and the President new powers over production, manufacture and dis tribution, whether carried on * State or across State lines. A centralized government no doubt has come to stay but adequate checks have not yet been set up by the people to fix responsibility and assure pres ervation'of the many rights of the in dividual which are expressly reserved to the people by the Tenth Amendment of the Constitution. Congress at various times during the last 30 years has tried to solve the prob lem of delegated authority by creating bipartisan commissions with appaint ments to be made by the two major political parties. But gradually this has been circumvented by the appointees who gave lip service to the minority party and then came to share the views of the majority party’s President who could remove them if they failed'to do his bidding. Congress thought It had protected itself against such abuse by specifying in the statutes the grounds on which an appointee could or could not be removed. President Roosevelt, on the other hand, challenged this power. He removed William E. Humphreys from the Federal Trade Commission Just be cause, as the President said publicly, his mind and that of Mr. Humphreys didn't go along together even though Mr. Roosevelt conceded the efficiency and Integrity of Mr. Humphreys. Supreme Court Ruling. The Supreme Court In May, 1935. by a unanimous decision repudiated this concept of executive authority but it was apparent from the words of the decision that only the quasi-judicial rather than the administrative nature of the Federal Trade Commission pout saved the day for congress. All plainly administrative posts were left tightly in tiie President’s control. Conversely the power of the Senate to remove anybody once confirmed to public office has been declared non existent by the court. The Senate may advise and consent to an appointment but it cannot remove the aam> ap pointee if he should, for Instance, sub sequently reverse or discard the views expressed in testimony before a Sen ate committee prior to confirmation. These decisions of the court are recent and they finally clear up a point that has been vague in our constitutional system for more than ISO yean. What has Congress done, therefore, in the last few yean to protect the people against indefinite tenure and, in a sense, lifetime jobs by persons in policy-malting positions? Then an in dividuals now holding high office under Mr. Roosevelt for nearly 13 yean and they may actually serve 16 yean with out being subjected to congressional check. u -sroductlon lllshU Reaervtd.) Postmortem From th* lfuaphis CemmtrcUl Appeal. Social consciousness dictates realising most folks do not care whether you wagered on football games and much less why you lost. Image in a Mirror The reeds still in the dark glass of the still canal, The boat with rusted tor locks mirrored there, Repeated in chill illusion 0/ • watered world, Perfect and lifeless In the lifeless winter air. Stark willows from their own shadows in the glass, Bough and lean bough, exquisite on the mirrored stream, Rise in elegiab silence of grog windless afternoon: Here are two worlds suspended Hi unmoving dream. And here the heart, come suddenly upon this hour Of hushed waters and stillness of hms somber weeds, Catches briefly the reflection of another time and sun, * Of laughter Hi • boat among green summer reeds. PRXDK1UCK EBKIOKT.