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775,000 Workers 'Kidnaped'
To Build Secret Bomb Plants - Because they knew practically nothing about the work and could tell even less, Government officials had to resort to virtual kidnap methods to recruit many of the 115, 000 construction workers who built the giant atomic bomb projects and the two "hidden” cities near them. The task of lining up the unprece dented number of building trades men to construct the plants and housing projects near Clinton, Tenn., and Pasco, Wash., was given to Joseph Keenan, labor vice chair man of the War Production Board. He said manpower difficulties which at time seemed insuperable were encountered, but there finally were overcome with 'TOO per cent co-operation” of the unions in volved. Unusual* difficulty was im posed by requirements for highly skilled mechanics for the “hush hush” jobs of the secret works. "Just Took Men Out.” ‘‘We just sort of went into other war plants and took the men out,” Mr. Keenan related. "It was usual ly done on an eight-month furlough basis. We really had to hand-pick thousands. We had every interna tional union take a personal inter est in it, and they turned over their entire resources to the job. "What did we tell them? Oh, we told them they were going to work on something to beat the Dutchmen quickest, and that they would have to trust us that it was really im portant. Boy, it surely took a long time to make us look all right.” Mr. Keenan said the 9,000 steam fitters the Army wanted "right away” was an “unheard of number of ’fitters,” to say nothing of the 8,000 electricians. We were al ready thoroughly in the war and the orders came at a time when manpower was scarcest. The WPB official gave full credit In solution of his problem to Rich ard Gray and Herbert .Rivers, acting president and secretary of the AFL Building Trades Department, to William Hutcheson, the Carpenters’ president, and others. Buses Transported 35,000. Mr. Keenan described as “a sight I’ll never forget” the transportation Jn trucks and buses of 35,000 work ers to the Washington project from putside the 25-mile "safety” area all within an hour. The site is in a Virtual desert and Mr. Keenan said there were “windstorms as bad as ithe Sahara.” ' f It took nearly 70,000 building •workers to construct the projects in ^Tennessee and about 45,000 at Pasco. jBecause of the urgent need, the race ’.with the Nazis for the secret of the atomic bomb, it was necessary to «tart construction some time before basic research on processes had been jEully developed. This made the job much tougher. i The plants at Clinton (Tenn.) Engineer Works, where raw material is separated by three different meth ods, include more than 425 buildings, many of them huge. The whole Government reservation there in cludes 59,000 acres. City of 75,000 Built. Nearby, occupying 8 square miles of the reservation is Oak Ridge, the city of 75,000, fifth largest in Ten nessee, built hurriedly to house Glinton workers. j In Oak Ridge, there have been erected in two years nearly 10,000 : Bomb Project Won Deferment l For 5,500 Men Draft boards throughout the country know at last why they were asked to defer “a substantial num ber” of men on faith. The atomic bomb is their answer. Selective service said today 5,500 persons in varying occupations were deferred between January, 1943, and June. 1945, for their work with the ‘‘Manhattan Engineer District.” By August 1 of this year the defer ments had been reduced voluntar ily to 4.500, but the War Depart ment still rated the project as No. 1 for deferments. Selectric sendee said boards were told only that a certain man was engaged on a very important project and “full consideration" should be given to his deferment In all other cases, the boards had reams of information about what a man was doing, what he was working on, what the final product would be and why his particular skills were needed. In the cases of men working on the Manhattan Project, all the boards knew was their registrants were working on something import ant and that they were machinists, engineers, chemists or physicists. They knew the men were qualified to do something but what the some thing was they didn’t know. Sometimes the boards asked ques tions and had to be reassurred. The reasurance was done by National Selective Service which was acting on faith pretty much itself. Gen Brally, the men were deferred. -- i family housing units, 13,000 dormi tory spaces, more than 5,000 trailers and 16,000 hutment and barracks spaces. Oak Ridge, 18 miles west of Knox ville, is a complete city. .Its 10 schools have 11,000 pupils, 317 teach ers. There is a 300-bed hospital, many churches, 13 supermarkets, 9 drugstores, 7 theaters and countless restaurants. The Army says Oak Ridges population is probably the young est on the average in the country, the birth rate very high, the health standard high and the crime record low. More than 14,000 pieces of con struction equipment were used at the projects. Despite all of this activity, the Army says the secret was well kept, the head of one plant never knowing what his neighbor was doing. Because of its isolation in a rough, sparsely settled region, the Wash ington bomb plant and its new city of 60,000 posed even tougher prob lems in construction. The new town, Richland Village, is 15 miles northwest of Pasco, and 30 miles away from the manufacturing plants at Hanford Engineer Works. The area comprising the project includes 600 square miles. The finished plants at Hanford are huge, rectangular structures, 800 feet long. The Army illustrates the magnitude of the construction job by citing the following items: More than 25,000,000 cubic yards of earth was excavated; a total of 40,000 carloads of material, equal to a train 333 miles long, were received on the site; enough concrete was poured to build a 390-mile high way; excluding railroad and special types, about 40,000 tons of steel were I used in construction, enough for the biggest battleship; enough concrete blocks and bricks were put in place to build a 6-foot wall, 30 miles long. Then, more than 11,000 poles were required for electric power systems, or about the number necessary to build a power line from St. Louis to Chicago; the job tools were more than 8,500 pieces of construction equipment and 345 miles of perma nent roads were built on the site. Austrians Say Reds Attacked Women Ey the Associat'd Press. VIENNA, Aug. 7.—An official Of the provisional Austrian govern ment said today he had protested rape by Russian troops in their vic torious sweep across Austria and was told: “Our troops are different from the SS. They raped our women and killed them. We won’t kill your women.” The official commented: “That’s true—they don’t kill our women.” His own daughter, he said, es caped violence by being covered with a blanket so that the Russian soldiers thought that she was very old or very ill but a woman in the same room was violated 40 times. The official said the Russians, en tering a country which spoke the same language as the Germans, naturally felt a desire for revenge against the people and this was strengthened by the fact several divisions of Austrian troops fought alongside the Germans on the east ern front. < Most Viennese profess to under stand the “revenge attitude” and all say that the Russians now are as well behaved as the soldiers of any other conquering army. Viennes say pillaging and looting of homes of furniture and removal of wrist watches and jewelry still goes on, but on a much smaller scale. One Developer Lost $10 Bet When Test Of Bomb Succeeded By tilt Associated Press. LOS ALAMOS, N. Mex., Aug. 7.—Doubts as to the complete success of the atomic bomb on its first test cost one of the bomb’s developers a $10 bill. Dr. J. R. Oppenheimer, the University of California physi cist credited by the War De partment with harnessing atomic energy for military pur poses, told the story on himself. Obviously happy, he referred to an official release which said an associate embraced him after the test bomb was detonated with awesome results last July 16. “That’s not true,’’ Dr. Op penheimer said. “He didn’t embrace me. He slapped me on the back and asked me for the ten bucks he had bet me it would work.” The scientist explained he had wagered a certain portion of the experiment would fail. He added: “It was worth losing the $10. '^Voro.hil.v fJ HOKKAIDO f I Vladivostok Hakodat«f-> V’fv. Sao of Japan HONSHU KOREA JAPAN 3<$V*r Na,aol^. . , ,v .. .Korlylm, 3|g^Maebashi k Ilk : * WHERE ATOMIC BOMB HIT—Bomb-burst symbol locates Hl l roshima, where the first atomic bomb was dropped. B-29s also .^rained incendiary and explosive bombs on six (underlined) ^•Japanese war centers, while fighter planes used rockets and anachine guns on targets in the Tokyo area (A). Air Force head quarters said photos revealed Toyama (B), raided Thursday, }was "totally destroyed." Mine symbols indicate areas mined •fiver the week end by B-29s. —AP Wirephoto. 2,000 OF THESE EQUAL ONE ATOMIC BOMB—The new atomic bomb is said to equal in explo sive force 2,000 of these British 11-ton "Grand Slam” bombs. —AP Wirephoto. Text of Description on Atomic Bomb Blast Tension Reached Tremendous Pitch as Time Neared For Test of One of Man's Greatest Achievements The War Deartment made public the following text of a description of the first test of the atomic bomb, made July 16 in the desert of New Mexico, 120 miles southeast of Albuquerque: Mankind’s successful transition to a new age. the Atomic Age was ushered in July 18, 1945, before the eyes of a tense group of renowed sciintists and military men gathered in the desertlands of New Mexico to witness the first end results of their $2,100,000,000 effort. Here in a re mote section of the Alamogordo Air Base, 120 miles southeast of Albu querque, the first man-made atomic explosion, the outstanding achieve ment of nuclear science, was achieved at 5:30 a.m. of that day. Darkening heavens pouring forth rain and lightning immediately up to the zero hour heightened the drama. Mounted on a steel tower, a revo lutionary weapon destined to change war as we know it, or which may even be the instrumentality to end all major wars, was set off with an unpact which signalized man’s en trance into a new physical world. Success was greater than the most ambitious estimates. A small amount of matter, the product of a chain of huge specially constructed industrial plants, was made to release the energy of the universe locked up within the atom from the beginning of time. A fabu lous achievement had been reached. Speculative theory, barely estab lished in prewar laboratories, had been projected into pratlcallty. Credit Goes to Physicist. This phase of the Atomic Bomb Project, which is headed by Maj. Gen. Leslie R. Groves, was under the direction of Dr. J. R. Oppen heimer, theoretical physicist of the University of California. He is to be credited with achieving the im plementation of atomic energy for military purposes. Tension before the actual detona tion was at a tremendous pitch. Failure was an ever-present possi bility. Too great a success, en visioned by some of those present, might have meant an uncontrol able, unusuable weapon. Final assembly of the atomic bomb began on the night of July 12 in an old ranch house. As various com ponent assemblies arrived from dis tant points, tension among the scientists mounted apace. Coolest of all was the man charged with the actual assembly of the vital core, Dr. R. F. Bacher, in normal times a professor at Cornell University. The entire cost of the project, representing the erection of whole cities and radically new plants spread over many miles of country side, plus unprecedented experi mentation, was represented in the pilot bomb and its parts. Here was the focal point of the venture. No other country in the world had been capable of such an outlay in brains and technical effort. Aware of Danger. The full significance of these clos ing moments before the final factual test was not lost on these men of science. They fully knew their posi tion as pioneers into another age. They also knew that one false move would blast them and their entire effort into eternity. Before the assembly started a re ceipt for the vital matter was signed by Brig. Gen. Thomas F. Farrell, Gen. Groves’ deputy. This signal ized the formal transfer of the ir replaceable material from the scien tists back to the Army, which had originally produced it at one of Its great separation plants. During final preliminary assem bly, a bad few minutes developed when the assembly of an important section of the bomb was delayed. The entire unit was machine tooled to the finest measurement. The insertion was partially com pleted when it apparently wedged tightly and would go no farther. Dr. Bacher, however, was undis mayed and reassured the group that time would solve the problem. In three minutes time Dr. Bacher's statement was verified and basic as sembly was completed without further incident. Specialty teams, comprised of the top men on specific phases of science, all of which were bound up in the whole, took over their spe cialized parts of the assembly. On Saturday, July 14, the unit which was to determine the suc cess or failure of the entire project was elevated to the top of the steel tower. All that day and the next the job of preparation went on. In addition to the apparatus necessary to cause the detonation, complete Instrumentation to determine all the reactions of the bomb was rigged on the tower. Weather Delayed Work. The ominous weather which had dogged the assembly of the bomb had a very sobering effect on the assembled experts, whose work was accomplished amid lightning flashes and peals of thunder. The weather, unusual and upsetting, blocked aerial observation of the test. It even , held up the actual explosion, scheduled at 4 a.m. for an hour and a half. For many months the ap proximate date and time had been set and had been one of the high level secrets of the best-kept secret of the entire war. - Nearest observation point was set up 10,000 yards south of the tower, where in a timber and earth shelter the controls for the test were lo cated. At a point 17,000 yards from the tower, which would give the beat observation, tbs key figures la the atomic bomb project took their posts. These included Gen. Groves, Dr. Vannevar Bush, head of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, and Dr. James B. Conant, president of Harvard Uni versity. Actual detonation was in charge of Dr. K. T. Bainbridge of Massa chusetts Institute of Technology. He and Lt. Bush, in charge of the Mili tary Police detachment, were the last men to inspect the tower with its cosmic bomb. At 3 o’clock In the morning the party moved forward to the control station. Gen. Groves and Dr. Op penheimer consulted with the weatherman. The decision was made to go ahead with the test despite the lack of assurance of favorable weather. The time was set for 5:30 a.m. Made to Lie Down. Gen. Groves rejoined Dr. Conant and Dr. Bush and Just before the test time, they joined the many scientists gathered at the Baso Camp. Here all present were or dered to lie on the ground, face downward, heads away from the blast direction. Tension reached a tremendous j pitch in the control room as the I deadline approached. The several , observation points in the area were itied in to the control room by radio and with 20 minutes to go, Dr. S. K. Allison of Chicago University took over the radio net and made peri odic time announcements. The time signals, “minus 20 minutes, minus 15 minutes,’ and on and on increased the tension to the breaking point-as the group in the control room, which included Dr. Oppenheimer and Gen. Farrell, held their breaths, all praying with the intensity of the moment which will live forever with each man who was there. At “minus 45 seconds,” robot mechanism took over and from that point on the whole great compli cated mass of intricate mechanism was in operation without human control. Stationed at a reserve switch, however, was a soldier sci entist ready to attempt to stop the explosion should the order be> is sued. The order never came. At the appointed time, there was a blinding flash lighting up the whole area brighter than the bright est daylight. A mountain range three miles from the observation point stood out in bold relief. Then came a tremendous sustained roar and a heavy pressure wave which knocked down two men outside the control center. Immediately there after, a huge multi-colored surging cloud boiled to an altitude of over 40,000 feet. Clouds in its path dis appeared. Soon the shifting sub stratosphere winds dispersed the now gray mass. The test was over, the project a success. The steel tower had been entirely vaporized. Where the tower had stood, there was a huge sloping crater. Dazed but relieved at the success of their tests, the scientists promptly marshalled their forces to estimate the strength of America’s new weap on. To examine the nature of the crater, specially equipped tanka were wheeled into the area, one of which carried Dr. Enrico Fermi, noted nuclear scientist. Answer to their findings rest in the destruction effected in Japan today in the first military use of the atomic bomb. Had it not been for the desolated area where the test was held and for the co-operation of the press in the area, it is certain that the test itself would have attracted far reaching attention. As it was, many people in that area are still dis cussing the effect of the smash. A significant aspect, recorded by the press, was the experience of a blind girl near Albuquerque, many miles from the scene, who, when the flash of the test lighted the sky before the explosion could be heard, exclaimed, "What was that?” Interviews of Gen. Groves and Gen. Farrell give the following on the-scene versions of the test. Gen. Groves said: "My Impressions of the night’s high points follow: After about an hour's sleep I got up at 01:00 and from that time on until DIRECTED BOMB RESEARCH Dr. Vannevar Bush, head of the Office of Scientific Re search and Development, was in charge of first work on the new atomic bomb, according to Secretary of War Sttmson. -AP Wirephoto. about 05:00 I was with Dr. Oppen heimer constantly. Naturally he was tense, although his mind was working at its usual extraordinary efficiency. “I attempted to shield him from the evident concern of many of his assistants, who were disturbed by the uncertain weather conditions. By 04:00 we decided that we could probably fire at 05:30. By 04:00 the rain had stopped but the sky was heavily overcast. Our decision be came firmer as time went on. “During most of these hours the two of us journeyed from the con trol house out into the darkness to look at the stars and to assure each other that the one or two visible stars were becoming brighter. At 05:10 I left Dr. Oppenheimer and returned to the main observation point which was 17,000 yards from the point of explosion. In accord ance with our orders I found all personnel not otherwise occupied massed on a bit of high ground. "Two minutes before the sched uled firing time, all persons lay face down with their feet pointing towards the explosion. As the re maining time was called over the loud speaker from the 10,000-yard 'control station there was complete ■awesome silence. Dr. Conant said he had never imagined seconds could be so long. Most of the individuals in accordance with orders shielded their eyes in one way or another. “First came the burst of light of a brilliance beyond any comparison. We all rolled over and looked through dark glasses at the ball of fire. About 40 seconds later came i the shock wave followed by the sound, neither of which seemed startling after our complete aston ishment at the extraordinary light ing intensity. “A massive cloud was formed which surged and billowed upward with tremendous power, reaching the substratosphere in about 5 minutes. Other Explosions. ■ "Two supplementary explosions of minor effects other than the light ing occurred in the clouds shortly after the main explosion. “The cloud traveled to a great height first in the form of a ball, then mushroomed, then changed into a long trailing chimney-shaped column and finally was sent in sev eral directions by the variable winds at the different elevations. "Dr. Conant reached over and we shook hands in mutual congratula tions. Dr. Bush, who was on the other side of me, did likewise. The feeling of the entire assembly, even the uninitiated, was one of profound awe. Drs. Conant and Bush and myself were struck by an even stronger feeling that the faith of those who had been responsible for the initiation and the carrying on of this Herculean project had been justified.” Gen. Farrell’s impressions are: "The scene inside the shelter was dramatic beyond words. In and around the shelter were some 20 odd people concerned with last minute arrangements. Included were Dr. Oppenheimer, the director, who had borne the great scientific burden of developing the weapon from the raw materials processed in Ten nessee and the State of Washington, and a dosen of his key assistants, Dr. Kistiakowsky, Dr. Bainbridge, who supervised all the detailed ar rangements for the test; the weather expert, and several others. “Besides these, there were a hand ful of soldiers, two or three Army officers and one Naval officer. The shelter was filled with a great vari ety of instruments and radios. Hectic Two Hours. "For some hectic two hours pre ceding the blast Gen. Groves stayed with the director. Twenty minutes before zero hour Gen. Groves left for his station at the base camp because it provided a better observa tion point. "Just after Gen. Groves left an nouncements began to be broadcast of the interval remaining before the blast to the other groups participat ing in and observing the test. As the time interval grew smaller and changed from minutes to seconds the tension Increased by leaps and bounds. Every one in that room knew the awful potentialities of the thing that they thought was about to happen. The scientists felt that their figuring must be right and that the bomb had to go off, but there was in every one’s mind a strong measure of doubt. “We were'reaching into the un known and we did not know what might come of it. If the shot were successful it was a justification of the several years of intensive effort of tens of thousands of people— statesmen, scientists, engineers, manufacturers, soldiers and many others in every walk of life. “In that brief instant in the re mote New Mexico desert the tre mendous effort of the brains and brawn of all these people came sud denly and startlingly to the fullest fruition. Dr. Oppenheimer, on whom had rested a very heavy bur den, grew tenser as the last seconds ticked off. He scarcely breathed. He held on to a post to steady him self. “For the last few seconds he stared directly ahead, and then when the announcer shouted, "Now!” and there came this tre mendous burst of lights, followed shortly thereafter by the deep growling roar of the explosion, his face relaxed into an expression Of tremendous relief. Several of the obetrvtti steading back of the shel Woman Who Aided In Developing Bomb Is German Refugee By thr Arsoclatsa Prese. NEW YORK, Aug. 7.—Dr. Lize Meitner, woman physicist whose calculations played an important part in developing the atomic bomb, was driven from Germany be cause she is Jew ish and now is in 81 o c kholm, her sister. Dr. Fride Meitner, said last night. She has been in Stock holm since 1938, con nected with the Swedish Acad emy of Sciences, the sister said. A b r i 1 li a n t scientist, Dr. Meitner was con- nr. Meitner, nected with the Kaiser Wilhelm, Academy of Science in Berlin before' she became a victim of Hitler’s ra cial laws. Then she fled to Denmark, where she conferred with Dr. Niels Bohr, Danish scientist, who assisted in developing the bomb. It was Dr. Meitner who broke a 10-year deadlock In experimenta tion with atom bomb principles by suggesting that if the experiments were splitting an atom of uranium in two approximately equal parts, all the puzzles could be explained. She made mathematical calcula tions to prove her point, and Dr. Bohr broadcast them. Inside two weeks physicists had made the test and proved her right. Dr. Fride Meitner said her sister was more than 60 years old, and one of a family of seven, two of whom are in the United States. A sister, Mrs. Rudolph Allers, is wife of a professor of psychology at Catholic University, Washington. A brother. Dr. Walter Meitner, is profesor of chemistry at Manchester University, Manchester, England. Allied Control of Uranium Supply Urged by Scientist It the Associated Press. HOUSTON, Tex., Aug. 7.—Seizure and control of the world’s supply of uranium by an International au thority, such as the United Nations, was advocated yesterday by one of the scientists who helped create America atomic bomb. The scientist is Dr. H. A. Wilson, professor of physics at Rice Insti tute, who directed a series of suc cessful experiments on a phase of the bomb’s development having to do with the use of uranium. He described the atomic bomb as destructive almost beyond imagina tion and said: “I think some inter national authority should take con trol of the world’s uranium supply to see that mastery of the destruc tive principle of atomic disintegra tions does not fall into the wrong hands." ter to watch the lighting effects were knocked flat by the blast. "The tension in the room let up and all started congratulating each other. Every one sensed, ‘‘This is it!” No matter what might happen now, all knew that the impossible scientific job had been done. Atomic fission would no longer be hidden in the cloisters of the theoretical physicists’ dreams. It was almost full grown at birth. "It was a great new force to be used for good or for evil. There was a feeling in that shelter that those concerned with its nativity should dedicate their lives to the mission that it would always be used for good and never for eviL "Dr. Kistiakowsky threw his arms around Dr. Oppenheimer and em braced him with shouts of glee. Others were equally enthusiastic. All the pent-up emotions were re leased in those few minutes and all seemed to sense immediately that the explosion had far exceeded the most optimistic expectations and wildest hopes of the scientists. "All seemed to feel that they had been present at the birth of a new age—the age of atomic energy— and felt their profound responsi bility to help in guiding into right channels the tremendous forces which had been unlocked for the first time in history. “As to the present war, there was a feeling that no matter what else might happen, we now had the means to insure its speedy conclu sion and save thousands of Ameri can lives. As to the future, there had been brought into being some thing big and something new that would prove to be immeasurably more important than the discovery of electricity or any of the other discoveries which have so affected our existence. “The effects could well be called unprecedented, magnificent, beau tiful, stupendous and terrifying. No man-made phenomenon of such tremendous power had ever oc curred before. “The lighting effects beggared de scription. The whole country was lighted by a searing light with the intensity many times that of the midday sun. It was golden, purple, violet, gray and blue. It lighted every peak, crevasse and ridge of the nearby mountain range with a clarity and beauty that cannot be described but must be seen to be imagined. It was that beauty the great poets dream about, but de scribe most poorly and inadequately. "Thirty seconds after the ex plosion came first, the air blast pressing hard against the people and things, to be followed almost immediately by the strong, sus tained, awesome roar. Words are inadequate tools for the job of ac quainting those not present with the physical, mental and psycholog ical effects. It had to be witnessed to be realised.” - Soviet People Given Truman Statement On Atomic Bomb By lh» Associated Press. MOSCOW, Aug. 7.—The So viet press and radio today car ried to the Russian people the news of the new atomic bomb attach on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Shortly after midnight the Moscow radio gave the first ac count of the bombing and the Tass News Agency subsequently issued the text of the an nouncement by President Tru man. The government newspaper Isvestia printed the story on its foreign news page without com ment. j Nine Youths in Arctic Norway Blew Up Nazi Bomb Research (Two months ago Barbara Wace of the London staff of the Associated Press went to Norway to pry into war secrets reported hidden there by the Nazis. She learned of an underground raid that wrecked a factory used in the Nazis’ atom bomb research, farmer Prime Minister Churchill referred to the attack in his statement yesterday on the atom bomb. Her story was held up in censorship until the revelation of the atom bomb by President Truman.) By BARBARA WACE, Associated Press Staff Writer. RHUKAN, Norway, May 6 (De layed by censor).—Nearly three years ago in the stillness of an Arctic midnight, nine youths of the Norweigan underground stole out of the snowy mountains into this beau tiful valley of the Moon River and blew up a factory. Their daring sabotage may have changed the course of the war. For it snagged Germany’s frantic efforts to produce an atom bomb. Kjell Nielsen and Clfius Heiberg, two of the raiders, toid the story of the exploit today. 1 They disclosed that ias long ago as the summer of 1942 the under ground knew that thd Nazis were using a Rhukan factory to produce ‘“heavy water”—and suspected the! heavy water was being used in re search on the atom. They said their sabotage—sup ported by thg British—was accom plished after four of their party had survived unaided for four months in the mountain fastness of this Arctic region, 'where for five months of the year the sun never shines, and where the wind is so terrific that it has blown trains from their rails. Nielsen was among the first to suspect the Nazis' plan. He is a chemical engineer who formerly worked in the sabotaged factory. Two German scientists who worked with him, he said, told him that if they were certain the Nazis were using the heavy water in atom experiments they would refuse to co-operate, because of the threat to mankind. "When we got suspicious here in Rhukan,’’ said Claus, “the home front leaders sent nine of us Rhu kan boys to Britain to tell them about what was going on and what we feared. “There we trained, In Scotland and England, and learned about ex plosives and parachute landings. “Then in October of 1942 three companions and I parachuted into the mountains. "It was bad weather—the worst Winter in 50 years. Five others were supposed to come along with us. but they couldn’t parachute be cause of the weather. “So we camped in the mountains, in a little ski-hut. We lived there for four months, on one month’s provisions, plus reindeer we killed ourselves. Ate Animal’s Stomach. "We even learned to eat the stom ach of the animal. That’s a trick I heard from the Canadians to get vitamin C. “It was a long time to wait up there with the weather so bad. For days we couldn’t leave the hut. It was hard to keep warm. But I gained 20 pounds in those four months and lost them when I got back in civilization.’’ The five others trained for the sabotage finally parachuted into Norway and joined them in Feb ruary and the raid was carried out. Before the sabotage, Nielsen said, the Nazis here were producing 4.5 kilograms per day of heavy water. It was being exported, but Nielsen did not know where. One ferry carrying some of the product across Lake Tinnsjo was sunk. Much Heavy Water Lost. "They lost much heavy water which took them six months to pro duce,” Nielsen said. •The dispatch did not say Atomic Bomb Plants Increased To 10 Billion Times Test Output Illustrating the hurried develop ment of the atomic bomb, the Army revealed that to procure Ingredients in quantity it was necessary to de sign and begin construction of chem ical plants capable of producing the material at a rate of 10,000,000.000 times greater than scientists had dealt with experimentally. . The manufacturing area near Pasco, Wash., is subdivided into three huge areas, and each of these three is again subdivided into sec tions covering miles of ground. One of the three main areas contains three enormous plants where mate rial is produced. A second has three big chemical plants, where material is purified and concentrated, while the third prepares raw materials. No more than microgram amounts (one-millionth of & gram) of the material could be made by methods I available when the giant program ! first was planned in 1941, so it was necessary to work on an extremely small scale of operation, the so | called “ultramicro scale.” ■ "On the basis of these ‘bits of whether the ferry was sunk by sabotage.) His blue eyes twinkling, the young chemist added, "the lake is deeper than Oslo Fjord.” Nielsen remarked that he had heard the Allies also were experi menting in hopes of developing an atom bomb. Nine months after the raid, the Germans had succeeded in replacing the machinery. But a force of 80 American heavy bombers swept in between the towering mountains and did the job again. The air attack drove the Germans into shelters. Neilsen said not one .shot was fired at the bombers, al though heavy ack-ack equipment stood ready. “They got seven iron crosses handed to them for hiding in shel ter,” said one smiling home-front leader. * Heiberg, a tall, fair-haired Nor wegian who now wears British battle dress, a British medal and the Nor wegian Cross of Saint Olav, re marked wryly: "The bombs did the job and stopped the production, but we could have done it again ourselves.” Arne Skouen, director of the Royal Norwegian Information Service, said today in New York that the Allies had known for three years of Nazi experiments with an atomic bomb of such destructive power that a 2 pound missile had the effect equal to that of a modem 4-ton high ex plosive. The knowledge, he said, led to the sabotaging of delicate machinery at the scene of the experiments in a Norwegian hydro company plant by pasachutist-saboteurs. Skouen said Prof. Tronstad, one of Norway's leading experimenters, and his assistant, Gunnaar Syver stad, were killed last spring when they led a second party of raiders against the plant. Small demolition charges were used by the first at tickers. Ger man guards thought wandering cat tle had set off mines in the nearby field. Their task accomplished, the patriots walked 180 miles over mountainous terrain to Sweden and were flown back to London. Senator Calls Atom Bomb Blow to Universal Draft Ey the Associated Press. DENVER. Aug. 7.—Senator John son, Democrat, of Colorado declared last night that "the atomic bomb ought to blow up peacetime con scription as well as bring the war with Japan to a speedy conclusion.’’ Senator Johnson, a member of the Senate Military Affairs Com mittee, said he had known about work on the atomic bomb for the last three years. “It ought to mean the end of big armies, and militarism is bred from big armies,” he commented. "Some of the things the scien tists have found out about atomic power are almost fantastic. The big trouble has been that the scien tists have progressed faster than the statesmen. Unless the states men catch up, the destruction of mankind itself may be in sight” Perseid Mefeor Display Is Due Sunday Morning By the Associated Press. The annual display of Perseid meteors is expected to reach a max imum Sunday morning, from about 1 am. until dawn. The Naval Observatory said last night a display of 30 or more Per se ids an hour may be seen on a clear dark night from a location where artificial lights do not inter fere. The meteors are called Perseids because their radiant, or point where their visible paths appear to meet when traced backward, is in or near the constellation Perseus. nothing,’" the Army says, “the huge chemical plants were designed some 10,000,000,000 times ^greater in scope.” To do this, scientists, In the mix ing process, had to push around fractions of micrograms within a limit of accuracy of 3 per cent of 1 microgram. A human breath, it was explained weighs about 750,000 micrograms, while a dime weighs 2,500,000. Special laboratory equipment with extremely high sensitivity had to ba designed and built to achieve this unheard of accuracy in weighing. Work continued on this minute scale until early 1944, when milli gram amounts of material became available. Since then investigations j have continued with increasingly larger amounts. Experiments on a gram and then a 10-gram scale were : begun later in 1944. After that the scale became substantially larger. The huge chemical plants wera thus designed, constructed and put into successful operation on the | basis of this early work with only > micrograms. "M-mmmm | All this and Petri Wine Petri Took Tlmo To Bring You Good Wlno