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With Saadi; MornTni Editign. WASHINGTON, D. C. Published by The Eveninf Star Newspaper Company. FRANK B. NOYES, President. Main Office 11th St. and Pcr.nirTVgnia At*. New York Office: 110 East 42d St Chicago Office: 485 North Michigan Age. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. The Evening and Sunday Star, 90c per month: when 5 Sundays In the month, SI.00. The Evening Star Only. 65c per month. . . The Sunday Star. 10c per copy. Fight Pinal Edition. 10c per month additional. Rates by Mail—Payable In Advance. Anywhere in United States. SI month 6 months. 1 year, ening and Sunday..$1.25 $6 oo $12.00 e Evening Star_ .75 4.00 8 00 a Sunday star_ .50 2 60 6.00 Telephone National 6000 Filtered at the Post Office. Washington. D. C., as second-class mall matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press la exclusively entitled to the use for republication of all news dispatches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this ••per and also the local news nublished herein. All rlghti of publication of special dispatches herein also are reserved A—g^_ FRIDAY, August 30. 1946 Up to Russia If Russia persists in opposing in ternational atomic control of the type proposed by the United States, It will be doing so not out of Igno rance but with its eyes-wide open to the probable consequences. This is clear from facts just re vealed regarding hitherto unpub lished statements and documents filed with the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission by Bernard M. Baruch, the American delegate, and his scientific advisers. Thus, it has now become a matter of open record that Mr. Baruch, at the first meeting of the commission on June 14, bluntly warned that unless the world adopted something very much like the American plan, the United States would have no other choice but to manufacture bigger and better A-bombs—and as many of them as possible—to impress would-be ag gressors of the future with the In hibiting knowledge of our ability to strike back swiftly and with devas tating force in the event of attack or threatened attack. It has now been learned, too, that after this warning was sounded the scientists associated with Mr. Baruch presented to members of the commission — including Andrei A. Gromyko, the Soviet delegate—de tailed studies clearly describing the unique deadliness of atomic energy and giving irrefutable support to the American thesis that if the world fails to subject this preternatural power to a genuinely effective sys tem of international development and control—a system under which no one nation could be its own mas ter in the field—every country will find itself perilously involved in by far the most dangerous armaments race of all time, a situation threat ening the whole of civilization with a war destructive beyond imagining. Actually, of course, as our delega tion has told the commission, the only complete defense against the A-bomb and other weapons of mass destruction must be “a system that will avoid war.” But although our control plan would not of itself con stitute such a system, it would be an indispensable part of it, a sine qua non. With the single exception of Russia, all powers of any conse quence agree with this view and support—at least in its essentials— the program we recommend. For reasons of its own, however, the Stalin government has held out up to now for the idea of a simple treaty, a paper pledge, under which atomic armaments would be out lawed and each country police itself against making or using them—an arrangment that could not possibly promote mutual confidence and se curity among nations. It remains to be seen whether the Russians, despite the awareness they must have of the grave dangers Implicit in no control, intend to adhere indefinitely to this position. If they do, the blame will rest pri marily with them for the catas trophic armaments race certain to ensue. Electricity on Farms Electricity for the Nation’s 6,000, 000 farms is a logical goal. That goal seems nearer now that the utility industry has decided to launch a great expansion of its pow er lines in rural areas. At present less than 50 per cent of the country’s farms are electrified and the private utilities are going after the poten tial market irrespective of action by the Rural Electrification Adminis tration. The utilities have set up a budget of approximately $300,000,000 to put power lines along the Nation’s 1,400,000 miles of secondary roads not now served. It is a business proposition. Frank E. Watts, director of the privately sponsored Rural Electric Informa tion Exchange, recently completed a seven-year study of economic angles of farming. He discovered that while urbanites spend about 40 cents of each dollar earned in manufactured equipment, the farm family spends approximately 70 eents. In a meeting with repre sentatives of the American Farm Bureau Federation, largest farm or ganization among the country's larmers, the utility group made plans to bring electric power most efficiently to the greatest number of farmers. The research staffs of such com panies as the General Electric Com pany and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation have compiled findings that lead to the conclusion farmers will spend $500,000,000 for the many types of electrical equipment by the end of 1948. It will be good business for all concerned. Electrification of all farms means an expanding mar ket for manufactured equipment, Which, in turn, means a high em ent level. Electricity on the will bring running water, fcesened chores and easier work for the housewife. It will also mean that farm life will be more satisfy ing and tend to keep some of the ambitious and competent young people in agriculture. In a Nation of 140,000,000 people, where 90 per cent of the food is dependent on the production of some 3,000.000 of the bettef farms, it is essential for the national welfare that our food pro ducers constitute a strong segment of the population. U. N. Membership Issue The heated arguments before the Security Council over the admission of candidates for membership in the United Nations reveal another deep going issue, implicit since the adop tion of the Charter but hitherto kept in the background by the pressure of other controversial matters. There can be no reasonable doubt that the framers of the Charter intended that the United Nations should have universality as its goal. Qualifications for membership were made wider and more elastic than those for the former League of Na tions, the Charter specifying only that applicants must be "states” which are "peace loving” and which "accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.” Until now, only one state has been specifically named by the organiza tion as ineligible for membership, and that only temporarily. This is Spain, so long as it shall continue to be governed by the Franco regime. The latitude in admissions is evi denced by the acceptance of the Ukraine and Byelorussia, even though their “sovereignty” was never more than technical and has, by their subsequent conduct, been proved to be entirely fictitious in cuaracier. It is most unfortunate that appli cations to U. N. have been compli cated by political and diplomatic factors. The American Government tried unsuccessfully to avoid these complications by advocating a blan , ket admission of all the eight appll j cants up for consideration (Afghan istan, Albania, Iceland, Ireland, Mongolia, Portugal, Sweden and Trans-Jordan), even though it had expressed grave doubts as to the eligibility of Albania and Mongolia, both of which are pretty obviously creations and satellites of the Soviet Union. But Russia*, refusing to ac cept Ireland, Portugal and Trans Jordan on the thin ground that no formal relations, existed between them and Moscow, objected to our proposal and thus set in motion the blackballing and vetoing process that has barred from membership at this time all but Afghanistan, Iceland and Sweden. Considering what the Charter has to say about membership qualifica tions, the absence of diplomatic re lations does not justify Russia’s use of the veto in this instance. The action has the earmarks of being little more than obstruction for ob struction’s sake—a fact tending only to exacerbate the differences and hard feelings already existing be tween the western powers and the Soviet Union on other matters. Fountains Abbey News to the effect that Fountains Abbey, near Ripon in Yorkshire, is to be restored as a Benedictine mon astery will be received in America with satisfaction among all classes of people familiiar with the name and fame of the most notable ruin of its kind in Britain. Thousands of visitors from the United States have made pilgrimage to the spot and know it with a particular affec tion. The beauty of the broken walls is as unforgettable to ordinary folk as it was to the great impressionistic painter J. M. W. Turner. Tradition tells that the first Abbey on the present site was an elm tree, under which the original group of monks ages ago found shelter from rain and a hot summer sun. The Gothic lines of the structure in its best period followed the pattern of the elm. If ever any building liter any giew iium me gruuna, roun tains did. But it was not merely a single edifice. The establishment once included, besides the church j with its glorious Chapel of the Nine Altars and its graceful and lofty tower, a refectory, guest hostels, many other dependencies. It was the Cistercian Order, founded by Stephen Harding, that developed the enterprise, but the stern Cister cian rule seems to have been dis obeyed by the architects and ma sons. They obviously were men who held beauty akin to truth in religion, and they put together a House of God worthy of the Lord Christ, who, according to ancient legend, once knocked on the door when the com munity possessed but two loaves and a half to share and ‘‘no prospect of more.” Riches came to the Abbey eventu ally. The church increased stone by stone at a steady pace during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Meanwhile, the monks frater, the j dorter of the lay brothers and other ! portions of the over-all design were | raised. The expense must have been | enormous. And it continued dur ing the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, when the infirmary, the major kitchens and other appurte nances were added. Ten acres finally were occupied by the Abbey organi zation. Supporting farms, orchards and gardens stretched away to 1 thirty miles. Disaster is supposed to have been the result of the Refor I mation, and Henry VIII commonly is blamed for wrecking the institu tion. But it also is suggested that: ‘‘No depredation has been com mitted on the sacred pile; time alone has brought it to its present state.” In any case, a thorough, systematic restorationr—for practl cal as well as idealistic purposes— now is to be commenced. The proj ect surely will be worth watching and helping. Party-Line Sport The recently re-emphasized Krem lin policy against art for art’s sake —that is to say, against art that fails to propagandize for the Soviet Union—apparently Is to have its counterpart in the realm of athlet ics. At any rate, that seems to be the burden of a smashing editorial just printed in ‘ Red Sport,” a Moscow publication whose function It is to give ideological content and direc tion to things like soccer, the one hundred-yard dash, pole-vaulting and similar sweaty activities nor mally calling for nothing but well trained muscles. It is not clear just how a Russian can promote Stalin’s new five-year plan with a good running broad jump or a record-breaking shotput, but ‘‘Red Sport” presumably will show the way to do that in some later issue. Meanwhile, it has merely proclaimed the official dictum that Soviet athletes must perform solely for the glory of the state and not to serve their own fame or satisfy per sonal ambitions to be better than anybody else in a relay race or a weight-lifting contest. The smash ing editorial does not mince words: “The spiritless, Philistine attitude of ‘sport for sport’s sake’ is alien to our physical culture movement and harmful to the interest of the Soviet people and for this reason cannot exist among us.” Thus, since a Russian poet or a Russian writer of love stories is likely to be ostracized if his poem or story neglects to put in a good plug for Soviet leadership, why should a Rus sian athlete be allowed to get away with an ideologically weak javelin throw or with a broad jump that fails to support Moscow’s claims on the Dardanelles or some other for eign or domestic aspect of the party line? The answer, of cours#, is obvi ous: Any such backslider should be properly chastised for his nonpoliti cal, "spiritless, Philistine attitude of ‘sport for sport’s sake.’” ' * To our giddy western bourgeois minds, all this may seem to be wed ding the absurd to the ridiculous, but every sober-sided, straight faced, humorless and fanatical Marxist will recognize It for what it is—qn excellent example of totali tarian logic being applied totally. Police of Rock Island^111., are allowed to talk over the telephone with their wives for only 30 seconds per call. Many wives are said to be co-operating by allowing their husbands as much as three or four seconds of this time to say “yes, my dear.” This and That By Charles E. Tracewell. "ARLINGTON, Va. “Dear Sir: "Between Edison and Emerson streets lies a broad stretch from Eighth to Fifth north, of fine gardens, trees and shrubs, over which one evening recently between 6 and 8 p.m. there flew a strange bird never seen before, much like a gull in size and movement, only larger in color. “I watched it for an hour dive and rise and sail off, only to return to this end, repeat and fly to the other end. Its movements were so swift while near the porch where I was sitting I could not get any definite marks. I have not seen it since. "The bob-whites have been missed this past week, where some days their clear call sounded almost in the doorway. "Cowbirds, if they are such, have dis placed the starlings, to whom they bear a strong resemblance as they walk about the lawn, though different in color. They are newcomers. "The two baths, kept clean and filled, have paid wonderful dividends by the birds ridding us of beetles and bugs, while our neighbors on both sides have been sufferers, indeed. “Last week I gave the birds ground bread, meat scraps and fat, as wild bird seed is off the market out here. “How I wish I knew the names of all of the birds that visit, but they visit, and that’s the best of all. "Cordially, E. E. H.” * * * * uur correspondent s evening bird might have been a bullbat, or night hawk, but that would have been too small. Note that we say "might." Since our recent miss on bullbats, we are careful of them. Nighthawks are not to be tampered with; they are marvelous flyers, ana as fine as they come, doing wonderful serv ice for mankind. The bird probably was a laughing gull. As for the walking birds, they might have been female cowbirds, or baby starlings. Both the lady cowbirds and the young starlings have a sort of gray ish hue, and both are walkers. The male cowbird is the only black bird with a brown head. Two things in the above letter strike us. One is the good word as to the drawing power of a well-kept and well filled bird bath. Too often well meaning persons fail to keep the bath either clean or filled. Especially in the hot summer this is necessary, if the birds are to be helped the most. The other matter which struck us was the sentence, "How I wish I knew the names of all of the birds that visit, but they visit, and that's the best of all.” It really makes no difference, those names, even though it must be admitted, of course, that it is nice to know them, but all too often the ambitious suburban dweller—let us say the new suburban dweller—positively makes himself un happy because he does not know “what bird is that?” After all, what difference does it make? The bird is just the same, just as beauti ful, just as active, just as interesting, and, above all, just as helpful in its consumption of insects inimical to man kind. The surest way to enjoy bird watching is to concentrate on this understand ing, rather than to worry over the pos sible name of the creatures. Names, at times, are nuisances. Possi bly every one, at some time or other, has wondered over his own name. It is good to have a name, and better to keep it clean and good, but the natural creatures of earth, sky and water, know no need for names, and perhaps they are right, after all, since the being, rather than the naming, is the main thing in life. Being calls for action, an action is more than a name. It is the complex of far reaching and marvelous changes, chemical in nature, but buttressed by an underlying something whose very name, In better ages than this, was spoken with awe. ! Letters to The Star Public Opinion in America Warning to Russia To the Editor of The Star: Our newspapers can help Russian leaders to understand American psy chology better if Russian representa tives send clippings back to Moscow. The need for a better understanding is painfully evident, hence this letter. One important fact that the Soviet leaders seem to overlook is that the U. S. A. is, really, a government by the people. The most potent force in our Government is public opinion, not the Ideas of a few powerful bureaucrats. Public opinion has been outraged and inflamed by Tito's viciousness toward United States citizens. Human life is not held cheap in the U. S. A. Tito is a tool of Russia. On all sides we hear rumblings such as: “Use the atom bomb on aggressors!” “What do we have the atom bomb for, if not to protect inno cent lives?”, “Now or never is the chance to use the atom bomb”, "Teach the scoundrels a lesson before it is too late!” Russian leaders consider the princi ples of Christianity too soft. So do many Americans, unfortunately! Strong arm tactics used against us arouse our baser instincts and lead surely to war. That is to some extent true of every people, but especially so of a Nation which has been proud of its freedom and independence for centuries. Americans feel that Tito would not have objected so viciously to airplanes over his teriitory If there had not been sometnmg there which he, or Soviet Russia, did not want seen. What is Tito trying to hide? Now several million people suspect the worst! Doubtless Soviet Russia sees no reason to treat us better than she treats her own citizens whose ideology is not pro Soviet, but when will she learn that “sugar catches more flies than vinegar”? The emperors of ancient Rome appealed to the proletariat by feeding them. Russia starves the Ukrainians, then punishes their disaffection! Russia sus pects the happy-go-lucky U. S. A. of devious and infamous motives, and thereby she arouses general suspicion of her own Intentions. Viciousness begets viciousness. Hence the vicious circle. Going in that kind of circle is no way to get ahead! FAY AGASSIZ. Decontrol Board Slammed To the Editor of The Star: It is evident that the Decontrol Board has the wrong name. It is obvious that its members believe in control even when it has proven unsatisfactory. Why not let the people who eat the meat pay for it and not tax the little fellow to death to pay subsidies so that those with means can eat steaks and the choice cuts of meat? When there were no controls you could get a piece of meat and a pound of butter once in a while, but when controls are on they all go to the black market people. Those of us who have to work during the day have not been able to buy meat, butter, fats or any of the scarce items since the controls first were put on through the so-called rationing which was just a black market racket. Millions of hours of time have been spent waiting in line for food and then when you get up to the counters, “Just sold out” is what you hear. Throw all such bunk out of the win dow and most of those that cry for un American practices with them. Com munism is at the bottom of it all. AN AMERICAN, NOT A MAKE BELIEVE ONE. Court Not Respected? To the Editor of T^ie Star: Wmr editorial evaluation of the prin ciples maintained by the late Justice James C. McReynolds could have been made more easily had one fact been kept in mind, and included in your statement, namely that: Until 1933, the United States Supreme Court was the most revered authority, on law, in either hemisphere. Since the New Deal packed the court, the question is: How many years will be required to restore the Supreme Court of the United States to the posi tion it once enjoyed as the most highly respected judicial body in the world? BURT FRANCE. Mr. Kent Debated Again To tha Editor of The Star: Prank Kent, in his eagerness to be rate the granting of terminal leave to ex-GIs, has made certain exaggera tions of fact that ought not to pass un corrected. In his column on the sub ject August 16 there are these material mistakes: 1. Mr. Kent incorrectly states that mustering-out pay was designed to be in lieu of terminal leave. If that were so, how does he explain the granting of mustering-out pay to officers through the rank of captain, in addition to their terminal leave? In fact, mustering-out pay was designed to provide a small amount of cash to help tide the ex serviceman over his re-entry to civilian life, and has had no relation whatso ever to the leave question. 2. Mr. Kent asserts that terminal leave for officers is costing a mere $50, 000,000. This, of course, is patently ridiculous, as it would mean an aver age of $35 or less per officer. I’ll lay Mr. Kent 5-to-l odds that the figure is nearer one billion dollars. 3. In contrast, Mr. Kent claims that GI terminal leave will cost at least $4,500,000,000 (or 90 times what jt cost to pay off the officers). If so, ft will be only because of the prevalence of ex aggerated and unverified claims—a pos sibility that would have been avoided had the enlisted man been given his humble due from the first, at the time of his discharge. The estimate finally got by the House Military Affairs Com mittee from a reluctant War Depart ment was $3,000,000,000 (refer to Con gressional Record of the date of House debate). W. J. HERMAN. A Gl’a Good-Bye To tha Editor of Tha Star: And so, wee Star, you’re twinkling out? Well, you have been one good old scout. I would not, could not, call you back, for you have been a cracker jack. I’ve held you tight when shot with pain, and read your cheery lines again. You pepped me up when my heart bled for my dear Mom and tears she shed. So now, wee Star, good-bye—good bye. You’ll twinkle still for this GI. TOMMY THE TECH. A Judgment From the Indianapolis New*. There are times when Russia acts like one of the neighbor’s children. This Changing World By Constantine Brown Alilv ViiC vovmwmvo v* wiv Four at Paris are wrangling over amendments to peace treaties — and how to shorten them—the American and British governments are giving a good deal of thought to the formation of a representative central government in Germany. One of the decisions reached unani mously at Yalta early in 1945 was that Germany, after the liquidation of Hitler and his gang, should have a central government, elected at the earliest pos sible moment by all its inhabitants. That government was, of course, to work under the control of the Allied forces of occupation anc, until the sign ing of peace, obey tHe Big Four instruc tions. President Roosevelt, Prime Mihister Churchill and Prime Minister Stalin agreed that the entity of the Reich must^ not be interrupted, since this would pro voke a vacuum which could not be easily filled and might have serious repercus sions on the peace of Europe which the three leaders at that time thought pos sible. France was not then consulted, since she had not yet been included among the major world powers. The proposition is said to have been made by Roosevelt, seconded by Church ill, and after a few objections, ap proved by Stalin. But after the collapse of the Reich the Yalta decisions were not applied. The Russians detached large slices of the Reich and either incorporated them into the U. S. S. R. or handed them over to Poland. Moreover, they ad vanced to the Elbe River and estab lished an exclusively Russian control throughout that area of Germany. # * * * Instead of creating a non-Nazi gov ernment which was to be controlled by the Big Four for an undetermined time, the three other nations besides Russia took over a slice of the Reich end administered it according to its own lights. A watertight compartmen tation was established between the four zones ana no intercourse between the Germans living in each of them was permitted except in exceptional cases. The Russians developed their own political philosophy and used their Moscow-trained German Communists east of the Elbe; America made a mess in the area allotted to the American forces; the British and the French adopted their own plan which was to dominate the areas placed under their adminis tration. a wv vvuvi at vvii.uiu vvc vt Lvmivi 111 Berlin—the one intended by the Yalta decision to control the national govern ment of the Reich—became a nominal organization dealing with minor matters, particularly attempting to clear up mis understandings and frictions among the four Allies. After 15 months of hit or miss admin istration, Washington and London have come to realize that nothing construc tive will be accomplished if the present situation is permitted to continue. Plans are now being studied to bring together at least those two zones which contain the bulk of the German industrial po tential. It is possible that the French may co-operate, although Paris intends to annex the Rhineland and the Saar in some form or another. Russia for the time being has re mained aloof. She, too. realizes the im portance of uniting Germany under one central government, since otherwise it will be impossible to negotiate a peace with that country. But Russia has shown every indication that she desires a united Reich with a government as subservient to Moscow as is that of Poland or Yugoslavia. * * * *. The American and British govern ments are seriously considering the hold ing of a free and unfettered general election in Germany west of the Elbe to enable the German people to elect a parliament which will not have a re gional character, and to select from the best men who have played no political role in Hitler's Reich the leaders who will assum# full responsibility for ruling them. According to the reports from the American and British authorities in the occupied zones, there is a sufficient reservoir of enlightened Germans from which to draw a parliament, a cabinet and a president. Although such a gov ernment will represent only Western Germany, there is some hope that it will eventually draw in its orbit the Ger mans in the east who at present can see no difference between their masters in the west and in the east. The fact that free elections are per mitted west of the Elbe and a regular German government established there would create a strong movement, at least In Thuringia and Saxony, to join an established government of the Reich and will remove the danger of Germany's becoming the most imposing and power ful satellite of the U. S. S. R. in Europe. On the Record By Dorothy Thompson Last Saturday Marsnai nto jet a cat out of the bag in his attempt to prove that the United States, not the Yugo slav government, is in the wrong regard ing the airplane incident, and that, in fact, Yugoslavia was repelling aggression against her sovereignty. He accused the Americans in the Venezia Giulia area of reconnoitering over “his” zone and said, “These flights over our territory • * • aim at reconnoitering those regions in which our military units occupying Zone B and the rest of the frontier are situated. • • • The affair is being dis torted abroad. • * * In fact she (Yugo slavia) is doing nothing more than pro tecting her sovereignty.” „ * * * * Now, wait a moment! What "sover eignty,” and where? Yugoslavia is not “sovereign" in Zone B. She is there as an occupying power, pending disposal of this territory by the peace conference. The final decision on whether Zone B or any part of it shall be awarded to Yugoslavia will be taken, after recommendations have been made by the peace conference, by the Big Four, among whom Yugoslavia is not numbered. None of the Big Four lays claim to all or part of this territory which before the last war belonged to Austro-Hun gary, and since has been Italian terri tory. It is, however, well known that Yugoslavia claims the whole area and is even opposed to such internationaliz ing of part of it as a majority of the Big Four have recommended. On this matter Marshal Tito has been so un equivocal and belligerent as to raise en tirely Justifiable suspicions that he may be contemplating using force if his wishes are not fulfilled. Until the issue is settled the territory remains under the guardianship of the great powers, for no one of whom Mar shal Tito is an agent, according to his own claims. If, therefore, Britain and the United States reconnoiter that area to make sure that no dirty work is going on and no moves of force being prepared, they are not only within their rights but are, indeed, assuming the re sponsibilities which are their duty. Zone B is no more Marshal Tito’s than any one else’s at this stage of negotiations, and he does his case ill, apparently revealing his real viewpoint, when he denies the right of two great powers to reconnoiter the area on the ground that Yugoslavia’s “sovereignty” is thereby infringed. It is no military secret that American reconnaisance photography is the best in the world and played a role of in calculable importance in winning the war. With this in mind Tito’s accusa lions mignt Dnng a smile to tne ups or United States Army Air Force men, if any one could be amused about the kill ing of innocent Americans. For Marshal Tito may be assured that the American armies, which successfully climbed upon “Festung Europa,” defended by the for midable German armies and Luftwaffe, did not do so without photographic aerial reconnaissance, and did not un dertake that task with lumbering C-47s —ordinary Army transports — even by carrying some E. Phillips Oppenheim Turk as a passenger. Against and despite the Luftwaffe the United States Air Forces were able to photograph the whole continent of Eu rope, in hundreds of thousands of films, but not in the horse-and-buggy manner apparently imagined by Tito. The United States does not operate thus, nor thus risk the lives of its men. Its wartime aerial photographic reconnais sance was performed by single pilots fly ing stripped-down fighter planes at speeds of 350 miles per hour and at alti tudes of 35,000 to 40,000 feet, without even a cameraman—the cameras were automatic and independent even of the pilot. We reconnaissanced North Africa and the Normandy beachheads over and over again in preparation for D day. Flyers used to call the trips the “milk run.” Only the German master-fighter, the stripped Messerschmidt 109-G, was even technically capable of intercepting our reconnaissance, and seldom suc ceeded. * * * # So if we have been reconnaissancing sovereign Yugoslav territory, it is a safe bet that Marshal Tito knows no more about it than the Germans did. If he thinks Army transports carrying pas sengers are so engaged, he, a marshal, should catch up with the war. His ac cusations are, technically, nonsensical. Also the Moscow and Belgrade press need some liaison work. Tito’s claque has indignantly attacked the American press for referring to the State Depart ment’s note as an “ultimatum.” Pre sumably it does him no good with the home folks to get an ultimatum from that country which has been, and prob ably still is, the most popular of the great Allies with the Yugoslav people. Ergo, an ultimatum is denied. But Pravda attacks the note on the ground that it was “unprecedentedly sharp * • • demanding in ultimatum form the release within 48 hours of the interned passengers.” For once Pravda agrees with the New York Times—and even with the Daily News. (Released by the Bell Syndicate, Ine.) Boom and Bust? By Raymond Moley If, as is reported, president Truman hopes to be not another Roosevelt, but a new Coolidge, he will have to do more than talk and act like a crossroad philosopher. He will have to grasp firmly that when the Government econ omizes and pays its debt, public confi dence grows, production increases, and a strong tide sets in against inflation. It is true that the Coolidge of 1927 and 1928 neglected many danger signals and failed to build protections against the crash of 1929. But the Coolidge of 1923 to 1927 was an economic states man. Instead of courageously throwing Government finances into a course which promises resistance to inflation, Mr. Truman for nearly a year has tem porized. Prom time to time he has dulled the confidence his budget state ments might have inspired by recom mending or, hinting at new expendi tures. As late as the first of August, we heard of new billions of spending to cut into the big tax return which now seems assured. * * * * We are in a period of national eco nomic activity the size of which this country has never before experienced. Americans hate to think of this as a boom. For a boom, historically con sidered, is too Intimately related to a subsequent bust. But if this isn’t a boom, it is something greater than what used to be called a boom. Our employment is several million greater than in 1929, when it ran close to 49 million. Without cutting the armed forces, we have passed the 57 million mark. The national Income falls short of the Wallace dream, but it is very high. It is at about $160 billion— almost double that of 1929. Taxes will yield $40 billion dollars, which is nearly equal to the whole national Income in the low years of 1932. Taxes will equal half the dollar amount of the whole national income in 1929. Sales in retailing afre breaking all records. Department store sales indi cate a prospective 25-per cent increase over last, year, wmie our manuiaciuring plants have overcome the deadlock of strikes, they are still unable to increase retailers’ inventories, because the public is buying at so great a rate. Some optimists point out that there will be 3 million automobiles produced this year and twice that in 1947. It is hardly necessary to mention the unprecedented crops that nature is providing. So much for the boom. Can it last? The bumper crop is already produc ing lower grain prices. Big surpluses of feed grain are appearing which, by all past experience, will depress prices. And foreign needs and demands for paid food exports are decreasing. Agriculture is likely to release two million workers this autumn. The sup ply of new machines is increasing, with a consequent decrease in the need for human hands. We have a surplus of wool, and textiles are catching up with demand. Housing, despite great needs, can provide only a fraction of our total budget of expenditures. Factory recon version is over the peak. The stock mar ket is hovering in a fairly small area. * * * * On the basis of these facts, most sound observers feel that there will be some recession in 1947. How far this will go, no one will predict. Conserva tive opinion anticipates no break like 1929 in the foreseeable future. Despite our great spending spree, there are evi dences that American savings will re main at a high level. It still remains to be seen whether the President and the new Congress will provide in the next year the kind of government fi nancing which can assure private savers that they have some aid at the top. For the best aid we could have in avoiding protracted readjustment next year would be in government finance— economy, with debt reduction and the assurance to investors and producers that sometime taxes will be less of a burden on enterprise. (Releaud b? Auoelated Newspaper* Inc.) Employer Talk Ruling Of NLRB Is Assailed Savors Too Much of Nazi Theory of ‘Burning People’s Books’ By David Lawrence Oliver Wendell Holmes, the great jurist whose liberalism is universally acknowledged, once said from the bench of the Supreme Court of the United States that freedom of speech is "free dom for the thought we hate ” But the National Labor Relations Board, in its latest decision, in effect takes issue with that Idea. It calls the making of a speech about union mat ters by an employer to his employes during working hours a "coercive” act and not privileged by the Constitution. The reason given is that the audience was "compulsory” or "captive.” Just why American citizens must be protected against opinions they may not like and must be protected by the full force of the law from listening to an opinion w-ith which they may differ, seems difficult to explain unless per chance it is that trade unionism in America cannot stand on its merits and that workers must be prevented at all costs from hearing a view other than that which the union organizers may present to them. Suspicion Created. The latest Labor Relations Board de cision creates the suspicion that maybe the employers occasionally do have an argument which may be persuasive with their employes, but the workers must not be allowed to hear it. This is not a decision that will enhance the prestige of the National Labor Relations Board, nor will it tend to improve employer employe relations in America. It savors too much of the theory so prevalent in Germany under the Nazis that the way to educate the people was to bum their books and keep them from reading any literature except that which a totali tarian authority, protected by law, per mitted them to read. Here Ls an excerpt from the board * decision in the case of Clark Brothers, a manufacturing establishment located at Olean, N. Y.: “We are also of the opinion, and find, that the conduct of the respondent (the employer) in compelling its employes to listen to a speech on self-organization under the circumstances hereinabove outlined and as more fully revealed in the intermediate report, independently constitutes interference, restraint, and coercion within the meaning of the act (the Wagner Labor Relations Law). • * • “The board has long recognized, that ‘the rights guaranteed to the employes by the act include the full freedom to receive aid, advice, and information from others concerning those rights and their enjoyment.’ Such freedom ls meaningless, however, unless the em ployes are also free to determine whether or not to receive such aid, advice, and information. To force em ployes to receive such aid and advice, and information impairs that free dom; it is calculated to, and does, interfere with the selection of a repre sentative of the employes’ choice. And this is so, wholly apart from the fact that the speech itself may be privileged under the Constitution.” The decision apparently doubts the capacity of American citizens to listen to a speech and disregard it if they like. Something must be wrong with the minds of American workers that an official board in Washington declares in effect that, once having listened to a speech, the listener is incapable of re jecting its argument and must be pro tected by law aganist a thought he dis likes. Vigorous Dissent. Gerard Reilly, retiring member of the Labor Board, wrote a vigorous dissent In which he declared that the Supreme Court of the United States had settled the issue in a case known as Thomas vs. Collins and in another ruling in the American Tube Bending case. “This board,” writes Mr. Reilly, “eventually acquiesced in this decision and for a time ceased to set aside elec tions or to issue cease and desist orders against employers who made antiunion speeches or circulated antiunion litera ture, if they refrained from threats or Intimidatory conduct. Recently, how ever, there has been a disturbing tend ency by the board to return to its old line of decisions on the theory that be cause there was some minor aspect of interference, a speech should be viewed as part of a ‘pattern of coercive con duct,’ even in cases where it was clear that the offending speech was only co ercive or ‘inextricably intertwined’ in the most highly metaphorical sense.’ Such ffndlngs have been made even where employers were confronted with highly inflammatory union literature, although one of the foremost labor lawyers in the country recognized, in a recent article in the official organ of the A. F. of L., that ‘if freedom of speech is to survive for trade unions and their members, it must not be denied, directly or indirectly, to employers'.’’ The Clark case is likely to be made the basis for legislative action when Congress reconvenes, though it is puz zling to figure out how Congress can safeguard by law the right of free speech which is already guaranteed by the Constitution but is now flagrantly disregarded by a Government board. (Reproduction Rights Reserved.) Hot to Handle From the Abbeville (Oe.) Chronicle. At the time of going to press, they hadn’t decided what to do with the atom bomb. Ain’t that a peculiar situa tion—we are afraid to keep it and afraid to let anybody else have it. Kinda like a fellow with a mean, but good-looking wife. He can’t live with her but Is afraid somebody else will. Make Us Remember Dear Lord, make us remember the sharp taste Of chaos, where the gray tanks, line on line, Moved, in the dusk across a barren waste. Make us remember orange skies, ashine With flames diffusing into smoky light, And let us not forget how we looked out Through the immediate engulfing night And hoped that peace, the ever« dreamed-about, Was being formed within the pregnant air. Let us not lose, in this calm after * hour, All memory of the hurtling bomb’s quick flare That bloomed in blackness like c monstrous flower. For not again must mankind ever know Those pits of night where helTs red roses glow. PRUDENCE K. GEARET.