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Sunny, high in mid-80s. Clear tonight, low about 65. Tomorrow mostly sunny, warm. Temperatures today—High, 82, at 1:30 p.m.; low, 61, at 5:54 a.m. Yesterday—High, 82, at 1:44 p.m.; low, 60, at 5:22 a.m, (Full Report on Page A-ll.) Closing N. Y. Morkets—Soles, Poge A-11. Guide for Readers Page. Amusements B-16 Comics _B-14-15 Editorials _A-6 Edit'ial Articles.A-7 Finance . A-ll Last and Found A-3 Page. Obituary_A-10 Radio _B-15 Society _B-3 Sports ..A-8-9 Where to Go _B-« Woman's Page B-9 An Associated Press Newspoper 94th YEAR. No. 37.340 Phone NA. 5000. WASHINGTON, D. C., MONDAY, JULY 29, 1946-TWENTY-EIGHT PAGES. Cits Home Delivery. Dally and Sunday DOe a Month. When 5 Sundari. SI.00 5 CENTS U. S. Handling of War Contracts Attacked by Warren in Blast at Army, Contractors and Officials 4 Officers Cited; GAO Helpless, Controller Says MAY LETTER to constituents de fends position in probe. Page A-' By Miriam Ottenberg Controller General Lindsay Warren today leveled a blast at Army officers, war contractors and Government officials in & general indictment of the Gov ernment's handling of war con tracts. Testifying before the Senate War Investigating Committee, he charged specifically that: 1. At least four Army officers, whom he named, took high-paying jobs with companies immediately after completing contract termina tion settlements with the same companies. 2. War contractors were permitted to switch from cost-plus to fixed-fee contracts after the contracts were completed in order, he said, to avoid a General Accounting Office audit and to get more money. In one instance the switch took place after the contract was completed, on the grounds that it would expe dite the progress of the war—al though the war was over by that time. •‘Moron Could Have Made Audit.” 3. The GAO got so little infor mation from the War Department on which to audit contract ter minations that "a 10-vear-old mo ron could complete the audit in IC seconds.” 4. As an example of what it could do under its limited powers, the GAO recovered more than $100,000, 000 in on-the-spot audits of cost plus contracts. It was permitted to do nothing about fixed price con tracts, however. With some high Governmentw)ffi cials, the acceptance of entertain ment. including cocktail parties, hotel bills and travel from a con tractor, while drawing travel ex pense and per diem from the Gov ernment, was “the rule rather than the exception.” To Name More Officers. At the request of Chairman Mead of the investigating committee. Mr. Warren agreed to furnish the names of more officers who went to work for firms with whom they had been involved in their Army capacity and officers “throughout the country” who accepted entertainment from contractors. Terming employment by a com pany with whom an officer had been negotiating for the War Department an “indefensible practice.” Senator Mead said the committee “will go deeper into this and make known our recommendations to the Sen ate." When Mr. Warren said there was nothing illegal in it. Senator Mead promised a committee investigation and observed, "This practice should be stopped by law.” Denounces Practice. Mr. Warren revealed that as soon as the employment of these officers was discovered, the GAO threw every searchlight on the terms 6f the contracts they negotiated. In disclosing the names, Mr. War ren denounced as “damnable” what he termed the “Widespread" practice of Army officers obtaining lucrative jobs from war producers whose Gov ernment contracts they helped draft and settle while in the service. Mr. Warren gave the committee this list of officers and the com panies they joined: Maj. George W. Parker, former contracting officer and termination contracting officer, who was assigned to the Howard Aircraft Co. He now is general manager of that company. Became Procurement Chief. Col. Forrest W. Smith, who was the original contracting officer and termination contracting officer for five contracts with the Schwitzer Cummings Co., Indianapolis. He left the Ordnance Department May 25, 1945. and the following June 16 became manager of procurement for Schwitzer-Cummings. Capt. G. I. Calvert, former officer In charge of the St. Louis ordnance district, at Houston. He was the contracting officer's representative to expedite plant clearance and dispose of termination inventories, from August 1, 1945. to December 1. 1945. in connection with final settlements with the Sheffield Steel Corp., Houston. After his release from the Army he went to work (See WAR PROFITS, Page A-3.) Bevin, Improving, May Go to Paris Soon iy the Associated Press LONDON, July 29.—Foreign Sec retary Ernest Bevin was reported by his wife today to be "very much im proved" and perhaps will be able to attend the Paris Peace Conference by late in the week. London newspapers had specu lated earlier that the 65-year-old statesman's illness was more serious than merely the strain of overwork. Some suggested he might resign be cause he had said frankly he never wanted to be foreign secretary. There was no official confirmation of any forthcoming cabinet revision, and a foreign office source said Mr Bevin was recovering and might be able to go to Paris soon. In his Arsence. Ms place is being taken by rri; rime Minister Attlee. Nevertheless, a new crop of rumors wfcre circulated that Mr. Bevin was fed up and that he aid not. relis'h his much-publicized clashes with Soviet Foreign Minister V' M. Mol otov or the comment they provoked In this country. Committee Approves Raising Federal Pay Ceiling to $ 12,500 Downey Will Seek Immediate Senate Action; Cabinet Increase Is Rejected By Joseph Young The Senate Civil Service Com mittee today approved legisla ; tion to raise the Federal pay j ceiling from $10,000 to $12,500. The committee authorized its chairman, Senator Downey. Demo crat. of California to introduce the legislation as an amendment to trending Civil Service measures now j before the Senate. Senator Downey announced he would seek immediate action on the ! amendment, possibly today. Although approving the raising of ithe ceiling, which would mean $1, 172 salary increases for top career : people in the Government and a $2,369 wage boost for agency heads, the committee rejected Senator Downey's proposal to raise the $15, 000 annual salaries of cabinet offi cers to $18,354 a year. The Downey amendment would wipe out the present $10,000 Federal wage ceiling and grant the full per centage increases of the 1945 and 1946 Federal Pay Acts that were denied top bracket employes because of the $10,000 limit. All increases granted to employes in the $9,000 $10,000 class had to stop at $10,000 and agency heads received no raise. The bills' chances depend on whether there will be an oppor tunity to bring it up during the few remaining days of the session. Com mittee members said that was the reason the’ legislation will be intro duced as an amendment to civil service legislation now pending be fore the Senate. This will by-pass the necessity of having the legisla tion referred to a committee and if passed by the Senate will mean that the House could also act on it with out referring it first to the House Civil Service Committee, it was said. President Truman and adminis tration leaders are reported to favor Senator Downey's proposal. Mr. Truman previously had called on Congress to vote more liberal raises for top Federal employes in order iSee DOWNEY, Page A-5.) li Billions Approved By Mouse Unit for Gl Furlough Pay $26,000,000 for OPA Also Included in Final Deficiency Bill By the Associated Press A $2,431,708,000 allotment for GI furlough pay and a $26,000, 000 fund for the reborn OPA topped a $2,479,663,210 deficiency bill approved today by the House Appropriations Committee. Last scheduled money measure of the Seventy-ninth Congress, the bill also provides: $20,000,000 for overtime, leave and holiday pay of Government workers: $250,000 for the new Price De control Board under OPA. Provision for use of Manhattan Engineering District (atomic bomb project) funds by the Atomic Energy Commission, and $19,750,000 of War Department money for military aid to the Philippines. The bill was rushed to the House floor after two days of committee hearings, and House leaders urged its immediate passage. Accounting for 98 per cent of the total, the GI furlough pay allot ment gives effect to pending legis lation under which an estimated 15.000.000 Army and Navy enlisted personnel already discharged or still in service are expected to apply for reimbursement for unused fur lough time. The bill authorizing the payments | is tied up in a Senate-House Confer ence Committee seeking to adjust differences over the form of pay ments. The House voted for cash, while the Senate recommended I bonds except for payments under $50. Although President Truman is reported to favor the bond pay-off. | the plan evoked some grumbling from the House conferees. They point out that the officers, who have been eligible for paid terminal leave ! all along, got theirs in cash. Some of the lawmakers fear re percussions at the polls this fall if they put the GI payments on the I. O. U. basis. I Veterans would receive two and a half days’ paid leave for each month of active service from Sep | tember 8. 1939. The limit would be (See APPROPRIATIONS^Page A-5.) Bulletins Wounded Fugitive Caught John McGill. 23. colored, of the 200 block of N street S.W.. who escaped from police at the office of United States Commissioner Needham C. Turnage in the Bank of Com merce and Savings Building, Seventh and E streets N.W., shortly after noon, was cap tured about two hours later bv police. McGill had just been held in S10.000 bond for the grand jury in the robbing of a cab driver on Thursday of S14 when the escaped. He was captured in Clark court S.W. after he had been shot. Delegation at White House While 500 colored and white demonstrators waited quietly in a park at Seventeenth and E streets N.W., a delegation of eight leaders of the National Negro Congress called at the W'hite House and demanded a strong statement from Presi dent Truman condemning the lynching of four Negroes in Georgia. They made an ap pointment to see David Niles, presidential assistant, later today. (Earlier Story on Page A-4.) Stadium Plans Stalled The Senate today refused to act on the Bilbo measure pro posing an advance of Federal Works Agency funds for draft ing plans for the projected $20,000,000 Memorial Stadium. A ? Nats and Indians 0-0 In Sixth Inning of Opener at Cleveland Three Double Plays Mark First Four Frames of Pitchers' Battle By Burton Hawkins Star Staff Correspondent CLEVELAND, July 29. — Thp Washington Nats and the Indians were locked in a scoreless tie in the sixth inning of the first game of a double-header here today. Thp Tribp was giving Scarborough plenty of trouble, but he pitched himself out of a tight spot in the second inning, when a double play /stemmed a rally that packed the bases. The Nats also pulled off a double play in the first frame. The Nats had a good chance In the fourth, when Evans hit a dou ble and Grace was hit on the leg at bat. But Lewis hit into a double play. FIRST INNING. WASHINGTON — Grace walked. Lewis sacrificed, Keltner to Becker. Edwards backed against the right field wall for Priddy's drive. Grace taking third after the catch. Ver non grounded out to Becker. No runs. CLEVELAND—Case singled to right. Conway hit into a double play. Scarborough to Torres to Ver non. Seerey walked. Edwards flied to Spence. No runs. SECOND INNING/ WASHINGTON—Spence fouled to Tegan. Boudreau threw out Torres. Hitchcock fanned. No runs. CLEVELAND—Becker fouled to Evans. Boudreau singled to center. Keltner walked. Hegan beat out a high bounder to Scarborough filling the bases. Gassaway hit into a dou ble play, Vernon to Evans to Ver non. No runs. THIRD INNING. WASHINGTON—Evans was safe when Boudreau's wide throw pulled Becker off first for an error Scarborough attempted to scarlfice but forced Evans, Glassawav to Boudreau. Grace fanned. Lewis walked. Priddy flied deep to Case No runs. CLEVELAND — Case popped to Priddy. Conway flied to Lewis Seerey walked. Priddy threw out Edwards. No runs. I-UUKTH INNING. WASHINGTON—Vernon fanned Spence doubled to the rightfield wall for the first hit off Gassaw'ay. Spence took third as Conway threw out Torres. Keltner threw out Hitch cock. No runs. CLEVELAND^ Torres made a fine stab of Becker's grounder back of second base and threw’ him out Boudreau singled to left. Spence came in fast for Keltners looper. Hegan forced Boudreau, Hitchcock to Priddy. No runs. FIFTH INNING. WASHINGTON—Evans doubled down the leftfield line. Scarborough fanned. Grace was hit on the leg by a pitched ball. Lew’is hit into a double play. Gassaway to Bou dreau to Becker. No runs. CLEVELAND—Gassaway fanned. Torres threw out Case.' Conway filed to Spence. No runs. SIXTH INNING. WASHINGTON—Priddy flied to Edwards. Vernon singled off the right-field fence but was out at sec ond attempting to stretch the hit, Edwards to Boudreau. Spence dou bled off the right-field screen. Torres lined to Gassaway. No runs. Other League Games * AMERICAN LEAGUE ZAt Detroit— Philadelphia _ Detroit__ _ “WarmiuH—rhiladfInhia. Knrrr; Detroit. Hutchison. 'New York at^Chicago. 8:30 P.M. • (Only Games Scheduled.) - NATIONAL LEAGUE - At Brooklyn— Cincinnati . 010 11 — Brooklyn . 0(10 13 — " Batteries-—Walters and Mueller; Gregf jpid Edwards. 4 Leaders Lose Hope for Action On Housing Bill Banking Unit Insists On Full Hearings on Long-Range Plan By th* Associated Press Administration leaders virtu ally abandoned hope today for passage of the Wagner-Ellender Taft long-range housing bill at the present session of Congress. Chairman Spence told newsmen after a closed session of the Bank ing Committee: "I think you* can say we have given up hope, if Congress goes thiough with its pian to adjourn Friday." Shortly before. Speaker Rayburn told President Truman the House would consider the bill—provided the Banking Committee sent it to the floor. Notwithstanding urgings bv Pres ident Truman, Mr. Spence said, a majority of the committee members insisted on complete public hear ings before acting on the bill. A group of opponents were outside the committee clamoring to be heard while the committee sat in execu tive session. The measure, authored by Sena tors Wagner, Democrat, of New York; Ellender, Democrat, of Lou isiana and Taft, Republican, of Ohio contemplates a 10-year hous ing program calling lor construc tion of 1.500,000 dwelling units a ■'ear. including 125.000 public hous ing units a year. Too Late for Hearings. Thp members of the committee want complete hearings, which un der piesent conditions are impos sible," Mr. Spence said. "If Con gress adjourns Friday it will be absolutely impossible to pass the bill.” Mr. Rayburns statement was made to reporters at the White House after the weekly conference of Mr. Truman with his congres sional leaders. * Seante Majority Leader Barkley said he thought there would be no hitch about plans for adjournment Fiiday, although the adjournment resolution will not be brought up in the Senate until Wednesday. Senator McKellar, Democrat, of Tennessee also sat in at the con ference which Senator Barkley said discussed the 'oads and ends" of pending legislation. For tne moment, both houses were largely marking time, awaiting con ference committee agreement on a cash-or-bonds provision of the GI terminal leave pay bill. That is one of two major pieces of legislation expected to be whipped through before Congress quits Friday. Poll Tax Ban Pushed. The other, already approved by the House and by the Senate Fi nance Committee, would freeze so cial security taxes a year at the present rate of 1 per cent on em ployers and employes. All arrangements apparently had been made for the annual—and thus far futile—effort to obtain Senate action on a bill to outlaw the col lection of State poll taxes in Fed eral elections. Sponsors announced intention to bring up the House-a proved meas ure which they say a Senate ma jority favors. There was apparent • See CONGRESS. Page A-5 ) Medley's Execution Is Stayed by Black The execution date of Joseph D. Medley, 44. who was scheduled-to die Friday for the murder of Mrs. Nancy Boyer, was postponed today when Associate Justice Hugo L. Black of the Supreme Court signed an order staying the execution until the highest court acts on a petition for a rehearing on a request for a writ of certiorari. It was said at the Supreme Court that action on the petition was un likely before some time in October. Power to grant such a stay is given the court by Congress. Court rules permit one justice to issue a stay which will be effective until final action by a majority at a later meeting. Attorney James K. Hughes said he did not plan to file a petition asking executive clemency for Medley. He explained that he did not feel-such a petition should be filed until all courfc remedies are exhausted. 1919—1946 Senate Committee Approves Decontrol Board Nominations Thompson Plans Meeting Tomorrow With Two Other Members The Senate Banking Commit tee promptly approved today the three men nominated by Presi dent Truman for the new Price Decontrol Board. They are: Roy L. Thompson, president of the New Orleans Federal Land Bank: Daniel W. Bell, president of American Security and Trust Co., of this city, and George H. Mead, official of a paper and pulp company at Dayton. Ohio. Mr. Mead and Mr. Bell went be fore the committee briefly in ex ecutive session. Mr. Thompson was not present. The Senate is ex pected to confirm the committee's action wihout delay. Committee Meets Tomorrow, j Even before the committee passed on the nominations Mr. Thompson.* chairman-designate of the board, announced plans to meet here to-, morrow with the other two ap-1 pointees. Mr. Thompson said he expected to leave his summer home at Bay St.j Louis. Miss., today for the Capital to "get things lined up and ready to go at the earliest possible time.” In creating the board with top authority over removal and restora tion of price controls. Congress stip-' ulated that no more than two ap pointees should be members of the same, political party. Mr. Mead is a Republican and Mr. Thompson a Democrat. Mr. Bell says he has no party affiliation. They will be paid at the rate of $12,000 a year. Expressing belief the Banking Committee, of which he is a mem ber, may act on the nominations today. Senator Radcliffe, Democrat, of Montana told a reporter that prospects for speedy confirmation appear "definitely good.” Taft Sees Confirmation. Another committee member. Sen ator Taft, Republican, of Ohio, who led the fight to strip OPA of some j of Its authority, said: “I see no reason why they should: not be confirmed." Senator Radcliffe, Democrat, of! Maryland said before the Banking' Committee met: “We are going to have to act at once so the board can get down! to work right away on the big job it has ahead of it in the little | time it has,” Senator Radcliffe said. The board's first big assignment is to decide by August 20 whether meats, dairy products, grains, cot ton seed, soybeans and hundreds of products made from them should be placed back under price controls at that time. If it makes no decision, ceilings automatically will be re stored. Under terms of the OPA revival act. the board must hold public hearings before it makes any ruling on these commodities. The purpose of this is to obtain the views of consum :• groups and industry' rep-: resentatives. Need Week to Organize. Senator Radcliffe predicted the board will need “a week or so to get organized" before beginning hear ings about, August 7. He said the price hearings will last at least a week. The revival law also bans restora tion before August 20 of ceilings on eggs, poultry, tobacco and petro leum. After that, consent of the board is required to re-establish controls. The board also has sweeping jur <See OPA, Page A-5.) $32,000 Truckload of Whisky Stolen From Transfer Concern A large tractor-trailer loaded with: 800 cases of whisky valued at $32,000 disappeared from in front of the Washington Transfer Co., 1249 New York avenue N.E., some time last night, police reported. Robert P. Neugebauer, company vice president, told police when he arrived at his office this morning he discovered the truck gone. The thieves broke a window to enter his office and then stole the keys to the truck, he said The whisky was a shipment desig nated for the Try-Me Bottling Co. here in Washington, Mr. Neugebauer said. j 4 Metropolitan police have called in the Federal Bureau of Investi gation as the theft involves inter state shipments. Mr. Neugebauer described the missing truck as dark blue and marked in white letters "Washing ton Transfer Company.” Lt. Aubrey Tolson, head of the police general assignment squad, said it was the first case of its i kind in the District as far as he knew. He refused to theorize as to whether it was the work of a j gang of professional "hi-jackers” until further investigations had been made. 1 * U. S. Cafeterias, Drugstores, Restaurants Raise Food Prices Peoples Chain and Hot Shoppes Join Federal Operators in 5 and 10 Cent Boosts Menu prices rose today at 53 Federal cafeterias operated by Government Services, Inc.; an equal number of Peoples Drug Stores and 16 Hot Shoppes in the Metropolitan Area as restaurant operators adjusted prices grow ing out of higher raw food costs. Latest food chain to make ad justments was the Hot Shoppes. A company official said dinners made up of meat, fish or poultry had been advanced 10 cents a dinner, while breakfast dishes containing meat rose 5 cents. Milk in the drive-in restaurants jumped from 7 to 10 cents a bottle, ice cream is up 5 cents a dish and ice cream to take out is increased 10 cents a quart, the official dis closed First general menu price changes was announced last night by Gov ernment Services. At Peoples soda fountains, milk per half pint now costs 8 cents in place of 5 cents. Sandwiches con taining ham, bacon or beef have been raised 5 cents, while brick ice cream in pints jumps from 25 to 30 cents, the company said. Crushed fruit sundaes have been increased from 15 to 20 cents, while dry breakfast cereals are up from 10 to 15 cents an order, and milk shakes from 10 to 15 cents. The price of ice cream sodas and dish ice cream has not been affected, the drugstore chain reported. “We held off as long as we pos sibly could." said Thomas N. Beavers, president of the company, “but we have come to the point where we had to make some changes." In the Federal cafeterias dishes containing such decontrolled food items as meat, fish, poultry and dairy products have been increased. Government Services said, to offset higher raw food costs. The increase on a la carte meat iSee RESTAURANTS: Page A-5.> U. N. Group Selects 15 Possible Sites For 'World Capital' List Will Be Cut to Five Before Assembly Meets; All in Westchester Area By the A^socio-ed fress NEW YORK. July 29.—The United Nations Headquarters Commission announced today j the selection of 15 possible sites J for the permanent home of the United Nations in the Westches ter-Fairfield area of New York and Connecticut. The proposed sites for the world capital range from 2 square miles to 40 square miles. After discussing; each site with persons involved.! the commission will cut the list j down to five sites to be considered by the General Assembly at its meeting in New York this fall. These will be areas of 2, 5, 10. 20 and 40 square miles each. In New' York, the towns figuring; in the sites are Harrison. Rye, Cort-I landt, Yorktown, Bedford. North Dastle and New Castle. In Connecti cut the towms concerned are Green wich, Stamford, Ridgefield and Mil ton. The commission pointed out in its announcement that the General Assembly in London last winter limited its search for a site to the Westchester-Fairfielfl area. The probability that, the Atomic Energy Commission might be forced to make majority and minority re ports was seen today as the Russian plan for controlling atomic energy went under the close scrutiny of commission members. A member or the United States delegation to the commission said it seemed inevitable to him that the commission w;ould make two reports to the Security Council, its parent body, and to the General | Assembly. The United States delegation member said the majority report, favpring the United States plan, would be supported by 10 delegates on the basis of the present consid eration of the question of control. The minority report, he added, would be made by Russia and Poland and would favor the Rus sian plan for atomic energy control. Russia has informed the commis sion that she rejects the major pro posals of the United States plan. Now the American delegation plans to let. Russia carry the ball for a (See U. N., Page A-5.> Senate Unit Approves 'i 2 for Economic Council By the Associated Press The Senate Banking Committee; today approved President Truman’s' appointment of Leon H. Keyserlingi of New York and John Davidson j Clark of Wyoming as members of; the new Economic Advisory Council.' The group will administer the so-! called “full employment law.” A third member is still to be desig nated. j U. S. Proposal io Unify Reich Zones Accepted In Principle by British Diplomats Expect France To Acquiesce and Russia to Refuse By the Associated Press The State Department an nounced today Britain has ac-; cepted “in principle’’ this Gov ernment’s proposal to unify. occupation zones in Germany. The department's announcement j reiterated the hope that Russia and France likewise will accept. Despite this hope, the expectation among diplomats here is that the United States and Britain at once will work out details for unifying their own zones economically, that France probably will join promptly and that Russia will refuse to co operate. The announcement which may mark a step in the hardening of the great power split in Germany came as Secretary of State Byrnes met with Prime Minister Atlee and For eign Ministers Molotov and Bidault in the first day of the Paris Peace Conference. The State Department announce ment said: "The Department of State has oeen informed that the British Gov- j •Moment, has accepted in principle he offer of Secretary Byrnes to join the United States zone of oc cupation in Germany with any, other zones for the purpose of treat ing the zones so joined as an eco nomic unit. "The department welcomes the announcement as a first step toward easing the heavy financial burden resting on the two occupying pow ers and realieving the distress which has resulted from Germany's being divided into four relatively water tight economic compartments. "The department hopes that the other occupying powers will find it possible to give an equally favor able response to Secretary Byrnes’ offer. In the judgment of this Gov ernment the greatest general ad vantage would accrue from prompt measures to achieve the economic unity of Germany a.< prescribed by the Potsdajn agreement.” Husband Held After Blast In Trunk at Home Kills Wife By tV. Aisocioted Press PORTLAND. Oreg., July 29.—A small trunk became the center of investigation today of an explosion which blew Mrs. James W. Bowden to bits while she was alone in her home here. City Detective Bard Purcell re ported her husband, charged with illegal possession of explosives and held without bail, has denied owning explosives, or any knowledge of how his wife was killed Saturday night. Detective Purcell said the explo sion is believed to have originated in a ‘foot locker” that Bowden's two daughters, Doris. 13. and Shir lev. 17. told them was kept pad locked in the cellar. Bidault Makes Anti-War Plea At Paris Parley President of France Named Provisional Chairman of Talks By the Associated Press PARIS. July 29.—The 21-Na tion Peace Conference, convened formally in Luxembourg Palace more than a year after the end of the Second World War in Eu rope, was summoned by Presi dent Georges Bidault of France today to abolish “the plague of war.” Addressing the 1.500 delegates of the victorious Allies on behalf of the host nation. Mr. Bidault pleaded: “The long-suffering peoples of the world today look to you. If we cannot get complete peace solutions I hope that at least we will get reasonable ones.” In an apparent reference to the United States and Russia. Mr. Bidault said that whatever blame could be attached to the failure to keep the peace after the first World War. a “fundamental cause of that failure was that the two great powers who had taken a decided part in the conquest of arms remained on the sidelines auring the solution of peace.” Cites Hopes of Plain Men. The hopes of plain men are turned toward us today." he .said, concluding his 10-minute, slowly spoken speech. Mr. Bidault was then named provisional chairman of the conference on the motion of United States Secretary of State Byrnes. Mr. Bidault's words were carried to a press gallery jammed for the historic occasion and throughout the rambling building as he sum moned the delegates of the 21 victor nations to fashion a peace for ItaljL Romania. Hungary, Bulgaria ani Finland, which the Foreign Minis ters of the United States. Britain. Russia and France can approve. The conference convened, how ever. in an atmospfiere of dissension. For more than 36 hours the deputy foreign ministers of the four principal powers—Britain. France, Russia and the United States—had argued before agreeing even upon publication of the five treaty drafts prepared by the four powers for submission to the conference. It finally was agreed to release the five treaty texts, along with statements on disagreements, at 11 p.m. Greenwich mean time (6 p.m. Eastern standard timet Tuesday. Full Publicity Sought. The Conference also opened with Secretary Byrnes ready to confront the delegates with the urging that, they make all Conference negotia tions wide open to the press of the world. Mr. Bidault, without referring di rectly to Mr. Byrnes' plea for open proceedings, remarked: "The French government, on it* part, always has maintained and ever will maintain that a free dis cussion is essential, one which al lows all opinions to be heard. It is convinced that a fundamental rule of democracy is that a decision has no value unless it is previously de bated in broad daylight by the rep resentatives of all concerned." Terms Known Unofficially. Most of the terms of the treaties already have become known unof ficially. Release of the full texts simultaneously in Paris, London. Washington and Moscow had been advocated for several days by the United States and France, but the British and Russians had differed on how* much should be made pub lic. Mr. Byrnes was disclosed to favor a “goldfish bowl" policy at the peace conference. If his proposal for open meetings is turned down, an Amer ican informant said. Mr. Byrnes will propose that representatives of various commissions of the confer ence be appointed to keep news paper reporters informed of what goes on at closed meetings. The deputy foreign ministers re ferred to rules and procedure com mittees the question of working out. a formula to permit the hearing of claims of uninvited countries for admission to the conference. Among these countries are Albania, Egypt. Iran. Iraq. Luxembourg and Mexico. The envoys of defeated Italy, Hungary. Bulgaria. Romania and Finland were handed copies of the peace treaties affecting them this morning. The deputies of the Big Four Foreign Ministers had given up hope yesterday of reaching an agreement (See CONFERENCE' Page^A-47r Two Killed in Wreck Near Charlottesville The engineer and fireman of a. northbound Southern Railway train were killed and a baggage master injured today when the locomotive and nine cars left the track in a cut near Elma. Nelson County, about. 27 miles south of Charlottesville. Va. The dead are. Engineer Hallibur ton Swan. 72, Brandy, Va., who suc cumbed to severe burns in Martha Jefferson Hospital, Charlottesville, and George Turner. 28, colored. Alexandria, whose body was buried under the overturned locomotive. C. H. Crump, Alexandria, baggage master, received slight injuries, ac cording to railroad officials here. The train was made up of mail and baggage cars only and was en route from Chattanooga to Wash ington. Mr. Swan was thrown clear of the engine, but was burned about the lower body. The body of the fire man was recovered several hours after the crash. Several of the derailed cars were catapulted ahead of the overturned engine, blocking the northbound track Railroad officials said the southbound track was being used to handle traffic in both direction* without delaying schedules. E. D Baker. Alexandria, conductor of the train, was unhurt.