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With Sunday turning Edition. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. WASHINGTON, D. C. ■■■' ' " ""———■ 1 1 —-—— i The Evening Star Newspaper Company. Main Office; lltfc St. and Pennsylvania Ave. New York Office: 110 East 42d St. Chicago Office: 435 North Michigan Avt. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. Effective October 1. 1044. Regular Edition. 4 Sundays. 5 bondage. Evening and Sunday. 00c Der mo. *1.00 per mo. The Evening Star... 60c per month. The Sunday Star 10c per copy Night Final Edition. ' 4 Sundays. 6 Sundays. Night Final and Sunday. Sl.OOmo. $1.10 mo. Night Final 8tar_ 76c Per month. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United States. 1 month. 6 months. 1 year. Evening and Sunday..$1.00 $6 00 $12.00 The Evening Star_ .75 4.00 8.00 The Sunday 8tar_ .60 2.40 6.00 Telephone Nations! 6000. Entered at the Post Office Washington. D. C.. as second-class mall matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press Is exclusively entitled to the use lor republication of ell news dispatches credited to It or not otherwise credited In this paper and also the local news published herein. All rights of publication of apecial dispatches herein also are reserved. A^_^^_TUESDAY^iugusjM'^1945 Senator Hiram Johnson A picturesque fortuity links the death of Senator Hiram Johnson of California and the stupendous news event which overshadowed the tid ings of his passing. About the time that this old warrior was sinking into his final sleep, a bomb was dropped from an airplane on the other side of the world which figur atively severed a past from a future. k Thus one epoch came to a close with the death of a man who so stanchly stood for one of its dearest convic tions; a new epoch was begun with the dropping of the bomb. It is too bad, in a way, that Sena tor Johnson will be remembered for his isolationist convictions after many other things he stood for have been forgotten. As a young man he was a flaming liberal, in the sense conveyed by use of the term to denote courageous rebellion against exploitation of the people by in trenched wealth and power. Old in years at the time, he still wras youth fully progressive in the’ early days of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal. And in the years of his greatest political power and prestige, he lived in the knowledge that the country stood with him in his antagonism to foreign entanglements, international co-operation and his sincere belief that America would stand best when she stood alone in a world so com fortably large. He did not change, but other things did. The war, which he op posed on a premise that history «already ridicules, destroyed—with other things—the theory that dis tance can immunize a Nation, or that the people in one part of the world are in no sense dependent on the fate of people in another. No one ever doubted that Senator John son was motivated by a love of his country. Yet there must have been those among his friends and ad mirers who felt that his love was misdirected. He stood firmly, but ! the march of events left him far behind. He outlived, by a few short hours, his time. Ten Washington messenger girls, at the request of WPB, are testing the wearing qualities of shoes treated with asphalt. These are the times that try women’s soles. If the essential courage as well as the specific trustworthiness of hu manity needs proving, let it be re membered that it was a man who Invented the alarm clock. Hiroshima » The first target of the atomic bomb was a Japanese equivalent of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Richland, Washington, combined. As far back as 1900, Hiroshima was a military and naval station of the first class, carefully closed to foreigners. The history of the place dates from be yond the twelfth century. It be longed in those days to Kiyomori, the powerful and thoroughly un scrupulous head of the Taira family. Later, it passed into the hands of the Asano clan and was a strong hold of the so-called “princes” of Geishu. During 1894 and 1895, the city was the base for repeated at tacks upon China. From it set out the Nipponese contingents partici pating in the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. Again it was the scene of vast activity during the conflict with Russia in 1904 and 1905. Lying at the mouth of the Ota gawa River, the town had a natural strategic significance. Hills to the north protected the valley from the cold winds of winter. The panorama as viewed from the sea was noted for its beauty as recently as a decide ago. Five separate deltas reached out into the bay, and each had been developed in line with the aggressive policies of the imperial government. Shipyards, arsenals, foundries, store houses, barracks, drill grounds and army and navy offices in great num ber rose from the water’s edge as far as the eye could see to left and right. The spectacle was crowned by the ruins of the castle of* Mori Terumoto, built in 1594. A five storied keep, known as Tenshu-kaku, was the principal remnant of the medieval structure. Nearby was the celebrated Sen-tei, the villa of the Asanos, with a marvelous garden. The family temple, Kokutai-ji, was surrounded by cherry trees of classic grace. In the compound, Japanese visitors were directed to notice especially the tombs of the wife and the son of Oishi, the leader of the Forty-Seven Ronins, traditional paragons of patriotism, heroism and all the knightly virtues. The population of Hiroshima in recent years has been a closely guarded mystery. What has hap pened to the people whose home the community was is anybody’s guess. The Atom in War and in Peace The announcement that the genius of man has harnessed the basic force of the universe and converted it into a fantastically destructive weapon for use against Japan is almost more than the mind can grasp. j Before this fact, staggering in Its implications, all jother news of the day fades into insignificance. For it means that mankind stands at the threshold of a new era—an era in which wars will be banned if the world is to survive and in which the power that binds creation will be put to work to build a better life for all of us. But the peacetime benefits of atomic fission lie in the future, pos sibly years away. What concerns us now is the knowledge that the mys terious, hidden energy of the atom has been fashioned into a bomb, and that one of these instruments of vast destruction — two thousand times as powerful as the largest bomb heretofore known—has been dropped on a Japanese city which bore the name of Hiroshima. What will the Japanese do now? Many hours after the atomic bomb had fallen an impenetrable cloud of dust and smoke still concealed the devastation in what had been a city of some 318.000 people. But from our tests in the New Mexico desert we know what this bomb can do. And the Japanese people, even if their war lords remain deaf to reason and blind to the awful truth which has been unveiled before their eyes, must know what the future holds. For President Tru man, in his announcement of the atomic bombing, warned that we are now prepared to obliterate every productive enterprise the Japanese have above ground in any city, that we will destroy their docks and their factories and their communications, and that, when this “rain of ruin" from the air has done its work, our sea forces will move up to the coasts of Japan and our armies will swarm ashore for the final, killing blow. Furthermore, if this is not enough, the Japanese have been given a sketchy preview of more terrible things to come. They have been told that this first atomic bomb, al though carrying an explosive charge that is “exceedingly small” in size, has a blast effect equivalent to the explosion of 20,000 tons of TNT. And they have also been given the solemn assurance that improve ments soon to be forthcoming will increase by “several-fold” the pres ent effectiveness of the bomb which laid waste to Hiroshima. The scien tists in whose laboratories this weapon was born are confident that over a period of years we may expect the development of atomic bombs , which will be “very much more powerful” than those now at hand. But the atomic bomb of today should be enough to convince Japan that the war is lost. 3k * * * Nearly seven centuries ago, when Japan lay open to invasion by the fleets of the Mongol, Kublai Khan, a violent typhoon destroyed the hos tile armada. That gave rise to the legend of the “divine wind,” to the belief that Japan can count on supernatural aid against her en emies. But if that legend survived the earlier visits of the B-29s and the Navy’s carrier planes, it must have been done to death by the single bomb which shattered the city of Hiroshima. Now the truth is there for all to see. The Japanese have lost the war which began on that “day of infamy” nearly four years ago. We hope that they will sur render and avail themselves of the terms of the Potsdam ultimatum. If not, if they choose to go down to final ruin, the atomic bomb gives us a new and incomparably more ef fective means of hastening their total destruction, and we shall not hesitate to use it. Apart from its tremendous imme diate meaning, the development of this weapon is an event full of such awesome and revolutionary implica tions for the future that there is no exaggeration in saying that it marks the beginning of a distinctly new epoch in the civilization of this Na tion and the world. As long ago as the turn of the century men knew that certain atoms — the fundamental building blocks of everything animate and inanimate—contained within them selves power fearsomely greater than that produced by any other source of energy. Not until 1939, however, did science succeed in re leasing and harnessing an infinites imal amount of that power from uranium. Then, as told now by President Truman and Secretary Stimson, the story became one of a race among nations to dig deeper and deeper into the innermost se crets of Nature, not simply for the sake of progress or to widen the horizons of human knowledge, but more particularly to find the dead liest of all weapons for the Second World War. Thanks to a kind Providence, as the President declared, we won the race. Gambling some two billion dollars on it, collaborating closely with British and Canadian scientists and operating in the strictest of secrecy —as ordered by the late President Roosevelt, who had much to do with the project—the United States be came the first of nations to make atomic energy an instrument of power which in both its actualities and its potentialties is almost be yond belief. The story is not dhly fascinating but half frightening. At Oak Ridge. Tenn.. and Richland, Wash., industry, science, labor and Government—scores of thousands of individuals working together pro ducing something which only a handful ever saw or understood— have carried mankind across an interval In time to a tomorrow In which the knowledge that is now ours, depending on its use, can be either the world’s undoing or its salvation. In the long-term sense at least, militarily, socially, economically and not improbably politically as well, the atomic bomb obviously means that the human race faces the pros pect of having to make profound changes in its habits of thought. The secrets of the weapon, accord ing to President Truman, will be kept among the British, the Cana dians and ourselves as long as that seems necessary, but scientists else where, with or without Information from us, will still be able to develop it in the years to come. Clearly, as never before since the beginning of world history, nations have here at their disposal a means of destruc tion so terrifying, so complete, so appallingly effective that should they ever again war among them selves they will invite their own obliteration. i i A ik Beyond its military meaning, moreover, the development of the atomic bomb marks the opening up of an entirely new source of energy. To appreciate what this can mean we have only to keep in mind what happened to our world when coal, petroleum and falling water came into use as generators of power. President Truman says that in time the atom can be counted upon to “supplement” these bases of our civilization, but conceivably—in very large measure—it may even replace them. In 1939, after the historic experiment with uranium had suc ceeded, it was suggested by the best of scientists that in the twenty-first century—which is only about fifty years away—a pound of the new atomic fuel would be enough to drive a great ship like the Queen Mary back and forth across the Atlantic several times. The implica tions here are clear: Sooner or later, the triumph of man’s genius at Oak Ridge and Richland is going to have an effect of the most far-reaching kind on the economic and social structure of peoples everywhere. It is not for nothing, therefore, that President Truman plans to ask Congress to establish a commission to control atomic power. From the standpoint of war and peace alike, the atom today suddenly confronts us with a new age pregnant with strange new problems of the gravest sort. We have tortured Nature until it has been forced to yield one of its deepest and most forbidding secrets. It remains for us now, lest we tor ture ourselves, to match this vastly expanded knowledge with wisdom great enough to make us use it well. ——— This and That By Charles E. Tracewell. "DARK HARBOR, Me. "Dear Sir: , "One of my loveliest memories of child hood is of listening to the Baltimore oriole singing In an old apple tree cov ered with blossoms. This was in New York State. "I am interested that some one else has had the same experience in Wash ington, because although I was told the orioles were not uncommon there I was never able to Identify one. "I have seen many farther North, in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire and now in Maine. Recently I saw a beauti ful one as far north as Penobscot Bay. "Sincerely yours, M. S. C.” v * * * There are plenty of orioles in and around Washington, but they do not visit feeding places, and therefore are more difficult to spot than the birds which do. Perhaps there is no suburban com munity where the calls and the singing of the Baltimore oriole are not heard, but seeing the creature is a different matter. Its loud, clear notes distinguish it from most other species. The calls and songs of the birds do help make precious memories. Fortunate is the child who is taught to know and love them. Since the calls and songs are natural music, they must be taught, as all music. There is one child out of every thou sand, no doubt, who takes naturally to listening to the birds and distinguishing their songs one from the other. He does not need any one to suggest interest to him. Most little ones, however, need some older person to direct their attention and to fix the calls in their minds. If they are shown how the birds compose, "make up” tunes, and that each kind of bird makes up its own tune, and, with some exceptions, such as the mocking bird, sings no other, in time they will come to understand the brotherhood be tween a robin and Beethoven. Music is music, wherever found. The bond be tween a bird song and a symphony is easily seen, if one has a bit of training in both. Will Handy, whose "blues” songs, par ticularly the famous “St. Louis Blues,” is known around the world, attributed his early interest in music to the birds. Not all persons are so fortunate as children to realize that bird songs axe music. Many persons, alas, even older ones, call bird music “noise.” Even many who know and love the birds fail to understand their making of choral music. The English sparrows, sometimes spoken of as pests, make the most pleasing music together. Examined carefully, the sounds from any one singer are not so "hot,” as the expression has it, but the notes combine to make pleasant music on winter afternoons where bird feeding is carried out. Bird songs offer hundreds of simple melodies, some of them reminding the listener of the real Hawaiian tunes, whose simplicity is truly birdlike. Each species has many variations, and detecting these is a pleasure to the musi cally inclined. At this point it is per haps well to state that music is one art where a “little learning" is much better than none at all. Music lessons are never wasted. No matter how few or many a pupil takes, there is something gained. Music may not “take” on every pupil, but each one will learn something, and in later years be better prepared to love ana appreciate the music of birds and men. Rudimentary music lessons will help in the appreciation of bird songs. With the exception of the mockingbird and cat bird, who specialize in real arias, going on for hours, the birds have easily iden tified songs, short enough for any one to grasp. Careful listening to their music will help any one In appreciation of the mere Mwpii music of human <»»f Letters to The Star Spokesman for Women’s Clubs Discusses Industrial Home To tho Bdltor of Tht St»r: The District of Columbia Federation of Women’s Clubs, which brought into the open the dreadful conditions pre vailing in the Industrial Home School and which The Star , made the subject of a thorough investigation, is contin uing its fight to see that something constructive is done at once to remove this disgraceful and demoralizing apol ogy which seems the best the District has to offer for the training and re habilitation of our children. The proposed move to MacArthur boulevard takes away from these un fortunates much of the little they have now—there will be no swimming pool, much less ground and so, probably, no garden and little outdoor recreation. The Board of Public Welfare is con cerned with an “overall plan” to cost between eight and nine millions. At the present rate of about $300,000 a year, this well may take 30 years and by that time there will be need to start all over again. The plan of the Commissioners seems a sane one—to take these children into a clean and decent environment, such as Muirkirk, which can be renovated at moderate cost, and then go to Con gress and get the appropriation for an expert to plan a new group of suitable buildings. If this does not seem feasible, then the present institution should be put into decent shape. Congress is willing to give the necessary funds, once the citizens present a reasonable plan, but a chimerical, vague proposal which pre sents no figures for either land or build ings certainly cannot get results. It might be well to farm these chil dren among the several States along the Eastern Seaboard where modem, well-planned institutions already are in operation and where the children are being trained into becoming valuable citizens mainly because of a centralized authority, not the scrambled set-up we have here. Mrs. Hasley’s idea of en listing the aid of the citizens is one which certainly should bear fruit. Both the Federation of Women’s Clubs and the Federation of Citizens’ Associations are going to stay in the fight until, as your editorial states, "some constructive and beneficial steps are taken.” It is hoped that the Commissioners will prevent this move to MacArthur boulevard, knowing that the District Federation of Women’s Clubs has ded icated Itself to obtaining the needed ap propriations for new buildings under the leadership of its president, Mrs. Gertrude Parks. LE8LIE B. WRIGHT, Chairman of Legislation, D. C. Fed eration of Women’s Clubs. Churchill's Debt to Labor To the Editor of The Stir: I think that H. B. Bradford’s recent letter to The Btar, in which he con demns the labor movement for ousting Churchill, shows a distorted view and an ignorance of the many factors which influenced the British electors. Mr. Bradford should remember that Churchill himself has stated on many occasions that he could not have carried on the onerous task of leadership had it not been for the loyal co-operation consistently displayed by his Labor col leagues in the cabinet. The British people are not unmindful of Church ill’s services to his country as a war leader, but when he made violent at tacks on these same colleagues in his election speeches and did everything possible to discredit them, the electors felt that he was allowing his political prejudices to outrun the spirit of fair play. Indeed, if there is any question of in gratitude it should be charged against Churchill who, after the war in Europe was over, found it politically conven ient to forget that the Labor members of his national government had given him every possible assistance and shared the heavy responsibility of di recting Britain's share of the war effort. In dissolving the national govern ment when he did and throwing down the challenge to the Labor party, Churchill made one of the greatest mis takes in his career. He felt certain that his personal popularity was suffi cient to carry into power a party whose record holds little promise of the solu tion of the many grave domestic Issues now facing Britain and which vitally affect the lives of the working classes. Mr. Bradford should take the trouble to study the industrial conditions which obtained in England prior to the growth and influence of the labor movement. He then would realize that his descrip tion of organized labor as despotic and tyrannical applies far more aptly to the great industrialists and other employers of labor, who are represented politically by the party Churchill now leads. To charge that there is no intelli gence or capacity for statesmanship in the ranks of the labor movement is to imply that the members of Churchill’s party have a monopoly of these qualifi cations. This, of course, is absurd. (MRSJ A. M. PINK. But Dollars Grow on Trees To th« Kdltor at The Star: Your report that in July some 15 biUlon gallons of rain fell on the Dis trict contains one drop of comfort. It is that other things than dollars are counted in billions. J. I. Sounds a Bit Cynical To th« Xdltor at The St»r: If there had been no First World War, the world would not have the blessings of Communism—and its near relatives Fascism and Naziism. If there had been no Second World War, Poland and other countries of Eastern Europe would not be enjoying collectivism, Britain would not have a Socialist government and other countries of Europe would not be revelling in the “rise of the common man.” Isn’t it utterly silly to think of stop ping war when so obviously what we need is bigger and more terrible warsf At the present rate of rapid progress toward the "bright, new world,” a few more bigger and worse wars ought to bring mankind to perfection. Some are cynical enough to think that the bright, new world will be a world full of perfect Ananias', but it will take at-least another war or two to make that level of accomplishment universal. However, we art well on the way. AUGUST T. WKLVEN. Some Horrors, Too! Prom the at. Levis Pttt-DUeateb. Returning veterans are having to deal with no fewer than 30 Government agendas. Thais, gentlemen, are known m tbs barren ef psasa. This Changing World By Constantins Brown Lut year Congress approved Amer ica’s participation in the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration and about *#00,000,000 of the American taxpayers’ money was made available u this country’s share in this Good Samar itan work. But in order to keep vital necessities from being used for political purposes to foster the fortunes of the new Euro pean dictators, Congress provided that their distribution be supervised by offi cials not connected in any way with politics in the countries where the officials were supposed to operate. Congress provided further that there should be no discrimination in the dis tribution of food and clothing against any individual, regardless of his political views, creed or race. The American legislators sincerely be lieved that the provisions of the law passed by Congress would be scrupu lously respected by the governments of the nations which need American assist ance so desperately. * * * * American officials who have been sent as regional supervisors in Yugoslavia re port to Washington that they are being held as virtual prisoners in the places where they have been assigned and are denied the right to move even within a few miles from their assigned posts to see how the food, clothing and medical supplies from the United States are being distributed. Outside the military and civilian officials, no native is allowed to talk to them. The ONZA (Yugoslav branch of the Russian NKVD) has sent word that those civilians who endeavor to contact the American and British UNRRA offi cials will be punished. The record of the ONZA is well known by the popula tion and nobody dares break its rules. If an American or British official wants to travel even a short distance to report on the distribution of the sup plies, he must ask special permission from the military authorities of the area. They in turn ask the OZNA for a specific report whether or not such a trip is essential, and on the basis of such a report the request receives con sideration. The main centers of distribution are at Belgrade, Dubrownik and Split. American and British officials arrived there last May and to date they have not been able to observe what is being done with the supplies. The matter of issuance of blanket permits for free movement was taken up with Marshal Tito's administration as soon as it was discovered that handicaps had been placed in (heir way. But for the time being the matter has not been set tled, although the director general of the UNRRA, Herbert Lehman, discussed the question with Tito during his recent visit to Belgrade. * * * * The officers of Tito's army who come into daily contact with the American officials have a friendly attitude toward them and say that the population shares their feeling But they all live in dread of the Yugoslav strong-arm men, whose Job it is to prevent information about real conditions in the country from reaching the outside world. The general mobilization order of Yugoslavs from the age of 16 to 50 was Issued a few days after V-E day and all the males, regardless of their physical condition, have been incorporated into the army. Together with this mobilization order, the Adriatic coast of Yugoslavia was ordered mined. Unfortunately, those who laid the mines were not experts and failed to indicate them clearly on the maps. As a result a number of Yugoslav ships have been blown up and the American and British vessels taking UNRRA supplies to the country are In constant danger. Allied minesweepers have helped out by clearing channels to the Adriatic ports. The ships must move in only by day and must be very careful to avoid floating mines. After the supplies are unloaded they are placed in warehouses. Because of the reputed lack of transportation, only a small quantity is being sent into the interior, where the need is greatest. But how it is being distributed and to whom is a question mark, since the American and British observers have no means of exercising control after the trucks leave the main centers of dis tribution. The Political Mill By (rould Lincoln The death of Senator Hiram Johnson of California has removed from the Senate one of the great liberals of the Theodore Roosevelt-Bull Moose days. He will, however, be longer remembered as an implacable foe of internationalism for the United States—one of the men who helped to keep the country out of the old League of Nations, and who op posed the adherence of this country to the new United Nations. He was twice elected Governor of his State. He ran with Theodore Roosevelt as vice presi dential candidate when Roosevelt sought to regain the presidency in 1912. His antagonism to Charles Evans Hughes in 1916 has been credited with bringing about the re-election of Woodrow Wil son as President. In 1920 he was himself a candidate for the Republican nomination for President, and along with Gen. Leonard Wood and Gov. Lowden of Illinois, tied the national convention into a knot— until the leaders picked Warren G. Harding as a compromise candidate. This was Hiram Johnson’s last chance for the presidency. Even so, he might have become President had he been willing to accept a vice presidential nomination with either Wood, Senator Knox of Pennsylvania or Harding him self. The last two died within the four year presidential term. Wood died in 1927. Johnson, had he been Vice Presi dent, would have stepped into the White House. He refused, however, to com promise. He served for 26 years in the Senate. * * * * Mr. Johnson’s present term as Sena tor expires in January, 1947, and had he lived, he planned to run again next year. His death throws the field wide open. First, for Republicans who may be appointed to fill the senatorial va cancy until after the 1946 elections, and second, for the nomination, both Re publican and Democratic, next year. Gov. Warren undoubtedly could have both the appointment and the nomina tion; the first by resigning and having himself appointed to the Senate, and the second by becoming a candidate. Unless he has changed his mind in the last month, Gov. Warren prefers to re tain his present office and seek re-elec tion as Governor. The first move will be Gov. Warren's —for it is his duty to see that the va cancy in the Senate is filled by appoint ment. LL Gov. Houser, also a Repub lican. would, according to reports, give I his eye teeth for the job. He ran as the Republican nominee for Senator against Senator Downey, Democrat, last year, and was defeated in the Roosevelt landslide. Senator Johnson indorsed Houser in that race. The lieutenant governor is anxious to run again next year, and was before Johnson died—al though it might have been embarrassing for him to enter the race had Johnson again been a candidate. His appoint ment may be a logical solution—but it also may not materialize, for there has grown up a certain friction between Warren and Houser. If the Governor will not have the senatorship himself, nor give it to Houser, he might turn it over to Ray mond Haight, Republican national com mitteeman for California, who managed Warren’s campaign for Governor. He might pick Capt. William Knowland, now in the Army, son of former Representa tive “Joe” Knowland, a publisher, of Oakland. There are, too, several Repub lican members of the House who would welcome such an appointment. Repre sentative Gearhart is one of those who night be selected. * * * * Whether the Governor’s appointee ill be the Republican nominee for the Johnson seat in next year’s election may rest largely upon the Governor’s selec tion. The chances are, however, there will be a real scramble for the nomina tion. This may be true in the Demo cratic party as well as the Republican. Attorney General Kenny, the sole Dem ocrat in high State office, is pulling the strings. He has indicated he does not want the nomination himself, preferring to be the power behind the throne. If one of the sons of the late President Roosevelt is to make an attempt to start an important political career, Col. James Roosevelt, now a resident of the State, might take a crack at the pri maries. For more than a dozen years the Roosevelt name has been potent in California. The only living Republican former President, Herbert Hoover, is a Cali fornian. He and Hiram Johnson were not friendly. The Senator always re sented the fact that California’s first President of the United States should have been Mr. Hoover. There was no closeness between the two when both were in Washington, and Johnson in 1932 supported Franklin D. Roosevelt in the presidential race against Mr. Hoover. Gov. Warren could, if he wished, appoint Mr. Hoover—provided the latter would accept—to the Senate. AMG on Okinawa By Gordon Walker, Christian Selene* Monitor correspondent. OKINAWA.—After touring a number of civilian camps here, it is clear that the American military government is so far treading a tightrope between humanltarianlsm and necessary stern ness toward so-called enemy nationals. It is actually still too early to draw any sweeping conclusions about the ef fect of AMO on the people. But if the first four months on Okinawa can be taken as a yardstick for future military government in Japan proper, the Em-’ peror's subjects probably will get better treatment than they now are receiving from their own government. Just what broad objectives will be followed by the military administration in Japan proper will, of course, depend upon the ultimate surrender terms. But in lieu of such terms, AMO is at present gradually formulating general rules of procedure based oit experience gained here. So far, it can be forecast that the Japanese people will be figuratively beaten on the head and slapped on the back. They will be subject to military discipline and military summary court trial no matter how anachronistic it may be in democratic society. * * * * They will be wrenched from all na tionalistic institutions. And, as in any military administrative setup, they will be subject to the whims of the military government officials who happen to bo on the spot. No former civil admlnistrativee&fflcers have been reinstated, largely because most preinvasion officials were evac uated to Japan. Minor administrative functions, such'as food rationing and representation before AMO camp au thorities, is intrusted to the "hancho,” who may be the headman of a village or a section thereof. This relieves AMO of a great amount of detail and at the same time gives the people a feeling of some responsibility. Native industries are revived and en couraged, recreational facilities are pro vided for children, and reasonably well run orphanages shelter the usually high quota of parentless youngsters. Men of military age, after being carefully screened, are confined in stockades by night and placed In work parties by day. But ones they have proved fhneatvog trustworthy, they are permitted to return to their families. One of the biggest problems facing AMO is to make civilians as self-sus taining as possible. This is complicated at present by the necessity for moving many civilians to areas which normally are not very productive, which will probably result in the AMG having to put large sections of the civilian popu lation on a permanent food allowance. * a * * It is calculated that the present diet of rice, soy beans, fats, sugar, salt and evaporated milk will cost the United States about seven cents a day a person. Thus it would cost $18,000 dally to feed Okinawa’s 260,000 civilians and require the full services of six Liberty ships yearly to haul food from the States. While food is a major problem, it is fraught with none of the implications or pitfalls that attend the restoration of education. I visited a large native school con ducted by native teachers who five months ago were teaching the same youngsters Shinto militarism and to bow each morning in the direction of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo. Today these same teachers are teach ing elementary education in the Okin awan tongue, normal calisthenics, and a few words of English which they them selves learned the night before in classes conducted by the local camp com mandant. All textbooks have been confiscated and classes necessarily are very elemen tary. Yet it is easy to see that beaming school children, drinking in the novelty of the new supervision and the glamour of American troops, are receiving in doctrination with far greater implica tions than mere acquisition of the three conventional Rs. So far, the military government on Okinawa is strictly a stopgap based on the necessity for keeping people out of the way of the conduct of the war. The AMO is hampered by lack of any long-range United States policy to which the officials can hitch their present job on Okinawa. And until such a policy is forthcoming they will continue more or less fumbling in the dark, leaving re sponsibility for the first contact with enemy civilians to the individual officers who run the camps. (Worth a—rtsaa JUtaiie AMsswe.) Invasion Force Unity Assured, Says Writer Sees Widespread Misunderstand* ing on ‘Supreme Commander’ By David Lawrence Co-operation of the Army and the Navy as well as the strategic air forces on a tri-partite basis under the direct command of the United . States Joint Chiefs of Staff has been assured for the Pacific war. Within the last few days Orders have been issued which are called "clarifica tion,” but they in reality follow out the plans made some time ago whereby the armed services are to bevjiven specific tasks in given situations^ind no “su preme commander” is to be appointed • for the whole operation. There is a widespread misunderstand ing as to what Gen. Eisenhower com manded. Again and again it is. as serted that he was the "supreme com mander” of all Allied forces in Europe. But high officers who are fp miliar with the setup pointed out today that this is a mistaken impression. Six Commands in Europe, Thus there were six separate and dis tinct commands in Europe as follows: 1. The British Navy, which included the coastal air defense in which the RAP operated under the navy. 2. The combined strategic air forces of the United States and Great Britain, which means the RAP together with our own bombing forces. 3. The United States Navy command in the Atlantic, which included anti submarine operations, protection of convoys and naval defense against enemy navies. 4. Allied forces in the Mediterranean and Italy commanded by Gen. Alex ander of the British Army. 5. Command of all Russian armies, which was conducted from Moscow and in the field by Russian commanders solely. 6. Gen. Eisenhower’s supreme com mand of all Allied troops on the western front, starting in Prance. With the exception of the brief period of the landing on Normandy, when the strategic air forces as well as the British and American navies worked together for a few days under Gen. Eisenhower, the latter did not have continuous over all command of army, navy and air forces in Europe. . Pacific Par ailed. Hence the situation in the Pacific is really parallel to that of Europe and if one choose to call it “divided com mand,” the phrase applies as much to what happened in defeating Germany as it applies to the plan for defeating Japan. Actually it is a unified command at the top level, but with specific tasks [ assigned to each of the armed services. Thus the United States Navy con i tinues to function in its own special 1 way in the Pacific under Admiral Nimitz, controlling its aircraft carriers and surface and submarine forces, as well as the Marine Corps. The strategic air forces of the Army continue to operate independently un der Gen. spaatz, but in the selection of targets in advance there is collabora tion between the naval air arm and the land-based air forces. The Army to be used against Japan I is to be commanded by Gen. MacArthur. I This will consist of all ground forces now in the Pacific, including those in : Okinawa and the Philippines and all new divisions as they come from the United States and Europe. No Confusion in Plan. There is no “confusion” about this plan except in the minds of those who would like to have the whole setup changed, so that an Army man com mands the Navy or a Navy man com mands the Army and the air forces. The United States Joint Chiefs of Staff have recognized that each of the three forces perform a special func tion, but when the actual invasion of Japan or China occurs there will be a blending of forces, exactly as hap pened for a few days in Europe. Thus Admiral Nimitz will conduct the land ing operations, in which the Navy plays a part—and it will be the major part. TTie strategic air forces will for the time being be blended with the land ing operations, so that when the troops have been landed, and their initial positions have been made secure, Gen. MacArthur will have command of all land forces, as well as the strategic and tactical air forces, but he will not have any command over the Navy’s protective operations at sea, since these can best be handled from a command that is afloat. There is in Army and Navy and air force circles here a complete understand ing of the plan for the invasion, and it has sufficient flexibility to take care of unforeseen contingencies. The high of ficers most concerned in all branches see no confusion in it, but are prepar ing to demonstrate that all the armed services can be co-ordinated without putting any one man in charge of all operations. (Reproduction Richts Reserved.) Trillion-Dollar Folly ProM the Ulnnempolli 8t»r-Joum»l. Best available estimates on the cost of World War H to date are that man kind has blown up, sunk or otherwise destroyed uselessly at least one trillion dollars’ worth of its real wealth. • The figure divides roughly In half be tween amounts spent on armaments and property destroyed incidental to the fighting. It does not, of course, include postwar relief and rehabilitation ex penses and such indirect costs, utterly unassessable, as will yet arise from our economic disruption. Obviously, it does not attempt to place a value on the lives and sufferings of human beings. , It is, in Short, just the minimum, round-number, cash price of man’s con tinued failure to organize world society sensibly. We said “minimum”—the cost is still going up at the*, rate of more than 200 million dollars a day for America alone. The Beach We heard the voices of children From the island of summer. In the smooth waves of June and July Their voices rose in a golden murmur Under the sounding-board of the sky. The words they said are lost, but never forgotten, Syllables traced In the first frost Of the season that follows. The houses they built from the sand In the water’s luminous shallows Are leveled and gone where the hand lies palm upward, Receiving the sun like a gift . , . and the wind’s kiss. Here where the miniature maiden and man Broke withetheir running the sea-grass, There is no sound to break the careful noon, Though the same winds pose and repose, SARA VAN ALB TYNE ALLEN.