Newspaper Page Text
Fair, cool, high near 58 today; occa* atonal showers, warmer tomorrow. Temperatures today—High, 66, at 1 pm.; low, 42, at 5:40 am. Yesterday— High, 61, at 11:40 a.m.; low, 49, at 11:50 pm. Late New York Markets, Page A-13 -1 Guide for Readers Page. Amusements - B-28 Comics .B-18-19 Editorial _A-6 Edit! Articles,.A-7 Finance _A-13 Lost and Found, A-3 Page. Obituary .A-8 Radio .B-19 Society .B-3 Sports .A-10-11 Where to Go ..B-13 Woman's PageB-14 An Associated Press Newspaper 93d YEAR. No. 36,897. Phone NA. 5000. WASHINGTON, D. C., FRIDAY, MAY 11, 1945—THIRTY-FOUR PAGES. City Home Delivery, Dally end Sunday m /•'tT7'XTfT'C! 90c a Month. When B Sundays. $1.00. e> V^JCiJN 1 D U.S. Program for Occupying Reich Bares Plan to Curb Underground; Eisenhower on 4-Power Council f America's Part in Control Vested In 12 Agencies Bt tht Associated Press. A special intelligence section to detect and “ruthlessly” sup press any Nazi underground ac tivities will be part of the United States Military Government in the American occupation zone of Germany. This was disclosed today in a War Department announcement of plans for the United States group which will form part of the Allied four power control council for Germany. The American unit will be divided into 12 major divisions, correspond ing generally to the ministries of the German central government. Gen. Eisenhower will be the Unit ed States representative on the council as agreed on at the Yalta Big Three meeting. Gen, Clay Military Governor. Lt. Gen. Lucius Clay will serve as deputy to Gen. Eisenhower and also will be "deputy military governor for Germany,” the department said, without amplifying this latter refer ence. Gen. Clay, a West Pointer, was attached to the Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion until last month, when he was transferred to supreme Allied headquarters. The announcement said that United States Army, Navy and Air Forces had perfected over a period of many months and in co-ordina tion with the British, Russians and French a "co-ordinated program to impose a stem military government over all of Germany and to carry out the policies agreed upon at Yalta.” It did not, however, offi- j cially define the area of American occupation. The creation of the intelligence section was a sample of this deci sion for stem control. Sharing of Responsibility. Each of the 12 divisions will share responsibility in purging all public agencies and industries of Nazis, but the over-all intelligence section, “answerable directly to Gen. Clay, w-ill maintain general supervision over the entire denazification pro gram,” the War Department said. Ther. it added: £ “This intelligence section will also maintain surveillance over all Ger man agencies and provide assurance that activities by Nazi underground,: ‘Werewolves’ and the like will be ruthlessly suppressed.” Also directly under Gen. Clay will be two other sections. Public Infor mation and Public Relations. The former section, the War Department said, “will control all forms of pub lic expression in Germany, includ ing newspapers, radio, mazagines and other publications and motion pictures.” It likewise “will deal with the dissolution of the propaganda ministry of the notorious Goebbels and the establishment of an un biased and truthful press and radio system.” Ban on Publications. OWI Director Elmer Davis yester day announced that all foreign pub-1 lications, films and business enter prises will be banned from Germany. Public relations will be concerned with issuing communiques, accredi tation of correspondents and press censorship. Regarding the latter, the department said: “Censorship in the American zone will be solely on the basis of mili tary security.” The demobilization of German armed forces and disarmament will be attended to by three military divisions—Army, naval and air. A reparations, deliveries and resti tution division will supervise carry ing out in the American zone policies agreed on in the control council dealing with activities “sug gested by its title,” the War De partment said. Great Tasks Ahead. “Tremendous tasks lie ahead of the economic division, which will deal with such problems as food, agriculture and forestry, fuel and mining, price control and ration ing,” the War Department declared. "This division will see to it that the Germans are forced to exert all efforts to feed themselves, and also to insure that the liberated United Nations are given first consideration on essential commodities.” An internal affairs and communi cations division will include among other duties supervision of public safety and control of civil police forces. This unit, the announcement said, ‘‘will concern itself with elimi nation of the dreaded secret police.” Other divisions will include: Political—Dealing with foreign affairs, domestic political matters, protection of American interests in Germany and reporting political in telligence. Transport—Regulation of traffic movement, supervision of rail, high way and inland water transporta tion and port and coastal opera tions. Prisoners of war and displaced persons—“Millions of citizens of the United Nations have been held prisoner in Germany” and these must all be cared for and repatri ated speedily. Manpower—Charged with dis solving the “notorious Nazi labor front and laying the groundwork for the normal growth of democratic labor organiaztions and practices.” Legal—Jurisdiction over prosecu tion of war criminals and the exer cise of “proper control over Allied military courts, German ordinary and military courts, and prisons.” (Associate Justice Jackson of the Supreme Court was selected Dy President Truman last week as this country’s chief prosecutor of those whose offenses in Europe have been so widespread they have "no partic ular localization.” The War Depart ment announcement today made no mention of Justice Jackson or his relation to the legal division of the military government setup.) Japs' Inland Sea, Key Harbors 'Polluted' With Mines by B-29s Greatest Aerial Blockade in History Being Carried Out, Gen. Le May Says Et the Associated Press. GUAM, May 11.—Super Fort resses, carrying out the largest aerial mining blockade in his tory, have “polluted" Japan’s In land Sea and the Tokyo and Na goya harbors with high explo sives, Maj. Gen. Curtis E. LeMay announced today. The 21st Bomber Command chief said nearly a dozen aerial mining missions had been carried out by the Super Forts, each equipped with approximately 10 tons of mines. Brig. Gen. John H. Davies, Pied mont, Calif., commands the Tinian based B-29s mining the enemy waters. Operations have not been confined to the areas mentioned today. Mines have been dropped in all major ports of Japan, and particularly in Shi monoseki Strait between Kyushu and Honshu Islands. Gen. Davies personally led the first mission March 27 in the open ing of the first attempt in military history to impose a complete mine blockade on a maritime nation. The objective of the mine-laying campaign is to supplement the thunderous step-up in bombing of Japan's homeland Islands by other Super Forts. aCrrying out of both operations can aid in destruction of Japan’s productive power. It is estimated 75 per cent of all Japanese transportation is water borne. Mines also were strewn in stra tegic areas to support the invasion of Okinawa. All missions were flown at night, generally under 10,000 feet altitude. Parachutes from 6 to 9 feet in diameter were automatically re leased from the Navy-made mines on contact with the water. Gen. Lemay explained that an aerial mining campaign must be main tained to be successful. Aerial mines used to sink to the bottom. They explode when a ship comes near enough to active firing mechanism, and contact is not necessary. The mine blockade, however, re mains effective only as long as it takes for the Japanese to clear a channel through fields. “Thus, while the Inland Sea is polluted with mines and Tokyo and Nagoya harbors are filled with mis siles, the 21st Bomber Command must be constantly alert to keep “Tsee”SUPERTFORfsTPage A-5T” Goering and Hess Reported Put on List Of War Criminals Doenitz Also Expected To Be Tried for Life; Himmler Still Fugitive GAULEITER HENLEIN commits suicide after surrender. Page A-2 By the Associated Press. LONDON, May 11. —Rudolf Hess, Hermann Goering and Heinrich Himmler all have been listed by the United Nations as war criminals and there also is strong possibility that Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz will have to face trial for his life. The information about the rank ing luminaries of the fallen Nazi hierarchy and Hitler's successor in the surrendered Reich came today from a highly reliable source. This informant estimated that be tween 4,000,000 and 6,000,000 Ger mans might be forced to atone for their nation's atrocities if the pro posed plan of pool punishment is j adopted by the victorious powers. Hess and Goering both are prison- : ers and both were Hitler deputies. Himmler, the hangman head of the! Gestapo, is a fugitive. Machinery to Be Set Up. The machinery for determining i the guilt or innocence of the top ranking Nazis awaits creation by the United States, Russian, Britain and France. The issue was referred, to their foreign secretaries for working out details. These facts were learned, however: 1. Trials under present plans will be public, on the theory that these will prove that best lesson possible to convince the German people of their errors. 2. Neutral nations will be denied a place on the bench. 3. Strong sentiment exists for the trial of industrialists who used slave labor, as well as those who formu lated the policies which made such conscription of foreigners possible. Russia Not Included. The War Crimes Commission has headquarters here and has 16 mem bers. Russia is not one of them. The commission has the power only to make recommendations which must be submitted to the govern ments of the members for approval. It was established definitely that the commission regards as war crim inals all those who decreed, directed or participated in the policies which resulted in planned undernourish ment, slave labor, concentration camps and organized prostitution. Out of this strong feeling pre sumably was born the plan advanced at San Francisco by Samuel Rosen (See WAR CRIMES, Page A-12.) Army Will Discharge 2,500 Men Tomorrow Under Point Plan 17 Separation Centers To Release Group Brought Home Under Rotation The Army will begin discharg ing men under the point system tomorrow at 17 of the 22 separa tion centers and approximately 2,500 soldiers will receive their discharge papers the first day, the War Department announced today. The men,.first to be released under the new discharge plan announced yesterday, will be drawn from sol diers with long overseas service who had been brought back to the United States under the rotation system prior to the end of the war in Eu rope for rest and recuperation. Soldiers from all theaters are in cluded in the group. Fort George G. Meade, Md„ the separation center for District of Columbia, Maryland and Virginia and West Virginia, was not among the 17 centers listed today as in operation. This center will be opened in the next week or so. The separation centers now oper ating are Camp Atterbury, Ind.; Camp Beale. Calif.; Fort Bliss. Tex.; Fort Bragg, N. C.; Camp Chaffee, Ark.; Fort Devens. Mass.; Fort Dix, N. J.; Fort Douglas, Utah; Jefferson Barracks, Mo.; Fort Leavenworth, Kans.; Fort Logan, Colo.; Fort Lewis, Wash.; Fort Sam Houston, Tex.; Fort McPherson, Ga.; Camp Shelby, Miss.; Fort Sheridan, 111.; Fort Snelling, Minn. Soldiers Protest Exclusion Of Age as Discharge Credit PARIS, May .11 (JP).—American troops in Paris—and probably all over Europe—were busy with pen cils today, figuring out their indi vidual standings in the new going home point system announced yes terday by the War Department. Under the system for troops in the European theater, men sched uled to go home first—unless special abilities prevent their being imme diately replaced—are those who have amassed a total of 85 points based on length of service, months overseas, number of dependent chil dren, battle stars and decorations. In a random survey on soldier opinion in Paris, two main objec tions to the system were encoun tered: That a man’s age and the number of his dependents other than children do not count. In most cases it will be the younger men who will go home first, because their combat ratings are generally higher than men who (See DEMOBILIZATION, Pg. A-13) No. 1 D. C. Man in Draft Lottery Rates High for Early Discharge The District’s No. 1 man in the draft, Sergt. Robert Bell, is high up on the list for discharge under the Army’s point system. By the count of his mother, Mrs. Harry S. Bell, whose scream punc tuated the first draft lottery back in 1940, the 26-year-old sergeant has at least 104 points—a comfortable margin above the 85 points needed for discharge. The only factor in the way of his discharge is “military necessity.” He’s in the Chemical Warfare Serv ice and the Army could rule that he is needed in the war against Japan. Mrs. Bell, who has been so busy entertaining a wounded soldier’s family that she’s hanjly had time to put pencil to paper, figures it out this way: Sergt. Bell, whose No. 158 was the first to be drawn out of the goldfish bowl, went into the Army for a year’s training on November 27,1940. A year later, he became a private citizen. But one moijth after that, on December 27, 1941, the men who had been trained in the peacetime army were called back In again. That is four years and five months, or 53 points, for Sergt. Bell. He’s been overseas since May, 1943, with the 45th Division. That’s 24 points more. He has one child, Bobby, now 3 years old. That is 12 points more. Then in combat awards, the ser geant has been wounded three times—the Purple Heart, with two clusters. That is 15 points, for a total of 104 points. What the family doesn't know about are the other decorations Sergt. Bell may have accumulated, each of whifih would be good for five points more. And then there are the battle participation stars. Sergt. Bell has seen service in Africa, Sicily, Italy, Southern France and Germany. The fam ily isn’t sure how many stars he is entitled to wear on his cam paign ribbons. Mr. and Mrs. Bell, who live at 618 Rock Creek Church road N.W., also have a boy in the Pacific, Seaman 1/c George C. Bell. • Reds Closing In On Last Nazis in Czechoslovakia Germans Flee Toward II. S. Lines; Enemy's Subs Surrendering By the Associated Press. LONDON, May 11. — Die-hard Nazi fanatics who fought on in Czechoslovakia in defiance of German unconditional surrender were reported in headlong flight toward American lines today as a vast pincers by three Soviet armies threatened momentarily •o envelop them. The 1st, 2d and 4th Ukrainian Armies opened the assault on broad fronts from the northwest, east and southeast when forces under Field Marshal Ferdinand Schoerner, him self wanted as a war criminal, and Col. Gen. Woehler, ignored the sur render. It was the only reported fighting by German troops in all Europe.: Elsewhere the Germans were giv ing up docilely. The Soviet high command announced capture of 209,060 German officers and men in preliminary checkups along the front. There were 26 Nazi generals in the bag. Nazi Vessels Taken Over, Remnants of the beaten German surface and underwater fleet were in Allied hands, including the cruisers Prinz Eugen and Nuernberg, which had shelled Copenhagen over the week end. These were under the sentinel guns of the Royal Navy in Copenhagen Harbor, along with 3 destroyers, 2 torpedo boats, 10! minesweepers, 13 flak ships, 19 armed trawlers and 2 armed mer chantmen. The German ships surrendered [ to two British cruisers and four j destroyers which forced a passage through German minefields in the j Attempt at Suicide By German Angers U. S. Medical Officer Ey the Associated Press. PILSEN, Czechoslovakia, May 11.—American medical officers, German doctors and nurses at tended today the wounds and injuries of thousands of Ger man troops and civilians gath ered in large field hospital tents near here. In one tent Maj. George S. Porter, Dallas, Tex., scolded a German soldier who tried to slash his throat. Maj. Porter said it was in considerate to burden the med ical organization with a suicide attempt. The soldier meekly agreed. Skagerrak and Kattegat to reach Copenhagen. “Not a Nazi flag was to be seen,” a British naval reporter said. “The crews were leaning over the guard rails watching glumly. It was clear they were beaten as thoroughly as the rest of the her renvolk.” The Prinz Eugen's guns were in wild disorder—some pointed up, others down, some trained one way, the rest another. Meanwhile, Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz’s submarine fleet which had taken a ruthless toll of Allied ship ping, was surrendering and putting into British ports. The first sur render in a British port occurred in Southern England at Weymouth, where the submersible U-249, which had been at sea 40 days, surfaced and was escorted into port. Others Surrender. The London Evening News re ported that two more U-boats had surrendered in Lock Eriboll on the extreme northern coast of Scotland and said the 10-mile long fjord had seen selected as the rendezvous point for submarines coming in from the North Sea. The paper said 14 other U-boats had signalled they were on their way in. The French Press Agency mean while reported that French sailors in the large port of La Rochelle, which surrendered Wednesday, had officially taken over possession of the German Atlantic Fleet that had been anchored in the harbor. These ships were said to have been placed at France’s disposal, but it was not announced how many vessels had been seized. Following the surrender of the fleet in Copenhagen, the Swedes announced that the Swedish Navy would begin sweeping German mines from the Skagerrak and Kattegat to open Sweden’s door to the North Sea. The task is expected to take 100 ships two weeks. Off France’s northwestern coast, a British task force liberated the Channel islands, including Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, Sark, Herm and Jethou. Owned by British Since 1066. These tiny islands, on France’s doorstep, have belonged to England since 1066. They are the only part of the United Kingdom to have been occupied by the Nazis. The islands were liberated at 7:15 a.m. (London time) Wednesday when the Nazis signed unconditional surrender pa pers on the quarterdeck of the Brit ish destroyer Bulldog lying at an chor off St. Peter, the port of Guern sey. The Nazis put on a show of ob stinacy—at first attempting to sign an '•armistice” instead of complete surrender—but finally were con (See CZECHOSLOVAKIA, Pg. A-4.) Hr r«E JAPANESE am CABINET AUTHORIZES W ME TO SAY THAT THE ^ GERMAN SURRENDER j £*l MAKES NO CHANGES Jbg \ lN OUR WAR |^\OBJECTIVES!/ Big U. S. Offensive Against Okinawa's Capital Shaping Up 6th Marine Division Crosses River, Moves Within Mile of Naha By the Associated Press. GUAM. May 11—A determined American offensive against Naha, Okinawa’s capital city, was shaping up today after the 6th Marine Division, newly com mitted to the island’s southern j front, bridged the Asa River es tuary despite efforts of two Japanese human bombs to blow up the span. Still another wide, winding river— j the Asato—stands before Naha as a natural barrier to American troops, j Maj. Gen. Lemuel C. Shepherd, jr.’s 6th Marine Division, the third fresh division thrown into the craggy, cave-infested southern front in a week, forced the crossing of the Asa in darkness early yesterday. The 6th Division was slightly less thah a mile from Naha. Two Japanese attempted to blow up the span by covering themselves with explosives and detonating the charges as they plunged onto the bridge. Their act served only to damage the span and delay the crossing. Limited Gains Made. Elsewhere along the southern front, Marines and Doughboys made "limited gains” yesterday. Admiral Chester W. Nimltz’s communique reported today. He announced these other developments: Japanese casualties through Wed nesday total 38,857 killed, an in crease of 2,322 in two days’ fighting. American casualties through Mon day were 16,425, including 2,684 dead, in ground fighting. Sixty-nine Japanese were killed on Iwa Jlma in the week of April 29-May 5 and 97 captured, for total casualties of 23,244 killed and 1,038 captured. Iwa was invaded Febru ary 19 and secured March 16. A light naval force evacuated 494 Marshallese natives from Jaluit Atoll in the Marshall Islands in a daring rescue effected while Jap anese counterattacked with machine guns and other light Weapons. The natives, who presumably had slipped out a messenger with word they wanted to be freed, were taken to _’_ Four additional men from the District area have been re ported killed in this war. See "On the Honor Roll," Page A-2. (See OKINAWA, Page A-5.) Poles to Begin Settling In Frankfurt Shortly By the Associated Press. The first group of Poles to be set tled in Frankfurt-on-the-Oder will leave the Polish city of Lodz within a few days, the Lublin radio an nounced today. The first group of more than 1,000 Poles "will assume posts in the ad ministration of local government, commerce, industry, handicrafts and communications,” it said. The move was reported undertaken “in connection with the, resettlement of people in ancient Slav land that now return to the mother country.” Frankfurt has been a German city. The Lublin radio is operated by the Soviet-recognized Polish regime. OWI reported the broadcast. B-29s Hammer Japan 3 limes in One Day By the Associated Press. GUAM, May 11.—Super Fortresses bombed Japan’s homeland three times today, striking at three indus trial centers and three airfields on Kyushu and Honshu Islands in a swift followup to yesterday’s 400 plane B-29 raid. In the heaviest attack 100 to 150 Super Fortresses attacked the big Kawanishi seaplane plant on Honshu, between Kobe and Osaka as a smaller fleet blasted the Oita and Saiki airfields on Kyushu. The latest attack was aimed at the important cities of Miyakanojo and Nittigahara, both on Kyushu, and at the Miyaksaki airfield. Ky ushu airfields, home bases of enemy planes used in Okinawa fighting, have been pounded time after time by the big bombers. OP A Fixes 1942 Price Levels For Goods Returning to Market Bowles Says Controls Will Be Relaxed When Danger of Inflation Disappears By JAMES Y. NEWTON. Most peacetime goods return ing to the market will sell at 1942 retail prices, Price Adminis trator Bowles said today as he announced a reconversion price policy designed to “smother the fires of inflation” under an “ava lanche of civilian goods and services.” Mr. Bowles outlined new price procedure at a press conference fol lowing announcement by the War Labor Board that it would maintain the current high level of wages through the reconversion period, protecting the economy against effects of lower pay as well as in fiationary trends. Today’s higher cost of materials ; and labor to manufacturers will not generally be reflected In prices of | consumer goods, Mr. Bowles de clared. He explained that increased : costs will be offset by huge volume production, increased manufacturing! efficiency and some absorption of j costs in trade distributive channels! 8th Air Force Lists 43,742 U. S. Flyers Killed or Missing Bj the Associated Press. LONDON, May 11. — The United States 8th Air Force to day listed 43.742 fighter pilots and bomber crewmen as killed or missing in action in the war in Europe. The seriously injured were numbered at 1,923. Bombers lost in action totaled 4,456. Changes in Gas Rations To Wait Quarterly Quota Any changes in basic gasoline ra tions for A and B book holders must await third-quarter alloca tions from the Petroleum Adminis tration for War, Price Administrator Chester Bowles reported today. Accordingly, he said, the OPA cannot yet make any announce ment on increases in gasoline ra-1 tions, promised by War Mobiliza tion Director Fred Vinson Wed nesday. Mr. Bowles estimated that it would require another 45,000 barrels a day to increase the 4-gallon A ration coupon to five gallons and 80,000 barrels more, if the ration is to be increased to six gallons per coupon. Allies Appoint Official Who Subdued Revolt E'y tfce Associated Press. MUNICH, May 11.—Hans Ritter von Seisser, chief of police of Munich from 1919 to 1930, who put down the Buergerbrau revolt led by Adolf Hitler in 1923, was named Munich’s commissioner of police yesterday by the Allied Military Government of that city, headed by Lt. Col. Ralph Hubbard, jr., of Pasa dena, Calif. He is the seventh anti-Nazi ap pointed to a high administrative post in Munich since its occupation by the Allied troops. made possible largely by small sales costs. Mr. Bowles said OPA’s reconver sion policies must meet four major objectives: 1. The continued prevention of in flation, the danger of which he said was greater now than at any time during this war or at the end of the World War. 2. The fixing of prices so that they will encourage full production rather than stand in the way of in dustry, eagerly waiting to resume normal operations. 3. The encouragement of full em ployment. 4. The relaxation of price con trols gradually “as soon as inflation ary danger disappears in each com modity field.” The price administrator said re sumption of volume civilian produc tion presented four major problems to OPA. These are how to price products a manufacturer made be fore the war and which other plants have continued to produce during (See PRICES, Page A-4.) Small Nations Seek Greater Authority On Force in Charter Big Five Appear Near Accord on Trusteeships; Two New Plans Offered YALTA FORMULA on Poland seen facing discard. Page A-3 By JOHN RL HIGHTOWER, Associated Press Staff Writer SAN FRANCISCO, May 11.— The United Nations Conference appeared today to be developing a strong bloc of small nations determined to win themselves greater authority over the pro posed use of force to prevent fu ture wars. The issue is coming sharply to the fore in conference committees considering amendments to the Dumbarton Oaks plan for world peace organization as it was drawn up by Britain, China, Russia and the United States in Washington last fall. He^e are current top de velopments: 1. Prime Minister Mackenzie King of Canada told a Committee on Functions of the Security Council, which is the exclusive, powerful core of the proposed organization, that any nation whose troops were to be used against an aggressor should be permitted a voice in the council’s decision to take forceful action. Mexico and New Zealand indorsed this idea and Australia and several others are backing the principle. Wider Assembly Authority Sought. 2. New Zealand suggested that the proposed world assembly of nations —to which the Dumbarton Oaks plan would assign little authority should have the right to approve or reject any security council action. (See SECURITY, Page A-3.) Mrs. Truman, 92, Flying Here For Mother's Day With Son By the Associated Press. The White House bustled with preparation today for the arrival of President Truman's mother. Mrs. Martha Truman, alert and cheerful for all her 92 years, is fly ing here from Independence, Mo., to spend Mother’s Day with-' <tter distinguished son. She left Kansas City this morn ing and will arrive this afternoon. The White House said the President would go to the airport to meet her. Acting Press Secretary Eben Ayers told reporters that the trip is Mrs. Truman’s first flight. She is being accompanied by her daughter Mary and Capt. James K. Vardaman, jr., the President’s naval aide. • Mr. Ayers said that no deflnite time had been set as to the length of Mrs. Truman’s visit other than that she would remain over Moth ers’ Day. They will add their prayers to those of millions of other Ameri cans Sunday in thanksgiving for victory in Europe and in hope for early peace in the Pacific. By solemn proclamation, Mr. Truman set aside Sunday as a day of prayer when he announced com plete and unconditional surrender of Germany last Tuesday. He said it was appropriate that such an occasion fall on Mother’s Day in honor of those who have given so much to the cause of freedom. Subsequently, he arranged for his own mother to fly here for their first meeting since Mr. Truman took over the Nation’s leadership April 12. Mr. Truman calls his mother “Mamma” and beams happily when she tells him to “be good” or re minds friends he once plowed the straightest row of any farm boy in Missouri. Truman Favors Tax Relief Plan, George Says Five-Point Program Is Discussed at White House Parley By J. A. O’LEARY. Presidential support for the five-point tax program an nounced last night at the Capi tol to help business meet recon version problems was reported by congressional tax leaders to day after a conference with President Truman. 1 Chairman George of the Senate Finance Committee and Chairman Doughton of the House Ways and Means Committee discussed the program with the President and Senator George said later that Mr. Truman concurred in the five-point revision plan. Meanwhile, congressional experts estimated that the cash position of the American business concerns to meet the problems of reconversion may be improved to the extent of $5,700,000,000 during the next few years by the program. This estimate does not mean that the tax liabilities of business under existing law are being reduced by that amount, but that business would have the use during the next year or two of refunds and other benefits that the present tax law would give them in later years. Big Help to Small Business. Small business would benefit par ticularly from a proposed increase in the excess profits tax exemption from $10,000 to $25,000. The other four points do not change tax rates, but merely speed up various postwar credits in the present war. Announced jointly by Chairman Doughton, Chairman George and Secretary of the Treasury Morgen thau, the program provides for: 1. Raising the excess profits tax exemption from $10,000 to $25,000, effective with the beginning of the 1946 tax year. 2. Giving business the immediate benefit of the 10 per cent postwar excess profits tax credit, by applying lit to 1944 taxes now being paid. This, in effect, would mean fixing the excess profits tax rate at 85 per cent, instead of collecting up to 95 per cent now, and giving a 10 per cent refund after the war. Postwar Refunds Bonds. 3. Advance to January 1, 1946, the maturity date of outstanding excess profits postwar refund bonds. These are the bonds that have been is sued to show the 10 per cent post war tax credit allowed to business concerns by the existing law. 4. Speedup refunds resulting from carry-backs of net operating losses and of unused excess profits credits. 5. Expedite refunds resulting from the recomputation of deductions for amortization of emergency facilities. Representative Reed, Republican, of New York, a member of the Ways and Means Committee, lost no time today in indicating that the minor ity may seek to give business a greater measure of immediate re lief. “Not Realistic Enough.” Declaring the five-point program is "not realistic enough,”' Mr. Reed pointed out that he has a bill pend ing to bring the excess profits tax rate down to 60 per cent instead of stopping at 85 per cent. He ex pressed fear that unless more is done now than proposed in the ad ministration program “there will be 5,000,000 unemployed walking the streets,” as war industry begins to taper off. No serious opposition is expected to these emergency adjustments, in the five-point plan, which do not affect income taxpayers gen erally. Later in the summer, however, congressional tax experts will turn their attention to a more general revision of the tax structure. Present indications are that at that time congressional and administration leaders may dis agree on the extent to which income taxes should be reduced pending the defeat of Japan. Up to Ways-Means Group. Tax bills must originate in the House, and if the Ways and Means Committee succeeds in disposing of the reciprocal trade agreement ex tension bill early next week, it probably will turn immediately to the five-point business tax program. Representative Doughton and Senator George explained the pur pose of the changes in the following statement: "The proposed changes would im prove the cash position of business during the period of reconversion to peacetime production. Only the in crease in the specific exemption would reduce ultimate tax liabilities. "The increase in the specific ex emption, in addition to improving the cash position of corporations during the reconversion period, would relieve small corporations from the burden of the excess profits tax. “The committee finds that Fed eral expenditures can be expected to remain at a high level at least until after the defeat of Japan and that the need for revenue will not be lessened during this period.” Leftist Editor's Arrest Protested in Italy By the Associated Press. ROME, May 11.—The Allied arrest of Carlo Andreoni, editor of the extreme left wing weekly Partisan, provoked protests today in some Italian newspapers. Partisan was suspended several weeks ago for breaching military censorship. • A new shipment of colored reproductions of AP Photog rapher Rosenthal’s Iwo Jima flag-raising picture has been received by The Star. They will be available for distri bution in the business office lobby at 10 cents each. The gross proceeds will go to the Navy Relief Society.