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- Ifye fitomtig ptaf
_ With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON, D. C. Published by The Evening Star Newspaper Company. FRANK B. NOYES, President. Main Office: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. New York Office: 110 East 42d St. Chicago Office: 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. The Evening and Sunday Star. 90c per month; when 5 Sundays in the month. $1.00 The Evening Star Only. 65c per month. „ The Sunday Star. 10c per copy Night Final Edition. 10c per month additional. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United States. _ 1 month 6 months. 1 year. Evening and Sunday. $1.25 $6.Oh $12.00 The Evening Star_ 75 4.00 8 00 The Sunday Star_ .50 2 50 6.00 Telephone National 6000. Entered at the Post Office. Washington. D. C.. as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use lor republication of all news dispatches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this paper and also the iocal news published herein. All rights of publication of special dispatches herein also are reserved. A—6 TUESDAY, August ~20, 1946 Preserving a Great Asset Two Star articles sustain with pre cise statistics the common impres sion of observers that Washington’s tree population fared badly from neglect and other casualties during the war. It is gratifying to note that the new superintendent of trees and parking, John W. Batson, has ob tained adequate personnel for his division and is looking for modern equipment to repair the damage and to go forward energetically with a ucoigutu iu v* aou ington’s tradition as a city of trees. “I know of no city in which the tree seems to be so much a part of the city as Washington,” wrote Lord Bryce, one of our kindest and most understanding of critics. “* * * And all this by reason of the forethought and taste of those who have admin istered the government of the city and who have planted various spe cies of trees * * * As Capitals go, few, indeed, are so advantageously situated in respect to natural charms as Washington.” Thomas Jefferson, as President, began sys tematic street tree planting in 1803 by securing an appropriation of about $11,000, most of which was spent on lining Pennsylvania avenue with Lombardy poplars, long a dis tinguishing characteristic of the old sketches of Pennsylvania avenue looking toward the White House from the Capitol. It was under Gov ernor Shepherd’s energetic, city developing administration, however, that street tree planting and main tenance became a recognized and Important function of the municipal government. In recent years street widening and commercial development, in cluding the construction of vaults under the sidewalks, together with seepage of gas and injuries caused by such man-made pests as care lessly driven automobiles have taken a conspicuous toll of the trees. Dur- j Ing the wrar years replacement of j casualties was hindered. But the greatest danger to the trees would be a public apathy which failed to recognize the asset to Washington’s beauty which they represent or which failed to protest their lack of care and replacement. Mr. Batson’s interview in The Star reflects his personal enthusiasm for his job and his determination to make up for some of the time lost In recent yea^s in tree planting and replacement. Washingtonians w'ill look to him for results. The Riots in India The explosion of elemental pas sions which is turning Calcutta, the metropolis of India, into a shambles, grimly highlights India’s basic prob lem—the deep-going antagonism be tween Moslem and Hindu. That feud goes back more than a thousand years, ever since the first Moham medan invasion of the peninsula through the rugged northwestern passes from what is now Afghanis- j tan. During much of this millenium, the Moslem conquerors have domi nated India, and today nearly 100, 000.000 out of its 400,000,000 inhabi tants profess the faith of Islam. Yet the Hindus, especially the upper caste Brahmins, still regard the Moslems as impious interlopers who pollute the sacred soil of Hindustan, while the Moslems, on their side, regard the Hindus as equally impious idolators with whom no true peace Is possible. This ancient grudge, envenomed by mutual fanaticism, always sim mers below the surface, ready to burst forth into wild violence at the slightest provocation. The current Calcutta riots were not deliberately incited by the leaders on either side. The Moslem League had ordered mass demonstrations against the failure of the government to grant parity with the Hindu-dominated. Congress party in the formation of the proposed interim native govern ment. Those demonstrations were planned to be peaceful. But as soon as they got under way, fighting ap pears to have broken out spontane ously between the Moslems and Hindus who had gathered in rival crowds. And those clashes quickly developed into savage struggles in i which quarter was neither asked nor given, terrible atrocities being com mitted and even little children ruth lessly slaughtered. The essentially religious nature of the clash is shown by the fact that neither Europeans nor other minori ties have been molested. The only minority to be involved are the Sikhs, who share the Hindus’ antag onism for Moslems and seem to have pitched in on the Hindu side. Local Moslem and Hindu leaders have come out with joint appeals to their coreligionists to stop the fighting, but the situation appears to have gotten out of hand, the combatants being blinded and crazed with blood lust. The British authorities are acting cautiously, lest the fury of the contestants be diverted against A them for interfering in their private fight. Sooner or later, the rioting will die down and be gotten under control. "?et the lesson is clear. And it casts a sinister light upon the prospects for the establishment of genuine democratic government in a land where there is little or no mutual human sympathy, trust or understanding. Tito's True Colors The State Department’s denun ciation of Yugoslavia for waging a “war of nerves” against the United States should be receive^ in this country with an awareness that our own policies are responsible in no small measure for Marshal Tito’s belligerent attitude. Actually this is more than a war of nerves. One American transport plane, which had strayed from its course in a storm, was shot down ten days ago by Yugoslav fighters, and it is reported that macnine gun bursts were fired into the plane after it had crash landed. The members of the crew were held incommunicado for a week and have not yet been released. A second American transport plane was at tacked Monday and is believed to have been shot down in the Julian Alps. At least the plane is missing and the last radio*message from the pilot was that he was under attack. It is understatement to call this sort of thing a war of nerves. For while Tito has the technical jus tification that the planes were off course and over Yugoslav territory, the fact is that these attacks on American aircraft are but part of a studied Yugoslav campaign of hostility which is but little short of undeclared warfare. JNor is there any reason to sup pose that Tito is acting indepen dently and on his own account. What he has been doing in Yugo slavia and in the Trieste area is not greatly different from what the Russians have done in Austria and in the Far East, and since he was hand-picked for his present post by the Kremlin it is a fair inference that his current belligerency has at ! least the tacit approval of the Rus sians. Basically we are paying a penalty now for having permitted our mili tary organization to fall apart at the war’s end. For years before Pearl Harbor we suffered one indig nity after another at the hands of the Japanese because we were militarily weak and they knew it. In terms of actual military strength we are not a great deal better off today than we were in the late thir ties. This is well known, of course, to Tito and his Soviet backers, and they are using the same tactics against us that the Japanese used. Their objective is to prevent us from discharging the responsibilities we have assumed in Europe, and in this they may be successful, for our rep- j resentatives there are gravely weak ened by our refusal to supply them with adequate military strength. Another factor militating against us is our wavering diplomatic record in dealing with Tito. Keeping step ; with the British and as a gesture of appeasement to Russia, we aban- ; doned King Peter in favor of Tito’s ! rival regime. This was conditioned 1 on the admission of opposition ele ments to the Yugoslav government, who were soon squeezed out, and the holding of “elections,”. which were a farce. In December, 1945. we granted a sort of qualified recogni- j tion of the Tito government, stat- j ing, however, that recognition did j not imply approval of the govern- | ment’s policies, the way it came to power or “its failure to carry out promises of personal freedom to its 1 people.” In April we extended “full” recognition to Tito’s govern- j ment—at the very time that the j State Department’s note of May 20 was in process of preparation. This note, just made public, sharply re- i buked Tito for seeking to under mine our position in Europe and specifically accused him of making a “wholly unfounded charge” ; against us. In the light of this j record it is hardly surprising that Tito should be indifferent to notes of protest from the State Depart ment and confident of his ability to trample on our toes with im punity. Certainly, unless strong measures are taken now, we can look forward to a continuation of the “incidents” of the" past few days. One such measure might be to supply our transports with fighter escorts and serve notice on our “allies” that the American fighters will meet force with force. That may not be enough, but it is the least that we can do if our unarmed transports are going to continue to fly in areas where they are exposed to attack. Country Fair Time Reports from widely scattered areas indicate that local, county and State fairs are staging a renais sance after suspending many of their activities during the war. It is a good sign of a Nation returning to normalcy, but leaders in rural life are deeply concerned over what they consider to be harmful trends. A generation and more ago the fairs were primarily agricultural and country life exhibitions. Now there is a definite tendency toward the carnival type of show with many amusements and concessions that are on the questionable side. No one doubts the amusement value of the old-fashioned midway, where a man could risk a dime even if the mathematical chances were 100 to 1 against him. After all, democracy means a man can indulge his idio syncracies if they do not run counter to the welfare and rights of his peers. But there is a difference be tween wholesome amusements and i some of the side-show, off-color car nivals that began infiltrating the fair grounds during the ’30s. The men who run the fairs will do j well to keep in mind that a country fair is primarily a place for agri : cultural exhibitions. Both city folks | and rural enjoy the displays of prod ucts, crops, livestock, poultry, quilts, canned goods and vegetables. All like the parade of fancy, groomed to-the-minute animals, the_stone pulling contests, the clowns and ac robats and sulky races. A fair must be a successful business financially, but the men who run them will find that the “agricultural exhibition” with the right sort of amusements .will pull just as good crowds as the carnival-type of show. An Uncertain Guide The CIO has just published a record of the votes of all members of the Seventy-ninth Congress as “a weapon in the coming battle of ballots.” The tabulation, according to the announcement, was not pre pared as a “black list” nor as a list of indorsed candidates, but merely as a voting guide, and -It is sug gested that for further details the voter consult his local Political Ac tion Committee. This is a useful reservation, for one of those with a perfect record on the CIO list is Representative Marcantonio of New York, who voted right on all of the twelve test issues selected by the CIO. But that is not the whole of Mr. Marcantonio’s vot ing record. Before the Germans attacked Russia he accused the late Presi dent Roosevelt of being a war monger and he voted against the Selective Service Act, against the extension of military service, against lease-lend and against the legislation to seize Axis shipping in American ports. Because of his record during that period the Amer ican Labor party, now the political instrument of the PAC, decided in 1941 to repudiate him, and the State chairman denounced Mr. Mar cantonio as an “out and out Com munist.” So despite his perfect score on the CIO tally the voters might well do a little further checking on Mr. Marcantonio. And they had better consult the record, not their local PAC, for in 1944 the CIO-PAC found it convenient to forget the past and to go all out in support of Mr. Marcantonio’s successful bid for re election to the House. This and That By Charles E. Tracewell. “BETHESDA, MD. ‘Dear Sir: “I just recently moved to the suburbs, and most of the things in nature are new to me. It is amazing, when I stop to think of it, how much I have missed, and yet I have lived a full life, I guess, but undoubtedly have missed many nat ural things. “A small rabbit is one of them. I am writing to you to ask how long this mite can live, with all these dogs and cats around. He isn’t more than four inches long, and about as wide, I call him Mr. Four by Four. He showed up suddenly at the edge of a flower bor der, just at dusk, and was gone almost as quickly. “He ■worries me. I do not see how he can stay alive in this neighborhood, despite the fact that many feed the birds, and seem to have a general feel ing for nature unknown to city dwellers. “This tiny rabbit may survive, but I would feel better if you told me he will. “Sincerely. J. C.” " * + * * The number oi rabbits m suburban Washington must run into the thou sands. They are always a source of amaze ment to newcomers to the suburban j scene. Most of them survive, and live well on Victory gardens and the like. We can assure our correspondent that the little one has every chance of grow ing into a big one, and living for sev eral years. Dogs are their worst hazard. Cats seldom catch wild rabbits, ex cept in the nesting stage. At that time a cat may clean out an entire nest, but if the babies once get safely out of the nest they have a very good chance to live to a happy old age, at least as happy an old age as nature furnishes the wild creatures. What with broken off teeth, and the inability to eat, old things in nature live unhappily enough, one may believe. Death, then, at the hands of some dog, is not un expected, and may have its uses, view ing things from the unsympathetic side, which seems to be a basic natural view ing, after all. We catch glimpses of nature in human affairs, with man kind and whole nations acting from the strict natural standpoint, lacking in sympathy and real human under standing. The small wild rabbit in the home grounds lives very well, mostly out smarting both dogs and cats. The feline population, with the exception noted, is utterly unable to catch rabbits. When a full grown rabbit shows his heels, a cat usually contents himself with sitting back on his haunches and watching the bunny disappear. Years ago our black and white cat Byrdy <named after Admiral Byrd) chased a rabbit across the yard, and kept up with him—but never gained an inch—till the wild one vanished in some shrubbery. It may be believed at times that dogs are not as bright as their admirers say they are. Any rugged dog ought to be able to catch a rabbit, but we have seen them shoot off at an angle, and go baying across country, while all the time Mr. Rabbit remained motionless beneath a bush. The dogs even could have seen him if they had been as ,smart as their owners thought they were. The mothfr rabbit, big and brown, sometimes with a bit of white in her, builds a clever nest, often in briars, or preferably among the ground roots of some old tree. The opening is covered with wooly material, gray in color, which blends so well with the debris which collects among such roots that only the careful observer, dog or human, will find it. Mostly it isn’t found, and the young grow up, leaving the nest at last never to return. Yount rabbits love to play tag around wood piles. If you have some rabbits, get them a cord of wood, and watch the fun. Watch should be kept, however, that a wood pile does not become a rat haven. Rats like such places, too, but for refuge. Red squill on meat bait will get the rats, but each small portion should be poked well back beneath the logs, where dogs, cats, birds cannot get at it. 1 « d A Letters to The Star Describes the Natural Dyriamics Of Motor Collisions To the Editor of The Star: As one of the readers of The Sar and 'a resident in the Washington Metropoli | tan Area, I have been deeply concerned I about the mounting toll of automobile accidents. We lose just about as many dead through traffic accidents every year as in war losses for the same period of time. The injured and those maimed for life constitute a serious drain on our precious manpower. We erect memorials to our honored dead who defended our liberties. We turn one-time battlefields into ceme teries, with rows upon rows of crosses. And we choose an Unknown Soldier, "known only to God,” and revere his memory. But what is being done to memorialize those who bravely sally forth in the morning to earn their daily bread, and at night are carried home injured to an anxious family? What causes accidents? The reasons are many: Faulty brakes or other equip ment, speeding, drinking, inattention, failure to obey traffic rules, the offier fellow’s identical failures, faulty eye sight, weather conditions—rain, sleet or snow and fog. The hazards are multi ple, the armor is slight. A driver must be a brave man, just to-fight his way through daily traffic. The Star is to be congratulated for showing traffic rules in graphic form en titled “Only One Try.” Furthermore, the table of “Stopping Distances” which shows that “it takes time to stop a car” is very important. All this brings up the very important question of the ter rific force played by momentum. A law of mechanics in the realm of physics states that momentum is “the quantity of motion in a moving body, being al ways proportioned to the mass multi plied into the velocity.” Does the average driver know what this means? Some do, others do not, and a few may have a hazy idea about the subject. One needs only to see a collision to know that a tremendous force result* from hitting a tree or a pole, but when two cars collide head on at about equal speed the result is practically complete wreckage — and death to the occupants. Let’s assume that a car weighs 1>4 tons, roughly 3,000 pounds, with the short ton of 2,000 pounds as our base. You are traveling at 50 miles an hour. According to the laws of momentum your car is being hurled along by its engine with a moving force of 73.3 feet per second, times 114 tons, which equals 109.95 tons of linear momentum per second. If you hit an object going at that speed, your car will wrap itself around a concrete pillar, or demolish a brick wall, crash through a house, and you or your insurance company have a bill to pay. If you escape alive you are among the fortunate few, assuming that you still have a lengthy timg. studying scenery from a hospital bed. Again carrying out a comparison of what happens in a head-on collision: This time a moving car, also traveling 50 miles an hour, is coming toward you. You can’t avoid the car out of control. It also has about 110 tons of force built up to hit you squarely on the nose. Your car is rolling along with those 110 tons of pressure. The two cars crash into each other with a total force which has double its impact: In other words this time it is 220 tons of striking power. Are you sure you want to buy a new car with greater horsepower? Who can resist such a collision? Why, : nobody, unless Providence is there to intervene, and a praying driver. Now consider what happens when the vehicle weighs many more tons. The law of ; mechanics is always proportional. Next time you step on the gas, think things over. When you drive a car, lives are at 1 stake—your own, your passengers and others along the highway. If you can’t drive right, don’t drive at all. CHARLES ALLEN RENTFRO. Low-Flying Planes To the Editor of The Star: v Now that you have fciven space to criticize the low-flying of planes over the city (in violation of law, I believe), I want to put in my oar and hope many others will also. Whether military or commercial, there is a constant stream of planes flying low over all parts of the city, in terfering with social and business meet ings through the noise of their pro pellers and endangering the lives and I the property of residents. Church and lodge meetings are interrupted as they j pass over the buildings. Service and other bands giving concerts in the open also are annoyed. At the Marine bar racks & week ago, as many as five planes passed close overhead, during one mu sical number, to the evident annoyance of the leader and men. They went in various directions, cetainly not on j beaten paths to other cities. Many ap pear to be practicing and some may be i sight-seeing planes. Both should be 1 forbidden over the city. I stood on a j loading platform in front of the city post office a few weeks ago and saw a plane pass between me and the round part of the Capitol dome. It was over the Senate chamber *and could not have been much over 50 feet above the roof. It is the privilege of any fool to smash into the Capitol Building and perhaps kill a number of Congressmen, but it would appear to be the duty of the Gov ernment to prevent it. Also many of us are tired of planes so low over our homes as to vibrate things movable and frighten infants out of sleep. W. E. ALLEN. Pittsburgh System Advocated To the Editor of The Star: It would be a good idea for the city officials of Washington to send a repre sentative to Pittsburgh, Pa., to study the system they have there for issuing a ' permit to drive a motor vehicle. Pittsburgh has gone to considerable trouble and expense to build a “special course” which includes almost every driving hazard imaginable, including lights, stop signs, grade crossings, wide roads, narrow roads, left and right turns, speed limits, ete. When a prospective operator gets through the course and comes up with a driver’s permit the authorities are satisfied that he or she can operate the vehicle. The driver’s test in Washington is too simple. If a person can start a car, drive it around the block and stop it, he gets a permit. I have known many people in Pittsburgh who flunked their first trips around the special course, but when they, finally did get their permits, they knew how to drive. It would pay Washington to build such a course. JOHN A. STEWART. A This Changing World By Constantine Broivn A strong and reliable army ready to fulfill its historical role in the world must have besides the most up-to-date modern equipment also a stern and un flinching discipline,” say the recent orders issued by the Soviet hfgh com mand. While it is impossible to discover the amounts the Russian government is spending for its vast land forces, its technical services and a large navy which Stalin has decided must be built up in the near future, the Soviet general staff is not concealing with the same care its orders about the discipline in the army. A long list of regulations was issued on June 9, to make sure that the sol diers and noncommissioned officers of the Russian forces* behave in a manner becoming the defenders of the nation. They are a far cry from the democratic regulations advocated by the friends of the Soviet government in the western countries. Among the orders which every enlisted man in the U. S. S. R. must obey under the penalty of most severe disciplinary action is the following: “The Soviet serviceman cannot be seated in the presence of his superior without his permission. This includes travel in rail road cars. When the superior officer enters the subordinate must stand up and can resume his seat only after his superior gr ants him permission. If there is only one available seat it must be relinquished to the superior.” * *r He a(c The soldiers and noncoms are strictly forbidden to smoke on the street. Smok ing before commissioned officers is con sidered as lacking respect and no one knowrs when a man with gold epaulets might show up. The regulations pro vide that “the enlisted men can smoke only in specially assigned quarters, must conduct themselves with dignity and remain unobtrusive. They must not call attention to themselves—off duty— by loud laughter or exaggerated gesticu lations.” Moreover, since keeping one's hands In the pockets can be construed as a lack of respect, this habit has been formally banned. There is almost a full page of regula tions concerning the salute to the su perior officers, on which the Red Army high command seems to place a good deal of emphasis. Unlike our most recent regulations, the Soviet orders say: “The serviceman who is not in formation or in barracks must observe strictly the salute regulations to his superiors.” * * * * w An enlisted man appearing in public with his coat unbuttoned, his high bools poorly shined or without his belt is sub ject to severe disciplinary action. “The new Red Army uniform” is said in the general order to be “good looking and comfortable. Its design is the re sult of the experience of the old Russian (Czarist) and Soviet armies: the en listed man must wear it according to these specified regulations. Moreover, it must be worn with a little bit of a swagger: this can be achieved with ab solute compliance with the existing or ders on the care of uniforms, footwear and good soldierly carriage. No soldier who has been honored with a medal should ever forget to display it." Fraternization between commissioned officers and noncommissioned or en listed men or any kind of association Is strictly forbidden. The officer is placed far above “Ivan," who must remain three steps behind when walking to gether in public. Not only are officers’ clubs and messes closed to the enlisted men, but they cannot be seen in the same restaurants and public places. The movies and other theaters are open to all but the Russian GIs, who must sit in reserved seats in the rear of the theaters which produce stage shows or in the first rows when pictures are shown. The Political Mill By Gould Lincoln nisw i (jrciv, Aug. zu.—ror me nrst time in eighteen years New York Demo crats are entering a State political cam paign without the guiding hand of Franklin D. Roosevelt, who first as Gov ernor then as President, was the final court of appeal when it came to de ciding upon candidates and policy. Only once in all that period was Mr. Roose velt’s advice discarded—in 1942 when the Democratic State Convention nomi nated J. J. Bennett for Governor (sup ported by “Jim” Farley) over Senator Mead (supported by President Roose velt). And in all that time, this was the only campaign in which the Re publicans elected a Governor—Thomas E. Dewey. Gone is the confidence with which Mr. Roosevelt inspired the State lead ers. While it is entirely within the possibilities the Democrats may win in the coming Section, there exists an un certainty which almost approaches “jit ters.” The Democratic State leaders, including Ed Flynn, national commit teeman and boss of the Bronx, long ago decided that the time was ripe to nomi nate Senator Mead for Governor—par ticularly as former State Chairman James A. Farley no longer holds im portant political office. Six months ago it looked to the Democrats as though Gov. Dewey might be beaten compara tively easily. But things are changed today, and gloomy prognostications— off the record—come from important Democratic leaders here. * * * * In view of the fact that the Demo cratic registration in New York City, plus the registration of the American Labor and Liberal parties (both of which are expected to support Mead' exceeds Republican registration by 1.400,000, it seems incredible to the out sider that the Democrats shoulfl have cause to worn-, even though the up state New York is strongly Republican. Yet the supporters of Mead are clearly worried. So much are they worried they are casting around for a senatorial candi date who will bring strength to the Mead ticket. Usually it is the other way around in New York and the guber natorial candidate who heads the ticket is regarded as the real ball carrier. De spite the fact that Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, widow of the late President, has said on numerous occasions she had no intention of seeking any public office, ana no aesire to noia office, some of the Mead friends have* suggested she be drafted for the senatorial nomination. They believe she would run like wild fire in New York City and upstate, too. Another group in the Democratic party is dickering with the American Labor party leaders on the proposition that former Mayor La Guardia be nom inated for Senator, to run with Mr. Mead. They argue that La Guardia is a colorful figure; that he would attract many independent voters; that Mead is an Irish Catholic and that La Guardia would appeal strongly to the large Ital ian vote in New York, and finally that La Guardia would make the driving kind of a campaign which neither Mr. Mead nor former Gov. Lehman—who has been the leader in preconvention discussion, of a senatorial candidate— can make. It seems entirely certain that Mr. Lehman would welcome a senatorial nomination by the Democrats. He was three times elected Governor—the last time, however, by a very narrow margin over Dewey in 1938. He would have, it is urged, the support of the very large Jewosh vote in New York City, and his record as Governor to run upon. The fact that certain of the Democratic leaders feel, however, that even with such a candidate as former Gov. Leh man on the ticket, Senator Mead may not win against Gov. Dewey is signifi cant. * * * * • The Republicans have no doubts at all about their gubernatorial candidate —it will be Gov. Dewey. They are con fident that his success in handling the State, administration during the last four years will be sufficient to put him across again. But they have been at sixes and sevens over the nomination of a candidate for Senator. The executive council of th* State Federation of Labor has gone on record in opposition to the candidacy of Maj. Gen. William J. Donovan (“Wild Bill”), veteran of two world wars, for the sena torship. Gen. Donovan has had strong backing among the Republicans for the nomination, and it now remains to be seen whether this attitude on the part of AFL leaders is able to defeat him. In the end, it is expected that Gov. Dewey will make the decision on the senatorial nominee. French Military Politics By George Fielding Eliot romicai uncertainty as to the immediate future is one of the chief causes of the lag in French military recovery. It affects the ability of the military chiefs to take long-range decisions and to make lcng-range plans because there can be no assurance that these decisions will be indorsed or these plans carried out. It even affects the form of higher organization of the French armed forces —an organization which is at present admittedly a stop-gap affair. The control of French arms is divided between two ministries—the ministry of the armies under M. Michelet and the ministry of armament under M. Tillor* M. Michelet is a member of the Mouve ment Republicaine Populaire; M. Tillon is a Communist. The ministry of the armies controls and administers the three armed services—the army, the air force and the navy. The ministry of armament controls all military produc tion-including the vital matter of mili tary research and experiment as far as basic scientific and technical questions are involved. In theory, M. Michelet is supposed to make requisition on M. Til lon for the equipment and supplies he needs and M. Tillon is supposed to fill these requisitions. Naturally this sys tem cannot work unless there is the fullest mutual confidence and closest sort of cordial inter-relations at all levels between the two ministries. There is good reason to doubt that this confidence and cordiality exist at present. * * * * There are those who charge that the ministry of armament was created for the express purpose of satisfying the demand of the Communist party for a share in the control of the national de fense while avoiding a Communist min ister in direct charge of the armed forces. Unless difficulties of this sort can be composed, it would appear likely that friction and cross-purposes may continue. The military organization within the ministry of the armies is not very com plicated. Each of the three services has its own chief of staff—Gen. De Dartre de Tassigny for the army, Gen. Bouscat for the air force and Admiral Lemon nier for the navy. But above these chiefs of staff and independent of the ministry of the armies, there exists the chief of staff of the national defense, who is responsible solely to the pro visional president, M. Bidault, and not to any minister. This post is held by Gen. Alphonse Juin, who commanded the French forces in the field in North Africa and Italy. It is not clear to anyone, including the ministers and officers immediately concerned, just where Gen. Juin’s authority leaves off and where the autnonty of the minister of the armies and the three chiefs of staff begins. In theory, Gen. Juin is supposed to advise the president as to the fco-ordination />t the national defense as a whole— that is, the combined national planning necessary for the security of the nation in time of emergency. But in practice, it would appear that the “defense na tionale” has been issuing certain “gen eral directives’’ for the guidance of the armed services which do not fall within the category of mere co-ordination. Yet another vigorously argued uncer tainty, which applies especially to the French army, is the question of the professional army, “l'armee de metier", as against the army raised by universal conscription that has been traditional in France for 75 years. Strong argu ments are being put forward to the effect that the technical complexities of modern war demand long-tejrm pro fessional soldiers. Those who oppose this course raise the cry of “merce naries" and profess to see a threat to the popular liberties. * a * * As to the present effect of politics on the armed forces themselves, it seems a good guess to say that the navy has almost no Communist influence within it, being, both as to officers and enlisted men, the most conservative of the three services. The air force by j contrast has a considerable Communist infiltration—perhaps due to the fact that M. Tillon was minister of air before he became minister of armaments. The army comes somewhere in between in j this inspect. All three services have undergone a purging process—“epura tion" as it is called—to get rid of col laborationists and active Vichyites. To some extent this process is still going on, though the bulk of the eliminations for this cause have been completed. From all the foregoing conditions. It is certainly r»ain that political uncer tainties are hampering French military growth to an extent perhaps not paral leled in any other country. Yet it should be observed that many sober and thoughful Frenchmen, both in and out of uniform, are displaying to day more confidence that a sound basis for the construction of a strong national armed power will be founa than most of them would have ventured to express six months ago. On the one hand, there is a greater feeling that the Communist power is on the decline and that even in the ranks of labor, the influence of the Communist party is waning. On the other hand, there is a good deal of evidence that mafny if not most French Communists are Frenchmen first and Communists afterward and that the na tional defense is one area of activity in which they do not wish to see partisan ship displayed. (Copyright. IMS.) i Plane Attack Likened To Firing on Panay U. S. Did More Than Send Note* of Protest Then By David Lawrence Tension increases rather than dimin I ishes throughout the world. Peace has ■ been made in a practical sense with for mer enemy countries—Germany, Italy and Japan—but peace has not been made between the Allies. Thus, Yugoslavia Is supposed to be a country friendly to the United States but her airmen fire on American planes. Time was when the United States did more than send notes of protest when the flag of this country was fired upon. When Japan fired on the U. S. S. Pana v in 1937, demands for reparation and apology were made. The American Ambassador to Bel grade, Richard C. Patterson, describes the attack on our airplane as “wicked, inexcusable and deliberate.” This is strong language and, in the face of it, the American Government cannot afford to let the incident pass with a single protest. Maybe our Government is doing more about the situation in the whole Medi terranean area than appears on the surface. A portion of the American fleet has been sent from the Atlantic, presumably on a good-will cruise through Mediterranean waters. But the task force might also have been sent to indicate that the United States is not disposed to withdraw from Europe. Instructions From Moscow? Yugoslavia is Russia’s ally. When Yu goslavia acts up, it is assumed here that her puppet government has received instructions from somewhere in the vicinity of Moscow. More Incidents flouting the United States may be ex pected in Europe. It is one way the Russian bloc may have devised to irri tate the United States into withdrawing from Europe. The effect, however, will be the exact opposite. ■rviuenuas presuge and voice In mak ing the peace has been seriously weak ened by the withdrawal of American troops and sea forces from Europe. The demands of Congress for the ending of the draft and the pressure to bring the veterans back home have made it difficult for American diplomacy to be as effective as would be the case if a sizable American Army remained In Europe. It is primarily a large American Air Force that ought to be trained for Euro pean patrol. If the Yugoslavs are shoot ing down American planes, then all American planes should be escorted by fighter planes of our own. This is not a means of provoking war but of pre venting it. Recent Conference. The other day, just before President Truman left for his yachting trip, an important conference was held at the White House. It consisted of the high est officers of the Army, Navy and Air Forces and of the State Department. Such a conference could hardly be a routine affair. It is one of the few con ferences of this kind held since V-J day. It could mean that the deploying of our military, naval and aerial forces in strategic parts of the globe as a means of backing up our diplomatic policy was under consideration. Some few weeks ago, when the battle ship Missouri was sent to the Mediter ranean, officials here said that such voyages must not occasion surprise and that the American Navy must feel free to go anywhere in the world these days. Unfortunately, the United Nations has not organized its military forces. The preservation of peace is still a matter for the United States and Great Britain when it comes to air power and sea power. Russia primarily has land power. The best method of patrolling trouble some land areas will be by air power, and adjacent waters will be best pro tected by sea power, especially aircraft carriers, which can furnish mobile bases. It is not believed here that a third world war is imminent but that troubles requiring a show of force may recur from time to time in the next few years. Most important of all is & demonstra tion by the United States that it is not going to be driven back to isolationism by vexatious quarrels with Russia. The more the United States indicates that she did not open up a second front In 1944 and save the Soviets from being crushed by Hitler only to permit Rus sia’s totalitarian government to threaten the peace of Europe, the more likely is Russia to be impressed. (Reproduction Rithts Referred.) 'Tell Us the Facts' From the London News of the world. William Shearer, who holds an Im portant position in Britain's electric supply industry, says that Britain’s fuel position is alarming. According to him, our stocks are down so low that industry is threatened, and the outlook for the winter, both for the factory and the family, Is black indeed. Mr. Shearer is an authority on the subject. He should be sure of his facts. We say to the government, if this is a true reflection of the position, what is going to be done about it? Nationalization may, or may not, be the answer in the long run, but long-term policy will not help us now. Strong steps must be taken right away. We are in the middle of summer, and if drastic economies in gas and electric light are inevitable, now 4s the time to tell us the worst and to act vigorously. This newspaper’s opinion is the same on this subject as on the subject of food. If cuts loom ahead, make them now. Do not wait until winter is on us, and chill days demand a little more warmth and comfort. We applaud our new Minister of rood, Mr. Strachey, who has promised to give the people all the facts all the time. Mr. Shinwell would dqj well to follow his example. This country has never failed to respond when it knows what it Is up against. Tell us the facts, and act now. Last Outpost When man has mapped his world and marked the place Called home, there still remain un charted lands Beyond his footprints in the garnet sands But—knowing the measure of his earthy base— His mind, triangulating, lifts to trace The mileage to the moon. The search expands From satellite to sun until man stands Upon the starry rim of curving space. Soon, or late, the Questing mind must reach The limitatlng shore of that deep sea Whose pine-green waters fill eternity. There is no driftwood strewn along the beach Betraying ships that braved the vast unknown Which every venturer must cross alone, —HARRY ELMORE HURD.