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ONE HUNDRED year* ago this week painless surgery came into the world. On the morning of Octo ber 16.1846, Dr. John C. Warren re moved a tumor from the neck of a young woman rendered unconscious by ether in the operating room of the Massachusetts General Hospital * at Boston. Ever since, this operation has been universally acclaimed as one \ ef the most significant events in By Thomas R. Henry “ether drunks” held by students at the University of Georgia and had made use of the gas in an operation on the finger of a Negro slave. Unfortunately for Dr. Long’s repu tation, the exploit received only local publicity, nils was, for the most part, unfavorable. The Georgia doctor was even accused of dealings with Satan. He was effectively dis couraged from following up his "WMBaaaaasisiaaaflMaaaiaBiMMMMB For a long time, the physiological principles involved in anesthesia were not understood and surgery remairfed an extremely hazardous procedure. Many deaths were due to the anesthetic, rather than to the knife. Administration of anes thesia remained an art, rather than an exact science, until Quite recently, according to Dr. Donald Stubbs, professor of anesthesiology at George Washington University. Says Dr. Stubbs: “The last decade has been more Dr. William T. G. Morton, Boston dentist, second from right, stands by after administering ether for one of the first successful surgical operations on a patient , with the use of the drug at the Massachusetts General Hospital in October, 1846. Dr. John C. Warren performed the operation. ~wide World Photo* human history. Previously surgery had been a thing of horror, difficult even to imagine. There are numer ous accounts in medical literature, such as: # “She is brought into the amphi theater and laid upon the table. With merciful regard for the in tensity of the agony she is to suffer, opiates and stimulants have been freely given her. She is enjoined to be calm and to keep quiet and still and, with assistance at hand to hold her struggling form, the opera tion is commenced. “But of what avail are all her at tempts at fortitude? At tha first clear, crisp cut of the scalpel, agonizing screams burst from her and, with-convulsive struggles, she endeavors to leap from the table. But force is nigh. Strong men pinion her limbs. * 8hriek after shriek make their horrible way into the stillness of the room, until the heart of the boldest sinks into his bossom like a lump of lead.” Hartford Dentist Used Laughing Gas This was far from an unusual picture before 1846. Twelve years before a Hartford, Conn., dentist. Horace Wells, had begun the use of nitrous oxide, or laughing gas, for ‘ tooth pulling. He is regarded as the first man to have made use of any anesthetic. He had been inspired to try the gas after attending a lecture at which the speaker had allowed members of the audience to inhale nitrous oxide. He noticed that those under its influence seemed insensible to the pain of stumbling against furniture. Unfortunately one oi ms nrsi patients died in the chair. The anesthetic was blamed. Wells with drew from practice and committed suicide. He had a partner named William Morton. Morton moved to Boston and continued to practice dentistry and enrolled as a student at the > Harvard Medical School. There he met Dr. Charles Jackson who told him that ether had effects much like nitrous oxide and that Inhaling its fumes caused an “ether Ms' It occurred to Morton that the gas might be used as an anesthetic. He tried it out on a pet dog, then on himself. Finally he used it, with complete success, to pull a patient’s tooth. Only then did he suggest its use to Dr. Warren. The latter was highly skeptical, but agreed to the experiment. The patient was carried into the amphitheater. There stood the guards whose duty it was to hold her on the table during the agonies of the operation. Morton did not appear. After waiting a few minutes, Warren prepared to go ahead In the usual fashion. Professional Opinion, ‘This Is No Humbug’ "As Dr. Morton has not arrived I presume he is otherwise engaged,” he remarked sardonically. Just then Morton came in. He administered the gas. The woman did not struggle or scream as the operation proceeded. At its con clusion, Warren turned to the spectators and said simply: "Gentlemen, this is no humbug.” Thus was introduced to the world one of the greatest boons ever given the human race. Then came a fierce controversy. Jackson, who admittedly had suggested to Morton the use of ether, claimed all the credit. The same man disputed with Morse the invention ,of the telegraph. Morton died of apoplexy a few years later, his death hastened by the controversy. It is now generally admitted that the actual first use of ether as an anesthetic was by Dr. Crawford W. Long of Athens, Ga., several years earlier. Long had got the idea from great discovery and it was the work of Morton which first introduced ether anesthesia to the world. Shortly afterward, chloroform was introduced as an anesthetic in Eng land and long remained a rival of ether, especially in obstetrics, to which it was more adapted. important than all which went be fore in this specialty. No surgical specialty has made more progress in recent years. It embraces a larger part of the preoperative and postoperative care, the selection of the anesthetic agent and the method of its administration, gas therapy In the modern method of administering anesthesia, the patient is given ether by the anesthetist with the use of the mask, breathing bag and a means of absorb ing carbon dioxide. _ Dr. William T. G. Mor ton, first to use ether in a major operation, and who will be honored on the 100th anniversary of an esthesia next Wednesday. —Wido World. and resuscitation and diagnostic and therapeutic nerve blocks. It often includes intravenous support ing care with blood and plasma. “Anesthesiology is now attracting first-class men in greater numbers than was possible when the anes thetic was administered by tech nicians under the complete control and responsibility of the surgeon. This is enlarging the team work between surgeon and anesthetist. Dawn of New Century Promises^ Better Results "The first 100 years of anesthesia have been called ‘the century of painless surgery.’ What the new anesthesiology promises today, at the dawn of the new century, is the realization of safe anesthesia. In our poor hospitals, using old | fashioned methods, we have an average of one death on the oper ating table in every 300 surgery cases. In those few of our hospitals which have brought their operating rooms in line with the new anesthe siology. we have an average of one death for every B.000 cases.” wasmngion noepnaia siana mgn in this respect. Emergency Hospital, for example, was one of the first in the country to lay down the rule that only physicians with special training be allowed to handle anes thesia. It prohibited surgeons from acting as their own anesthetists and made it compulsory that a physi cian-anesthetist must attend each patient throughout an operation. As a result, in the past six years, there have been only three deaths on the operating table in 23,000 surgery cases. Analysis of Deaths Made by Surgeons A recent issue of Anesthesiology, official organ of the American Society, contains an analysis pre pared by local doctors of 47 deaths under anesthesia in 10 Washington^ hospitals in two years. Thirty-nine of these deaths are attributed directly to the anesthesia, rather than -to the surgery. The three experts say: “It is noti too much to say that very few anesthesias progress for more than, a few minutes in average hands without some degree of lack of oxygen, or cerebral anoxia. Com plete cerebral anoxia for 10 seconds produces unconsciousness; 20 to 30 seconds causes cessation of brain waves; three to five minutes ! produces irreversible pathological change in the cerebrum." These conditions have repercus sions all through the system which may easily prove fatal. By John Clagott Proctor The 43d official World Series is romping to a close-fought finish, marking the official end of the base ball season for 1946, and jtlrring memories of other years in which Washington had a part in determin ing the championship. As the cur tain falls on America's top sport for this season, shades of the past crowd recollections of many, for baseball in Washington has 86 years of re corded history. The years 1924, 1925 and 1933 stand out in the an nals of professional baseball, when the Senators bid for fame. They finished fourth in the Amercan League this year, but probably did much better than predecessors of bygone days, whose prowess was faithfully recorded in early sports stories of The Star. In Washington baseball goes back to ante bellum days, and there are some very bright as well as very dark spots in its history. On No vember 4, 1859, The Star published an account of what was probably the first baseball club organized in Washington. It says: “A baseball club has just been formed in this city and promises to prove an efficient organization. It; is called the ‘Potomac,’ has 21 mem bers, with McLane Tilton as presi dent: Leonard C. Gunnell as vice president, and Richard B. Irwin as secretary. It is a good sign to see such health- promoting exercises taking the place of insipid ener vating amusements." The National Club could not have been far behind the Potomacs, for in The Star of May 7, 1860, we find recorded a contest between these! teams, and the reporter was good enough to tell us what part of the city the clubs hailed from—the Na tional Club from Capitol Hill and the Potomac Club from the first ward, which subsequent to 1820 in cluded the area west of Fifteenth street to Rock Creek. Baseball Teams of Bygone 40-to-24 Defeat Followed by Banquet In the early days of the sport the team that made 21 runs first won the game, but this particular game was allowed to go to the acore of 35 to 15, as the following account states: “Baseball—A game of baseball was played on Saturday last on the Mall between the Potomac Club of the first ward and the National Club of Capitol Hill, in which the latter club was worsted, 35 to 15, in seven innings. The Potomac Club has challenged a club in Baltimore to play a match gbme here on the 6th of June next, and it was understood the National Club accepted the challenge, which gave only 4S hours' notice to prepare in, more to get the first warders in good play for the coming match with Baltimore than to exhibit its own skill. The Capitol Hill Club has only been or ganized lately, and is composed of novices, while the Potomac Club has in its ranks several first-rate per formers, who understand the game perfectly and have had much prac tice.” The writer turned the pages to June 7, 1860, and there found the result, 40 to 24, the Nationals being on the short end and the Excelsiors of Baltimore the victors. Here is The Star's report of the game: "The friendly match between the Potomac Baseball Club of this city and the Excelsior Club of Baltimore came off on the grounds south of the President’s Mansion yesterday afternoon. Quite a number of visi tors were present and witnessed the sport and were highly pleased with the game throughout, the opposing The National baseball team of 1878-9. Front row (from left), John White, Bab* Trott, Myrtle, Oscar Balaski, Derby, and John Hollingshead; standiiig, Phil Baker, Jack Lynch, Elliott and McClellan. clubs bearing their defeats with the most perfect equanimity. The Ex celsior came out winner at the close of the game. At night they partook of a rich entertainment prepared for them by Gunther at the order of the Potomac Club. We under stand the Baltimore club made 40 runs to 24 by the Washington club.” Evidently the baseball season was about as long then as it is at pres ent, for on September 11 of the same year we find two local teams— the Nationals and the Potomac*— crossing bats. The Star, always In 9 the case, since from the very begin ning members of the fair sex have been enthusiastic rooters whenever it was known that two good clubs would meet, and for verification we submit what The Star said Septem ber 8, 1860: “We are much pleased to see that this manly sport, until lately con fined to the North and East, is be ginning to be duly appreciated in our Southern cities. Combining grace, quickness and strength in the requisites for a good player, it gives an amount of open-air exercise that The Nationals of 1882. In foreground, reclining, Wil liam E. Wist and Phil Baker;, sitting, Frank Shriner, William Warren White, Thomas Evers, Clay Barclay and Aloysius C. Joy; standing, Maurice Pierce, Charles H. Kalbfus and George Noble. » terested in local matters, grew; rather enthusiastic in its account of the forthcoming game, as pub lished on September S, and went; out of its way—86 years ago—to; make a prediction which time ha*; fulfilled to the fullest—and baseball! is, and probably always will be, the ■ American “national game." Some folks also seem to think that the attention given by the| ladies to the game is a matter of; decent years, but the account which: follows shows this to be fgr from; can oe ODtainea in no omer game that we know of, and In a com munity where the large majority of the young men lead so sedentary lives, as in Washington, it has long been * desideratum. Last spring the Potomac Club—which is the pioneer organization of the South —played several interesting and closely contested matches which gave a great impulse to the game and now we have here three thor oughly organized clubs—the Po tomac, Nationals and Pythians—be The National Symphony Brings Back Some Memories WHEN Dr. Hans Kindler raises his baton Wednes day evening and launches the National Symphony j Orchestra’s 16th season there will be some in the audience who will think back beyond the present orchestra to 1902. In that year a symphony orchestra was organized in the Capital with hopes it would be permanent, hopes that were disappointed. ’ Those who attended that long-ago concert may recapture the moments of pleasure they experienced when the “Washington Symphony Or chestra” gave its first concert at the "New National Theater” at 4:15 o'clock Monday afternoon, April 28, 1902. Early Efforts to Found A Permanent Orchestra They may think also of that con cert as a valiant but, in the end, unsuccessful attempt found a permanent orchestra. It was an effort, however, which finally came to fruition with the founding of the present orchestra in 1931. The last years have seen the sound develop ment of the present organization, winning an audience which looks on Dr. Kindler and the musicians he directs as a group of pleasant friends from whom the utmost in enjoyment will be derived. A program of that 1902 concert, conducted by Reginald De Koven and with Ignace Jan Paderewski as soloist, is treasured in the files of the National Symphony Orchestra now. On the back page of the four page leaflet is a list—a “partial list"—of guarantors and subscribers. Among them are a few names of persons who support the present or chestra or whose sons or daughters are among the orchestra’s sup porters. Near the top of the page is listed “Mr. E. Berliner,” the late Emile Berliner, a widely known Washing tonian. Turn to the rosters of the present National Symphony Or chestra Association and you will find the names of Mr. and Mrs. Milton W. King in the list of spon sors. Mrs. King is .the daughter of Mr. Berliner; Mr. King is not only a sponsor but the treasurer of the association. Also patrons of the orchestra are Mr. and Mrs. Henry A. Ber-, liner; Mr. Berliner is a son of Emile Berliner. Mrs. King, when told recently of the old program listing her father's name, was not surprised at his identification with the first sym phony orchestra in the Capital. Among the Orchestra’* Earliest Patrons “We were all brought up on music,” she said. “My father not only en joyed it but he was the inventor of the disc talking machine which ulti mately became the Victor phono graph. The new records naturally came to the house.” Another listed as a guarantor of that initial concert was “Mr. J. Sanders,” whom many will recog nize as Joseph Sanders, vice presi dent of the Bank of Commerce and Savings arid one of the sustainers of the present orchestra. Mr. Sanders has a faint recollec tion of that long-ago concert he fostered and attended. “We hoped to get an orchestra started at that time,” he said. “It was quite an event; we tried to make it so.” Mr. Sanders has long enjoyed good music, a taste he shared with the late Mrs. Sanders who was Miss Hannah Berliner, another daughter of Emile Berliner. The late Maj. Duncan C. Phillips is another who was, on that 1902 list of guarantors. His son, Qpnean Phillips, founder and director of the Phillips Memorial Gallery, and Mrs. Phillips are listed as patrons of the present orchestra. Mr. Phillips said his father no doubt was interested in that early effort to found a symphony orchestra here as he was interested In all civic affairs. Mr. and Mrs. Phillips have been subscribers to the present orchestra's concerts since their’in ception. Another person who actually was at that 1902 concert is Mrs. Christian Heurich, who is one of the box holders for the forthcoming series of Wednesday evening concerts and is also on the roster of donors. Mrs. Heurich was listed among the 1902 guarantors as “Mrs. Amelia Heurich,” but she believes that was a mistake. "I must have sent in the check myself,” she said. “But it should have been ‘Mr. and Mrs. Christian Heurich.’ Both of us always were interested in music and we did everything together.” Of the con cert she said: “I think I remember that. I heard By Francis P. Douglas Paderewski every time he came here and I really think that was the first time.” She also recalled that she and her late husband met Mr. De Koven. Another who was listed as a guarantor of that initial concert is Mrs. Cuno H. Rudolph of the Dresden Apartments. The late Mr. Rudolph served as Commissioner of the District for 18 years. It Has Done Wonderful ^Things for the City “I presume I was there,” Mrs. Rudolph said. “Paderewski was one of my favorites. I have always been interested in music here in Wash ington. I don't go to concerts now as much as I used to, but I feel that the symphony orchestra under Dr. Kindler has done wonderful things for the city." The concert of April 28, 1902, ap parently was the only one that spring, but five more were promised for the succeeding season. A state ment in that first program said, “A canvass was made of all available professional talent and it is a pleas ure to state that this city abounds with first-class musicians who, in order to produce the very beat orchestral music,‘need only to be brought together and regularly re hearsed.” At the initial concert of the next season, December 9, 1902, Oride Musin, Belgian violinist, was soloist. Ossip Oabrilowitsch, pianist, was soloist on January 9,1903. Hie pro gram for that concert promised that at the next three concerts the soloists would be Mme. Fritaie Scheff, then with the Orau Opera Company; Mme. Fanny Blumfield. Zeisler, pianist, and Ben Davis, Eng lish tenor. Hie present orchestra organization does not have the pro grams for those three concerts, but it does have one for the first popular concert given Sunday evening, April j 12, 1903. Apparently that was about the sum of the accomplishments under Mr. De Koven. Next came a few concerts in 1906 conducted by Hein rich Hammer and, in the 1920s, a brief series conducted by Kurt Het zel. Orchestras from other cities visited Washington, but the Capital did not have its own orchestra until the next decade. Hie subsequent story is more fa mily. In 1930 a group of musicians formed a co-operative organization under the name National Symphony Orchestra, and gave three concerts. Hie first conductor was Rudolf Dr. Hans Kindler directing the National Symphony Orchestra during themaking of affording at Comtitu tion Hall. The orchestra will open its 16th season next Wednesday. * A Schueller. The conductor of the last two concerts was Dr. Kindler—and Dr. Klndler stayed. The next year, INI, with the country sinking deeper into the eco nomic depression, the beginning was made with M contributors to a sus taining fund and 70 musicians. Now the contributors number into the thousands. The orchestra was sub sequently increased to 80 musicians, then to 90, and this year the goal of 100 has been reached. The National Symphony’s Real Beginning But to go back to that historic concert of 1902. Hie Star said the next day that the new organization had started off brilliantly, adding, “Its work justified the fondest hopes St the friends of the enterprise. It was greeted by a large and distin guished audience which was of the most friendly disposition. Hie distinguished audience, in ad dition to those whose names al ready have been given, no doubt included these who were also named as subscribers: Mrs. West inghouse, Mrs. Thomas Nelson Page, Mrs. L. Z. Letter, Mrs. H. C. Lodge, Mrs. A. Lisner, Chief Justice Mel ville W. Puller and Justice E. D. White, who later was Chief Justice. The Star noted that the George town Orchestra had played sym phonies for many years, but that the new organization started out with the symphony as the basis oi its operations. Paderewski played Beethoven’s “Emperor Concerto’ and “was compelled to bow ac knowledgment to applause after each movement and at the end was recalled again and again.” Concerning Mr. De Koven, Th< Star said the concert had demon strated “that a man who has here tofore been considered merely as a composer of light opera has de veloped a masterly power of organi zation. a versatility of reading and a control over players that makes him a conductor of force and au thority.” Mr. De Koven was presented i wreath of laurels “with flowing rib bons.” Were he to return next Wednesday he might be disposed U share those laurels with the goodlj group which has made the Nations: Symphony the sound institutior which it is today. side a host of minor organizations. On Tuesday next the Potomacs again try their skill against the Na tional Club. We are Informed by amateurs that these clubs are both in fine playing condition and were never more evenly matched than now, and we advise all anxious to see a closely fought and exciting game to be present at sharp 2 on Tuesday. The Potomac Club at its last matches cared well for the softer sex and gave them as good accommodations as the nature of things allowed, to say nothing of the good-looking ‘committee of five’ who looked so gallant and so warm. They were rewarded, too, for all—or nearly all—the ladies of Washing ton lent their presence to encour age their champions. With the nat ural charms that the game itself possesses, and with the added im pulse that encouragement from the sex everywhere gives to the arms of young Amercia, we hope yet to see baseball here what cricket is in England—the national game.” Chamois Leather Gaiters Fashion Note for Team The game came off as scheduled, and The Star in its writeup placed in history not only one of our earli est baseball contests, but recorded for all times the names of the play ers who took part in the contest, and besides gave a description of the costumes worn by the players, a matter the historian appreciates, since old accounts of current events are rarely satisfying as to details. This is The Star s account of the i game: "Base Ball—The Match Game Be tween the Potomac and National Clubs—An exciting match game be I tween the first nine of the Potomae and National Clubs was played yes terday afternoon on the grounds of the Potomac Club, situated south of the President s House. For some, time previous to the commence ; ment of the game the executive | committee charged with the duty of receiving invited guests were ac tively engaged in that capacity, and at the time set for the game to be gin a large crowd of ladies and gen tlemen had assembled to witness the ; exciting sport about to ensue. The opposing nines were as follows; On the part of the National—Messrs. Brown, Hibbs, Gorman, French, Dooley, Beale, Wright, McCanant, Benner. On the part of the Poto mac—Messrs. Smedberg, Bigger, Robinson, Trook, Hartley, Wood, Mitchell, Camp, Wise. "The preparations having been perfected, the word was given to play, and the boys went at it i in fine style. The playing was good on both sides, many fine strikes, runs and catches being made. On the part of the Potomac Club, Messrs. Wood. Trook. Hart ley and Bigger batted exceedingly well, and Mr. Mitchell exhibited i splendid running, often making m ' base while the uall was passing from the thrower to the catcher. "Of the National Club, Messrs. : Wright, Hibbs. Gorman and Brown made excellent strikes and very fine runs. The best catch of the day was made by Mr. Dooley of the Nationals, a fly catch in the left field from a splendid strike by Mitchell. Messrs. Hibbs and Bigger won golden opinions on all hands as easy and even pitchers; wljile . | the catchers—Messrs. Smedberg and i Gorcaan—occupied their difficult ! posts with honor. "National—Brown, lb.; Hibbs, p.; Gorman, c.; French, 2b.; Dooley, If,; I Beale, cf.; Wright, as.; McCanant, 3b.; Benner, rf.; McCormick, scorer, “Potomac—Smedberg, e.; Bigger, p.; Robinson, lb.; Trook, as.; Hart | ley, 2b.; Wood, 3b.; Mitchell, If.; Champ, rf.; Wise, cf.; R. B. Irwin, | scorer. “Umpire—J. F. Bean of Bxeelsior j Club of Baltimore. “We give below a score of the \ game as furnished us by a member I of the committee. Innings. “National .317 011 163 •Potomac . 383 375 331 Total Innings. “Potomac _ 38 “National . 33 “Potomac won by 16 runs. “Distance from base to base, 30 yards. 1 "At the conclusion of the game each club gave three hearty cheers and a ‘tiger’ for the other, and then both clubs united in giving three hearty cheers for the umpire for his impartial conduct throughout the game. Mr. Gorman of the Na tionals then delivered the trophy of victory (the ball used in the game) to the victorious Potomacs, which was received with appropriate re marks by Mr. Smedberg.