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Mostly sunny, warm, humid today: warm again tonight. Cool, thundershowers tomorrow. Temperatures—High, 85, at 1:30 p.m.; low, 73, at 6:56 a.m. Yesterday—High, 86, at 3:55 p.m.; low, 70, at 6:20 a.m. Lote New York Markets, Page A-10 Guide for Readers Page After Dark_B-6 Amusements ..B-16 Comics _B-14-15 Editorial ..A-6 Edit’l Articles...A-7 Finance_A-10 Page. Lost and Found, A-3 Obituary _A-4 Radio _B-15 Society .B-3 Sports.A-8-9 Woman's Page B-10 An Associated Press Newspaper 93d YEAR. No. 36,991. Phone NA. 5000. WASHINGTON, D. C., TUESDAY, AUGUST 14, 1945-TWENTY-SIX PAGES.★★★★ City Home Delivery, Dally and Sunday m /''ITXTrpCJ 90c a Month. When 5 Sundayi. S1.00 «® X/JcjIN _L lO NO SURRENDER REPLY RECEIVED AT BERN, BUT TOKYO NOW REPORTS IT IS ON WAY Early Coded Cables Mistaken For Long-Awaited Jap Answer —■ —■—■... — —"' — — • » ___ White House Learns of Error After Announcing Receipt During Day of Confusion By th* Associated Press. The White House announced today that Japan still has not replied to Allied surrender terms—but the Tokyo radio reported almost simultaneously that the enemy note was “on its way.” Presidential Secretary Charles G. Ross made public a memorandum from the Swiss Legation here shortly after noon saying that coded cables received in Bern from Japan ”do not contain the answer awaited by the whole world.” The Tokyo radio at 12:01 p.m. (Eastern War Time) said “the Japanese government’s reply to the four powers is now on its way to the Japanese Minister at Bern.” The broad cast was recorded by the Federal Communications Com mission. Mr. Ross’ disclosure came on the heels of reports, which he himself had passed on to reporters, that the Japanese surrender answer had been received in Bern. Memorandum From Swiss Legation In a memorandum to Secretary of State Byrnes the Swiss Legation here said: “'With reference to the telephone conversation this morning between Mr. Max Grassli, charge d’affaires ad interim of Switz erland and the Hon. James F. Byrnes. Secretary of State, the Legation of Switzerland wishes to confirm the receipt of the fol lowing open (not coded) cable from the political department in Bern, received at 10:59 (E. W. T.) August 14: “‘Very urgent 760—Japanese Legation reports that coded cables it received this morning do not contain the answer awaited1 by the whole world. “‘(Signed) Politique. " What the numerals 760 in the message referred to Mr. Ross said he did not know. Mr. Ross called reporters into his office to read the memo, as he said, “Without comment." The Swiss memorandum threw back to a Domei radio broad cast from Tokyo the only basis for the report that the Japanese would accept the surrender terms. Note Sent Last Saturday. Last Saturday the United States, Great Britain, Russia and China agreed to accept the Japanese surrender, with the Emperor retaining his throne if the Emperor were subjected tc the orders of an Allied supreme commander of occupation forces. The Allies also stipulated that eventually the Japanese people must be permitted to select their own form of government. Word from the Swiss came in the middle of a day that had started off expectantly with radio reports from Bern and Tokyo saying-the Japanese had framed an answer and that it was on its way to the Allied capitals through the Swiss neutral diplomatic channels. Mr. Ross had announced to reporters earlier in the day that Commodore James Vardaman, President Truman's naval aide, had talked to the Swiss Legation shortly after 7 a.m.. and had been informed that the Swiss had received the coded surrender message in Bern. This raised expectations that the Japanese reply would be in the hands of Allied leaders in a matter of hours. Officials Informed Quickly. When the lengthy coded message received by Japanese offi cials in Bern proved to be something other than the surrender reply, Swiss officials there and in Washington were informed quickly of the fact. Because of their previous conversation with Commodore Vardaman the Swiss acted hurriedly to notify Secretary Byrnes of the situation. Mr. Byrnes then went to the White House from his State De partment office and apparently delivered to President Truman the Swiss memorandum. Previously newsmen had asked Mr. Ross about reports they obtained from the Swiss Legation that no sur render reply had been received either in Bern or Washington. Mr. Ross, apparently mystified by this turn of affairs, went immediately to the President. He announced the memorandum as soon as the Duke of Windsor, who had been talking with Mr. Truman, came out of the executive offices. Under the procedure outlined by Mr. Ross, Mr. Byrnes would! be the first to receive the official text of the Japanese note after its transmittal through Switzerland. He would communicate it immediately to President Truman. Early in the day Mr. Ross told reporters it probably would re quire several hours for any Japanese message to be decoded in Bern and relayed here. A reply may be accelerated, however, if American Minister Leland Harrison in Bern receives a copy there and cables it directly to the State Department. Earlier the Swiss radio, in a broadcast recorded by British radio monitors, had announced that “Japan has accepted the capitulation offer.” It came about five hours after the first word of Japanese acceptance from Domei at 1:50 a.m. Byrnes Goes to White House Twice. The word that Bern already had received the note in mid morning came as Mr. Byrnes was holding a conference with Presi dent Truman, who retired at 10:30 o’clock last night, but was in his study at 7:30 a.m. today. As Mr. Byrnes left the White House, reporters asked him if he expected a reply from Tokyo today. “Yes, sir,” he replied crisply, and continued across the street to the' State Department. Shortly after 11 a.m. Mr. Byrnes returned to the White House, spoke briefly with the President and went back to his own office. Nothing was revealed as to the purpose of this second visit. Although hilarious peace celebrations were held early this _‘See SURRENDER, Page A-5.) Britain Making Plans For Thanksgiving Service By the Associated Press. LONDON, Aug. 14.—Tentative ar rangements were made today for a national service of thanksgiving to be held in St. Paul’s Cathedral Sun day afternoon if peace is then a certainty. The King and Queen would attend. The British cabinet met for an hour this morning, but no announce ment was made afterward regarding the Japanese situation. Arrangements for the opening of Parliament tomorrow went forward. Two scarlet thrones were placed in the House of Lords. The King will not wear his crown or robes for the Parliament open ing, but instead a service uniform. Private Falls to Death At Peace Celebration by the Associated Press. DENVER, Aug. 14.—A 25-year-old soldier was killed in a fall from a third-story hotel room early today during a peace celebration. The victim was Pvt. Allan A. Al lison of Youngstown, Ohio, sta tioned at Lowry Field. Detective L. C. Sawyer said a fist ^ght pre ceded Allison’s fall and that Geron Shelton, 24, of Temple, Tex., a vet eran of this war, was arrested for investigation. Two additional men from the District area have been re ported killed in this war. See ■ “On the Honor Roll," page A-2. 11 " i Jap Radio Says Shamed People Weep at Palace Transmission Then Is Held Up; Important Broadcast Promised r-y the Associated Press. Domei. Japanese news agency, said in a broadcast recorded by the Federal Communications Commission today that “on Au gust 14, 1945, the imperial de cision was granted” and that weeping people had gathered be fore his palace and “bowed to the very ground” in their shame that their “efforts were not enough.” The broadcast did not say what the Emperor's decision was. Domei transmitted only about 130 words of the item and then broke off to say to editors: “Hold this item.'’] The portion of the Domei dispatch on the “Emperor's decision” said Hirohito had felt “extreme concern” \ ever since his rescript of December (See HIROHITO, Page A-5.) i Soviet Tanks Continue Drive in Manchuria; Rail Junction Falls Jap Report of Invasion Of Southern Sakhalin Unconfirmed by Reds E* the Associated Presa. LONDON, Aug. 14. — Russia's tank-led armies continued their1 j whirlwind thrusts into Man-; churia today after capturing the three-way rail junction of Lin-j kow and cutting the last rail communication line for Japanese j troops fighting in the Sungari-1 ! Ussuri River valley. The capture of Linkow by Mar shal Kirill A. Meretskovs 1st Par; Eastern Army put the Russians 177 miles east of Harbin, major Japa ; nese arsenal city and rail junc tion of Central Manchuria. The line severed is one of three north-south railroads in Manchuria,: running from the Korean port of ! Seishin to Kiamusze on the Sungari River. Russian communiques disclosed also that another vital north-south route, the 950-mile railway linking Dairen and Muken, was threatened. 22 Strong Points Taken. Harbin was the goal of a five pronged Soviet drive. Advances up to 28 miles were reported yester day, with the Russians announcing the capture of at least 22 Japanese! strong points. There still was no| Soviet confirmation of Japanese re-i ports that Russian marines had in vaded Southern Sakhalin Island, establishing two beachheads on Karafuto, the Japanese half of the island lying only 26 miles north of the Japanese homeland. Marshal Meretskov’s army was reported to be advancing all along a 360-mile front extending from Hulin to captured Linkow and then i south to the Korean frontier, but Japanese intrenched in mountain passes were fighting fiercely. Jap anese resistance was heavy at | Mutankiang, where a battle has been raging for three days for control of this junction of the Chinese Eastern Railroad and the Seishin-Kiamusze line. Marshal Rodion Y. Malinovsky's Transbaikal Army was moving steadily toward the Darian-Shih chan railroad in Northern Man ! churia and the latest Russian com munique placed these forces within 47 miles of Taoan, a large junction city. Capture of this hub by the Russians would leave tens of thou sands of Japanese troops in North ern Manchuria without rail commu inication and would speed their entrapment. Evacuations Reported. Japanese broadcasts said Hsinking, capital of Manchuria, which was blasted by Soviet bombers along with other strategic rail centers, was be ing evacuated. Marshal Malinovsky’s horsemen captured Wenchuan (Aershan), terminus of a rail line of Hsinking, and other of his troops pressed for ward along western stretches of the Chinese railroad, taking Mientuho. 350 miles northwest of Harbin and 45 miles from Pokotu Pass, heavily fortified gap through the great Khingan mountain range. Tokyo broadcasts said the Rus sians went ashore on Karafuto at Ambetsu and at Esutoru, south of the heavily fortified border which separates the Japanese half of the island from the Russian-owned northern portion. These landings apparently were designed to outflank the fortifica tions. This reported invasion fol lowed the capture by Russian ma rines of the Japanese naval ports 1 of Rashin and Yuki in Korea, about 90 miles southwest of Vladi vostok. r Big B-29 Fleet Hammers Japan With 5,000 Tons 3d Fleet Offshore After Beating Back Enemy Planes BULLETIN. GUAM. Wednesday itpy.— More than 1.000 planes of the j Strategic Air Forces, includ ing 800 B-29s, have operated against Japan in the last 24 hours, 20th Air Force head quarters announced today. I Bj the Associated Press. GUAM, Aug. 14.—Super For tresses struck Japan with a 5,000 ton demolition attack today and headquarters indicated they will continue their crushing blows right up until a final official sur render notice is received from Washington. The raid today by hundreds of; B-29s was under way when the Tokyo radio broadcast that the; enemy would accept the Potsdam Declaration. The Japanese also knew that the world’s mightiest naval force—the United States 3d Fleet with a Brit ish carrier task force—was idling close off the home shores after pressing home air strikes on the Tokyo area Monday. Attacking Planes Downed. The enemy had attempted to | reach the fleet with a belated air; attack, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz! reported, but 21 of the attacking planes were shot down and none got near the ships. Meanwhile, the American and British carrier airmen knocked out 117 parked Japanese planes and struck ground installations a stout blow, despite bad. rainy weather on Monday. On Sunday night. American cruisers and destroyers shelled Japan's Kurile Islands. So far as has been disclosed, the fleet was not in action anywhere today. Spaalz’s Planes Out Again. After a four-day layoff while the Japanese were making surrender overtures, Gen. Carl A. Spaatz sent his Strategic Air Forces out on heavy onslaughts which his headquarters said began at noon and still were under way four hours later. At 3:58 p.m. (Guam time), the Navy radio here flashed a pickup of the Domei agency's Tokvo broad cast saying Japan’s acceptance of; the Potsdam ultimatum was forth coming. By that time Strategic Air Force headquarters already had disclosed that at least 430 Super Fortresses from the Marianas and 176 fighter planes from Iwo had participated in attacks on Southern Honshu. Wing after wing of Super For tresses were described as making a “maximum effort." Flyers Eager for Last Blows. The planes carried an average of 7V2 tons of high explosive bombs each. (At this average, at least 666 Super Fortresses would be re quired to carry the specified more than 5,000 tons of bombs, rather than the 430 thus far mentioned—indicating that the scope of the attack was greater than yet announced.) So eager were the airmen to get in their last few licks at the Jap anese that the total number of planes participating kept increasing __ (See FLEET, Page A-3J District Stands By Expectantly For Official News of Victory Many Resume Vigil At Lafayette Park, Awaiting Word Washington stood by with an air of expectancy today awaiting official news from the White House that peace has returned. Government workers who had plodded through long hours helping to win the war with pencils and wits; store and office employes who had stuck by their guns to keep the home front intact—all felt the day was at hand for a victory celebra tion. Early today some of the faithful who have dotted Lafayette Park, opposite the White House, took up their vigil, encouraged by radio Tokyo’s surrender announcement that the days of waiting were over. 500 Play Hookey From Jobs. By 9 a.m. today, about 500 per sons, many of whom admitted “playing hookey’’ from their jobs, milled noisily in Lafayette Park as (See CELEBRATION, PlgeTWX | New York Again Stages Wild Victory Celebration in Streets Ey the Associated Press. NEW YORK, Aug. 14.—A noisy, turbulent celebration gathered mo mentum in the streets of New York today in anticipation of a V-J an nouncement. Jostling, cheering crowds in creased by the minute—passing the 100,000 mark in Times Square by midmorning—and a breeze-whipped blizzard of torn paper covered pave ments ankle deep. Fireworks exploded over the heads of Chinatown’s joyful residents, who were joined by neighbors from Little Italy in the quarter’s jam packed, narrow streets. Church Bells Peal. Church bells pealed and worship ers in* unusually large numbers knelt in gratitude. The Rev. D. G. War field Hobbs, at St. Thomas’ Episco pal Church on Fifth avenue, asked (.SeeNEWYORK^Page 7a^57) • asagsjir^1 2 sen'oswe“Rossoc^NOUCHri’ .- M --i S?5TncMm /RLSETTUNaty'! atomic power mat eliminate need j mr administrator } “CS”' Petain Defense Opens Final Plea Before Case Goes to Jury Tonight Six Hours' Deliberation Expected as Minimum To Reach Verdict By the Associated Presi. PARIS. Aug. 14.—The two stars of Marshal Petain's defense bat tery, Fernand Payen and Jaques Isorny, today began their final effort to destroy Prosecutor Andre Mornet's treason case against the former Vichy chief of state. Tonight the trial, which began on July 23, probably will go to the jury, w’hich is expected to deliberate at least six hours before returning a verdict. Owing to an acute paper shortage Paris newspapers will be forced to limit their accounts of the end of the most important trial in French legal history. Payen told the high court of justice that Petain "constantly and scientifically tricked the Germans, but he never tricked the Allies.” Payen compared Petain to Pierre I.aval in the Vichy regime. Laval, he said, was convinced that Ger many would prevail and he worked for an intimate union with the en emy. "But that was never Petain's policy.” Payen declared. “It never was before and a man doesn't! change in character and manner of thinking at 84. Documents and other evidence show that Petain fought the Germans as hard as he could from July 14, 1940, until the end. Petain never played more than one game—that of his country.” Justice Aide Gives Parker Good Chance for High Court By the Associated Press. Judge John J. Parker of Char-' lotte, N. C., has '‘a good chance” of | appointment to the vacancy on the Supreme Court, a high official of the Justice Department said today.! Judge Jarker is scenior judge of the Fourth United States Circuit Court and a graduate of the Uni versity of North Carolina. He was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1930 by President Hoover, but the Senate rejected the nomina tion after labor and Negro organiza tions voiced opposition. Judge Parker, if appointed, would replace Justice Owen J. Roberts, who retired recently. Officials See 7 Million Jobless By '46; Hope Cuts Will Be Brief bnyder Mapping rolicy on Keconversion; Taylor Looks for No 'Rash of Strikes' Br the Associated Presa. Government officials helping supervise the return of American j industry to a peacetime basis see prospects of 7,000,000 unemployed by Christmas. These leading Federal economists say temporary mass unemployment is sure to come regardless of any thing industry can do. They add. however, that if this mass unemployment is oniy tempo rary “it will not be alarming.” Alike in their views although representing separate agencies, these economists — anonymous at their own request—said unemploy ment might rise to eight or nine million next year unless the Gov ernment moves to prevent such an increase. The number hunting jobs now has been estimated at 1.400,000. it stood at 13,000,000 in 1932, low point of the depression. The economists added that ,:nem ployment should begin shrinking late in 1946 or early 1947. They emphasized, however, that no one can estimate the extent of the. shrinkage. Today’s reconversion scene also j included these other developments: 1. It was learned that War Mo bilization Director Snyder is pre paring a general statement on re conversion policy. This statement: will set the pace for an expected flurry of other pronouncements; from Federal agencies on their own roles. 2. War Labor Board Chairman Taylor said he thinks there will be "no rash of strikes" after victory over Japan. 3. Officials acquainted with the (See RECONVERSION,"Page A-3J ! De Gaulle |o Confer With Truman Aug. 22 About French Affairs White House Confirms Date; Four Points Likely to Come Up Gen. Charles de Gaulle, head of the provisional French gov ernment, will come to Washing ton a week from tomorrow to confer with President Truman. The White House last night an nounced the date of the contem plated visit, which Paris said several week ago had been arranged. Un til the statement last night both White House and State Department had been silent on the matter. Charles G. Ross, presidential sec retary, issued the following state ment: ‘•After an exchange of views in May between the President of the United States and Mr. Bidault, French Minister of Foreign Affairs, during the course of which the mu tual desire of President Truman and Gen. de Gaulle to meet was expressed, it was agreed that the President of the Provisional Gov ernmnent of the French Republic would come to the United States as soon as circumstances permitted. August 22 Date Set. “It has now been agreed that the meeting will take place this month and the 22d of August has been fixed for the arrival of Gen. De Gaulle in Washington.” While there was nothing in this statement to indicate the purpose of the trip, American and French sources gave attention to these topics. 1. The French economic situation. 2. The question of Germany’s Western boundary, still unsettled. 3. France’s share In German rep arations. 4. The Far Eastern situation, es pecially as respecting French terri tory. Restoration Important. Gen. de Gaulle may stress par ticularly the materials France needs to restore her industry and agri culture to full-scale operation. France already has been allocated 400,000 tons of American coal per month, if shipping space is availa ble. Machine tools, agricultural equipment and, of course, food, and other products are likely to rate top priority on Gen. de Gaulle’s list. Probably more Important than any details the two leaders bring up in their discussions will be how they get along personally. It can have important bearing on postwar re lations of the two pations. 9 Billion Already Paid Under Social Security In First 10 Years Truman Announces Plan To Perfect Legislation on Anniversary of Act D. C. UNEMPLOYMENT FUND now swollen to total of $41,614,000. Page B-l Social security payments to' individuals total approximately $9,000,000,000 since the Social Security Act was signed by Pres- j ident Roosevelt 10 years ago; today, according to Federal Security Administrator Paul V. i McNutt. Meanwhile, President Trumar\ is sued a statement saying that the Nation has a “right to be proud” of its accomplishments so far in the field of social security, but that “we ] have a long way to go before we can truthfully say that our social se curity system furnishes the people of this country adequate protection.” He said he planned to present Congress with specific recommen dations to make the act "a more perfect instrument for the main tenance of economic security * * The 10-year total is made of $900, 000,000 under old-age and sur vivors’ insurance, $2,237,000,000 un der unemployment compensation and $5,779,000,000 under public as sistance. Both Federal and State funds are included in the totals. Jobless Cost Lower Than Expected. In a report to Mr. McNutt last night, Chairman J. Altmeyer of the Social Security Board stated that unemployment compensation pay ments were much lower than ex pected in view of war production cutbacks. On August 1 about 190, 000 persons were receiving weekly benefit payments averaging $18 a week. He described the short-term in surance system as the “first line of defense” for families of approxi mately 36,000,000 insured workers during the reconversion period. It is designed to replace about half the wage loss of insured workers during a limited number of weeks. Mr. Altmeyer reported that the old-age and survivors’ insurance trust fund amounted to $6613,380,619 on June 30. “Considering the tre mendous liabilities for benefits al ready incurred by the system, it is apparent that this sum Is not one which we can view with too com plete assurance,” he declared. This, he said, means that taxes must be increased if the program is to be self-sustaining, m the fund TSee SOCIAL SECURITYrPg. A-3.) May Wants Draft Halted at Once When Japs Quit Military Committee Head Urges Invoking Of 'Duration' Clause By the Associated Press. Chairman May of the House Military Affairs Committee today called for an immediate halt to further inductions once Japan falls and the earliest possible re lease of men already drafted. Mr. May said he would introduce, as soon as Congress reconvenes next month, legislation to end all draft calls, thus assuring similar bills before both Houses. Senator Lar ger, Republican, of North Dakota announced last night he would act similarly in the Senate. Mr. May added he also plans to discuss with President Truman the subject of early action to declare hostilities at an end for the "dur ation” clause of the Selective Service Act. 4 Discharges in Six Months. Such a declaration, he said, would mean that inducted men would be discharged not later than six months after its effective date. Under provisions of the Selective Service Act, men must serve for the duration of hostilities plus six months. Army legal authorities said the six months can only start on conclusion of a peace treaty, Clark Drafts Opinion On Peace Date for Use on War Contracts By tht Associated Press. Attorney General Clark said today he is drafting an opinion on the legal date of the end of the war. After conferring with Judge Samuel I. Rosenman at the White House, Mr. Clark told re porters that because some Gov ernment contracts would term inate within a specified time after V-J day it will be neces sary to fix that date legally if the Japanese surrender. Officials have pointed out that V-J day will be proclaimed by the President only after the formal signing of surrender terms by the Japanese. Many congressionally authorized war time powers will expire six months after V-J day. on a presidential proclamation end ing the war or by a joint resolu tion of Congress. It was almost three years after Armistice day in 1918 that Con gress officially declared World War hostilities ended. Inductions May Continue. Mr. May noted that unless Con gress or the President intervenes, induction of men may be con tinued until next May, regardless of the situation in the Pacific. A Selective Service spokesman said yesterday draft calls will be con tinued to meet Army and Navy needs until Congress or the Presi dent acts, or until the Draft Act expires. Mr. May, however, declared, •‘There is no need to draft another man after Japan quits. And we should start thinking about getting back to civilian life those we al ready have drafted.” When Congress extended the Draft Act this year, it provided that inductions could continue until next May 15 unless the President or Congress formally declare hostili ties ended before then. Mr. May said he believed Con gress should make the declaration, adding that it need not interfere with other wartime legislation en acted for the duration. It could, he said, declare hostilities at an end only for purposes of inductions. 26 Soldiers Die in Crash GOCH, Germany, Aug. 14 <£>).— Twenty-first Army Group authori ties said today 26 British and Cana dian soldiers were killed and 50 in jured, some seriously, in a head-on collision of two leave trains near Goch, early yesterday. Late Bulletin Knowland Succeeds Johnson LOS ANGELES <JP).—Gov. Earl Warren today announced the appointment of Maj. Wil liam Knowland, Republican, former State Senator, as suc cessor to Senator Hiram Johnson, who died last week. (Earlier Story on Page A-2.) t -— New Overseas Edition Will Be Out Tomorrow A new issue of The Star’s Overseas Edition will be ready tomorrow. Free copies, with envelopes for mailing, may be obtained at The Star’s busi ness counter and the Victory Bond booth in Lansburgh’s Department Store. The edition is strictly lim ited. Please donwaste a single copy.