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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, April 24, 1947, Image 14

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$j)e fretting ptaf
With Sunday Morning Edition.
WASHINGTON, D. C.
Publish*! by
Th< Evening Star Newspaper Company
FRANK B. NOYES, President.
B. M. McKELWAY, Editor.
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m m
Member of the Atsociafed Press.
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All rights of publication of special dispatches
herein also are reserved.
A—14 ** THURSDAY, Aprif 24, 1947
Voice of America
There is a very considerable dif
ference of opinion as to the useful
ness of the State Department’s
; “Voice of America” broadcasts to
i Russia and other foreign lands. On
the basis of all the known facts,
however, the doubt is one which
ought to be resolved in favor of
continuing the broadcasts, the dis
tribution of the department’s Rus
sian language magazine and other
associated activities designed to tell
“America’s story” to other countries.
Consequently, it is disturbing to
learn through unofficial reports that
a subcommittee of the House Appro
priations Committee has invoked a
point of order which kills a budget
of some $31,000,000 designed to
finance these activities throughout
the next fiscal year.
If this was done in the name of
simple economy, there is reason to
believe that it is of the penny wise
and pound foolish variety. The ac
tivities of the State Department’s
Office of International Information
and Cultural Affairs—possibly an
uriofa Hoe/»rir\tivo fitlp_rPQph
into some sixty-seven countries. In
some of these, Russia particularly,
these activities are the only means,
however limited, of reaching mil
lions of people whose own govern
ments strive to prevent them from
learning anything about the real
facts of life in the western democ
racies. If even a relative few of
these can be reached with the truth,
that would seem to be of more value
to us than any benefit to be derived
from a saving of $31,000,000.
If the members of the subcommit
tee were influenced by a belief that
the OIC program is not achieving
any worthwhile results, that is an
other matter and one more difficult
to take issue with. However, the
weight of such evidence as is avail
able points to a contrary conclusion.
Both our own Government, and the
British government, have evidence,
such as letters from individual Rus
sians, which indicates that our
magazine and a similar British
publication are eagerly and rather
widely read in Russia. The Voice(of
America broadcast is in its infancy,
yet there is at least some reason to
believe that it is heard in places
which cannot be reached in any
other way.
In any event, this is a program
which, as to its merits, has not yet
had a fair trial. The House prob
ably will uphold its subcommittee,
but the Senate is said to be more
favorably^disposed toward giving the
Voice of America and the Allied
programs a reasonable opportunity
to prove their worth. It is to be
hoped that this is the case, and
that the necessary funds for the
program will be reinstated.
Shakespeare
The annual celebration of the*
anniversary of his birth is as good
a time £•? any for a consideration
of the “survival value” of William
Shakespeare’s works. So many
changes have occurred in the world
since he lived that it is a fair ques
tion as to whether his writings ^ny
lonppr havp t.hp siemifir.ance which
admittedly they possessed in his own
day. Henry and Emily Folger gave
their answer to the problem thus
expressed when they established the
library which bears their name. Dr.
Joseph Quincy Adams, as director
of their institution from 1932 until
his unseasonable death last Novem
ber. developed its original plan and
scope extensively through numerous
Important accessions and through
many useful publications which he
personally edited. The work goes
forward under the present manage
ment of Dr. James G. McManaway.
But it remains a matter worthy
of inquiry as to whether Shakespeare
really is an artist and a philosopher
as much at home in the twentieth
century as in the sixteenth. Spe
cifically. his book is subject to exam
ination as to the social and political
views preserved in it. Even a casual
reading of the plays will suffice to
convince any average person that
the Bard resented “the seizure of
sovereign power in a state without
legal right.” On no less than one
hundred and seventeen occasions
does he employ the word “tyrant”
or its immediate derivatives in this
connection. He certainly hated to
talitarian conceptions of govern
ment. The influence of the classical
schooling which somehow he ob
tained is manifest In his echoing
of Aristotle and Plato concerning
dictatorships. In Macbeth especially
he indicts the moral faults of usur
pation and theoretically expedient
coercion. How much the same reac
tion mea.pt to him is proved by his
4
repeated reference to it in at least
twenty-seven additional dramas.
On the other hand, Walter Bage
hot justifiably says: “The author of
Coriolanus never believed in a mob,
and did something towards prevent
ing anybody else from doing so.”
Shakespeare again and again shows
that he disapproved the “many
headed” crowd. But the explanation
of his attitude is simple enough.
What he objected to was the tend
ency of the “wavering multitude”
to follow false leaders—the Hitlers
; and the Mussolinis of earlier ages
than ours. “The fault,” he declares
in Julius Caesar, “is not in our stars,
but in ourselves, that we are under
lings.” If that complaint were true
between 1601 and 1609, it may be
true at the current moment. “Pray,
look to’t!”
Tri-Fower Ruhr Coal Pact
The agreement arrived at between
the United States, Britain and
France on German coal allocations
is important from both its economic
and diplomatic aspects, though its
long-term significance should not be
exaggerated.
The most interesting feature of
the pact is that it was signed at
Moscow by the top representatives
of the three governments, during
the Foreign Ministers’ Council ses
sion but excluding the Soviet Union.
That, in itself, was a step charac
terized by a member of the Ameri
can delegation as “a diplomatic re
verse” for the Soviet government.
This, of course, is something for
which Soviet diplomacy is itself
wholly to blame. The Kremlin has
tried to play both ends against the
middle. It has vetoed Secretary
Marshall’s proposal to assign the
whole output of the Saar coalfields
to France and has similarly vetoed
the French plan for the Ruhr’s
economic separatiofi from the rest
of Germany. In this, it stands with
the United States'and Britain, which
are likewise opposed to the French
i idea. But the Kremlin likewise puts
a spoke in the Anglo-American plan
for German economic reconstruction
by putting forward demands to
' which neither Washington nor Lon
don can reasonably accede.
Since the Kremlin is thus balking
everybody, the three western powers
are inevitably thrown together and
compelled to take common action
regarding their respective zones of
the occupied Reich. The tripartite
pact on coal deliveries should be
regarded as a first step in what
appears to be a logical co-operative
trend. But, in and by itself, it is
limited both in scope and in time.
This six months’ agreement estab
lishes a sliding scale under which
France may obtain a somewhat
larger proportion of German coal
earmarked for export, as production
in both the Ruhr and the Saar coal
fields increases. But those potential
deliveries to France by no means
j satisfies France’s crying need for
| coal in its program of economic re
| construction. It leaves the eventual
j status of the Ruhr and the Saar
; alike undetermined. Lastly, it does
not imply a fusion of the French
zone with those of America and
Britain for economic purposes.
Nevertheless, it appears to be a
clear warning to the Kremlin that
continued obstruction on its part
will inevitably draw the western
powers into ever closer co-ordina
tion concerning German problems.
Furthermore, such co-ordination
should logically tend to occur within
the larger framework of a program
for the whole of Western and West
Central Europe beyond Moscow’s
“iron curtain.” If Moscow wants to
avert this trend, it can do so by
reversing its own obstructive, self
isolating policy. No one else will
or can.
Air Rescue Service
The arrangements being made by
the International Civil Aviation Or
ganization for a round-the-world air
rescue and search system are de
signed to fill a long-felt need in the
rrrmvi n rr fiol/1 nf «-»!»• /inmmni<An
Such a service is a natural corol
lary of preventive safety measures
planned by the ICAO.
Officials of the new organization,
of which thirty-nine nations already
are members, have shown good judg
ment in acting quickly to set up the
framework of the rescue network,
while planning long-range measures
to increase the safety of trans
oceanic air travel. The urgency of
the program'has been demonstrated
in numerous recent accidents. Where
jurisdictional responsibilities are
vague or conflicting, the efforts to
locate lost planes and rescue their
passengers, if alive, should not be
left wholly to unorganized volun
teers, handicapped by lack of over
all direction and co-ordination.
Under the plans being worked out
by Lieutenant Colonel Norman D.
Vaughan, head of the search and
rescue division of ICAO, the crash
of a commercial airliner in any part
of the world, no matter how remote,
will bring into action regional search
and rescue teams equipped to oper
ate in the particular area where the
plane is believed to be down. The
teams will be equipped with boats,
helicopters, gliders and even pack
mules or dog sledges, as the terrain
may require. Five of the ten regional
services which eventually will cover
the world have been organized and
are ready to function. Facilities of
member nations will be utilized to
the fullest, by mutual agreement.
Only Soviet Russia is excluded from
the plan, for the reason that foreign
planes are not permitted to fly over
Russian territory.
The international rescue service is
being instituted at an opportune
time. The series of air disasters of
the past winter aroused misgivings
on the part of the public that con
cededly hurt airline business. The
efforts being made by the ICAO to
make flying safer for the world
traveler should help to strengthen
public confidence in an industry still
in the throes of expansion and de
velopment.
Ours the Unhappiest?
According to Dr. Marynia F.
Farnham, a psychiatrist, American
women are the unhappiest women
in the world. They are petted, pam
pered, kowtowed to, placed on a
pedestal, showered with gifts, given
charge accounts, and in general
treated in a way that makes them
the envy of nearly all their sisters
overseas. But still their hearts are
the heaviest, most woebegone, least
happy female hearts to be found
anywhere under the sun.
It is not clear just how Dr. Farn
ham has arrived at this conclusion.
Considering that the world is full
of an awful lot of women and that
nothing seems harder sometimes
than to find out how happy or un
j happy they are, maybe the Farnham
' view is nothing but a wild guess in
! the dark—a sweeping assertion ap
i proximately as sound as the once
; popular assertion that the earth is
flat. But if it is true, then the men
of America must ask themselves
what they should do about it. Gal
; lantry, if nothing else, demands this.
I How bring sunlight again to the dis
consolate females among us? How
make them sing? How restore the
bloom to their cheeks, the smile to
their lips, the joy of living to their
hearts? Is it more pampering that
i they want? Or have they perhaps
j wearied of all that and yearn now
j only to be dominated as in the days
j of the primitive cave dwellers?
If American women are in fact
as unhappy as Dr. Farnham says,
! American men (how happy are they,
; by the way?) must certainly try to
do something about it. It is not an '
easy problem. Until the right answer
can be found, the female heart must
be patient, must be understanding,
must try%to carry on somehow, and
could do a lot worse than mull over
these words of Horace: "If thou art
sound in stomach, side, and feet,
tne ricnes ot a King will add nothing
to thy happiness.”
A pending increase in sugar may
soon double the supply of bubble
gum, it is feared. For parents and
housekeepers, double bubble will
mean toil and trouble.
This and That
By Charles E. Tracewell.
“FAIRFAX, Va.
"Dear Sir:
“Please give me the name of a bird,
slender, brown in color, with a red cap
set at a rakish angle on the back of his
head. „
"I cannot see the color of his breast.
He seems to crawl close to the ground,
hiding even his feet, and digs his bill
down every few minutes.
“I have never seen such a bird before,
and am interested in knowing what this
bird is.
“The robins are building their nests in
tall evergreens close to the house. One
ventured on the side porch yesterday
for food.
"I am sorry to say that dogs startle
them by hunting on my place. They
have already killed the baby rabbits
(full hatch); and of all sad words of
tongue or pen, the saddest are these:
This early, they have started chasing
skunks, and their path is close to my
house. This happens in the stillness of
the night, and awakens one from sleep.
Why were such beasts thrust upon us
by nature, or from whatever source they
come?
“Cordially, S. T.”
• * * »
Our correspondent's bird is the flicker,
a fine member of the woodpecker group.
He has a bright scarlet patch on the
back of his head, and black crescent on
his breast.
The feathers on his legs come down
so low that he does seem to hide his feet.
This is the bird regarded by many as
the most interesting of the woodpeckers.
He is friendly and industrious, and
spends a great real of his time searching
for ants.
That is what he is doing a great deal
of the time, as he pokes that long bill
down into the sod, or into a crevice in
the sidewalks. Householders who dis
like ants should always welcome the
flicker. The bird also rmrsues them on
trees, and is thus of double service to
mankind.
In various parts of the country he
has been given many names. A few
are yellow-shafted woodpecker, golden
winged woodpecker, clape, pigeon wood
pecker, yellow hammer, high-hole, high
holder, yarrup, wakeup, walkup, wickup,
hairy wicket, wood pigeon, yawker bird.
These interesting names have mostly
to do with the nesting habits and the
cries. The nest is high, in a tree trunk
or large limb, or in stubs. Many eggs
are laid, from five to nine, usually.
The flicker makes noises which have
been variously explained as yarrup,
clape, and weechem. Th£ up-and-down
way of flying is responsible for the name
of flicker, today the most popular.
The male bird has a sort of moustache
beneath the eye, running from the base
of the bill. The female does not have
this marking.
The length of the flicker is 11 inches.
For such a good sized fellow he gets
along wonderfully well with the smaller
species, notably the robins, bluebirds
and the various sparrows. But he does
not draw the line of friendship there.
He manages to be on friendly terms
with hawks! This is something few other
species manage.
Most of this bird's food, including the
ants, is harmful to man, in some way
or other. It does take a few vegetables
and grains, but examination of many
stomachs shows the amount to be very
small, so no one need worry.
One authority says: “The bird, like
many others, has the bad habit of sow
ing broadcast the seeds of the poison
ivy, but there seems to be no remedy
for this.”
The woodpeckers and sapsuckers make
an interesting group. A great many
persons unfortunately place the blame
for some tree damage caused by sap
suckers on the woodpeckers. As one
authority puts it, “When they are seen
scrambling over fruit trees and their
holes are found in the bark it is con
cluded that they- must be doing harm.
Tire woodpeckers, except a few species,
rarely disfigure a healthy tree. But
when they find a tree infested by wood
boring larvae they locate the insects
accurately, draw them out and devour
them. If, in the years that follow, the
borings formerly occupied by these in
sects are used by a colony of ants, they
in their turn are dug out and destroyed.”
The flicker’s bill is less powerful than
those of other woodpeckers. Certainly
n» one need fear him in any way.
> A
Letters to The Star
Better Pay Held Remedy for
Nurse Shortage
To the Editor of The Star.
Hie editorial ‘Time for a Review,”
in The Star of April 13, castigates the
“monopolistic” Nurses’ Examining Board
for its failure to approve the training of
practical nurses at Garfield Hospital. It
resolves the existing acute shortage of
“splendidly equipped nurses—probably
the best trained in the world,” with the
statement that the public’s ability to
meet the bill for higher wages for nurses
is a question. (No similar question ap
parently arises in connection with coal
miners, steel and auto workers, nor the
voices with the smiles.)
Reasons for the nurse shortage are not
obscure, nor is this flight into medioc
rity, which the Nurses' Examining Board
is striving to control, hard to follow.
Hie nursing shortage is due to the
increasing disparity between the great
cost in time, money and labor required
in becoming a nurse and the low stipend
received for continued hard work after
graduation. Hie salaries are very low in
comparison with stenographers, etc., who
have little instruction after leaving high
school and whose jobs as a whole are
easier physically and mentally. Hie
disparity has been the same in the teach
ing profession, which finally is resorting
to strikes to gain its proper place in the
scheme of things. Hie nursing profes
sion has a higher sense of duty and
responsibility, to the public than almost
any other, hence it has not resorted to
this successful method of gaining its
ends. Now it is to be rewarded by a
grateful public and the editors of The
Star with competition from hordes of
poorly trained girls called “practical
nurses” who are said to be needed in
this “emergency.”
Fears Threat of “Cheap Labor.”
As mentioned, this flight into medioc
rity is easy to fathom. Hospitals are
having to pay unskilled labor, maids
and orderlies high wages or they quit
and go to work in restaurants, on road
nuu uu* jviauto uccumg UiawjLi.
Hospitalization insurance firms, striv
ing to make their policies attractive
through low premiums, allow insuffi
cient funds for the hospitals to provide
the care expected. Charity cases and
reduced fees to the indigent further
harass budgets. The hospitals are hard
pressed and the economy needed to make
ends meet comes from the nurses’ low
rate of pay.
Then, to top it qff, it is considered by
the American College or Surgeons, The
Star, Commissioner Mason, and I trust
no one else, that the answer is the sup
plying of droves of cheap labor in the
guise of the innocent student practical
nurses. They will be paid so they will
enroll, the/ will be dressed in the cos
tumes of bona fide nurses so that they
will endure the experience, and they will
be graduated after learning what the
maids and orderlies already know. In
the meantime they will supply hired
hands for the hospitals at a negligible
cost compared with the modest outlay
necessary for raising nurses’ salaries.
After graduation they will^ be neither
flesh, fowl nor good red herring, in that
thgy will not be allowed (and Heaven
help us if it turns out otherwise!) to
handle medicines, give hypodermic and
intravenous medications, nor assist at
operations.
The worst result of this policy, how
ever, is the discouragement engendered
in girls who would otherwise be candi
dates for regular nursing school. To go
through three years of rugged schooling,
often«after two or more years of college
preparation, and find on graduation that
you are doing work of much greater
responsibility, yet your pay is a dollar or
two more a day than that of the practi
cal nurse one year out of high school,
would certainly deter the majority of
girls anxious to make something of
themselves in life.
Three Groups Seen to Blame.
Nursing is an honored profession in
the United States where standards of
training have been raised gradually in
succeeding decades to the point where
one can truthfully say ours are, as a
whole, the finest nurses in the world.
The stiff entrance requirements, the
tuition fees and hard work cause only
those with a high determination and in
centive to take up the work. Unfortu
nately, these characteristics have been
the undoing of the profession. Terrible
injustices have been overlooked repeated
ly until now the wind reapeth a whirl
wind and even the doughtiest has given
thought to finding more appreciative and
satisfying fields of endeavor. The blame
must fall on the nurses for being too
steadfast and too unorganiized for effec
tive action; on the medical profession
for not assisting its auxiliary profession
to fight for its rights; on the public
for being so niggardly and selfish, re
cnnnrlinrr nnlu f♦ Virnntnf r-tnn
page before talcing cognizance of the
troubles of the noblest professions of
women, nursing and teaching. The so
lution is not the one proposed by the
American College of Surgeons, but the
reverse. An adequate remuneration for
services, better working conditions and
the restoration of morale which will
accompany these changes, will draw
nurses back to duty from the fields to
which they have fled, from their home
making (in this "emergency"), and into
nursing schools for thorough training.
A SURGEON.
Marriage and Religion
To the Editor of The Star.
A mother in a nearby college town
recently said: "My best friend and I
are the only two here who are success
fully married. All the others of our
set are divorcees. The children of one
have had three fathers. The fourth is
‘en route’! Can they hope for the best
development?”
This, nevertheless, is a community
with a high level of intelligence. It is
the kiddies of such broken homes who
suffer most. One wonders whether one
cause of friction often is not the lack
of religious education in childhood.
Married folks who missed this have
never learned the spiritual basis of
teamwork. C. M. GOETHE.
Penalties for Littering
To the Editor of The Star:
Maybe, if more money were spent on
keeping them clean, the streets wouldn't
be so dirty.
Where is the money coming from?
How about selling littering licenses?
Anyone caught littering the street with
out a license could then be fined. With
the surplus thus created, maybe more
trash receptacles could then be provided;
so it wouldn’t be necessary to walk 10 or
13 blocks to find a place to throw a
candy wrapper. C. W. COCHRANE.
X
Pay-as-Y ou-Go Highways
Virginia Finance Plan Maintains Its Entire
Public Roads System
By Alex R. Preston
<This is the second of three articles on thi State highway systems
of Maryland and Virginia. The third will appear tomorrow.)
Maryland’s New Camp Springs Road.
The Virginia Department of Highways
boasts it is the only State roads agency
that is entirely supported from funds
earmarked exclusively for road purposes.
Ihe nondiversion record of Mary
land is not quite so good. The Free
State, however, enacted legislation last
month to tighten its laws to prevent
use of highway funds for general pur
poses.
Nondiversion of highway funds in Vir
ginia is not regulated by statute. It is
traditional, like the Old Dominion’s pay
as-you-go plan for financing roads.
Virginia is one of four States which
assumes the responsibility of maintain
ing its entire public road system—a
48,000-mile network of primary and
secondary arteries. Arlington and two
other urban counties are the only three
of the State's 100 counties which prefer
to maintain their own secondary roads.
The closest Virginia ever comes to di
version of its highway dollars is support
of the State police from gasoline and
license revenues. The main function of
the State police is to patrol the high
ways, although they frequently are called
upon to assist county authorities in
solving crimes.
The State’s auto licensing and permit
branch—the Division of Motor Vehicles—
also is supported by motorists’ funds but
all money collected by that division goes
into the Department of Highways ac
count.
Of Maryland’s present highway system
of 15,500 miles of primary and secondary
roads, Gov. Lane had this to say to the
General Assembly last month:
“States to the north, south and west
of us have gone ahead with their plans
and projects while we have lagged be
hind. I do not know why this should
have occurred, except that previous ad
State's ability to sell them to lending in
stitutions.
Senator Byrd, Democrat, of Virginia,
is credited with the act of the 1932
General Assembly under which the Old
Dominion took over from 97 of its 100
counties a disconnected assortment of
35,900 miles of back country roads, in
cluding 25,000 miles of unimproved high
ways. Now. 15 years later, only 5,000
miles of unimproved highways remain
in the secondary system, which has
grown to 36,000 miles.
Arlirigton, Warwick and Henrico Coun
ties, which voted to remain out of the
Secondary Road Act—or “Byrd plan”—*
also have made considerable progress in
bringing their highway systems to mod- :
err. standards. The State, of course, has j
full charge of the primary highways j
within these county lines but county eh- I
gineers maintain their less important
roads. Funds for this are derived from I
a sharing of the gasoline tax.
Each year Virginia cities receive $4,000
per mile of primary roads within their
limits.
Bus Routes Stressed.
With war’s end, the network of sec
ondary mileage was in bad condition
by Virginia standards. As in 'other
States, the war placed emphasis on roads
essential to defense, gasoline revenues
dropped severely, labor and material
were impossible to obtain, and highway
engineers went to Var.
At the war’s conclusion, special em
phasis was placed on Virginia bus
routes, the department adopting the
slogan, - inoc a scnooi dus day lost aue
to mud during the school year 1946-7.”
The department made history the past
winter when not one school day was lost
because of buses mired in the mud. Some
roads were impassable because of deep
snow, but the secondary improvement
program had advanced to the stage
where back country roads along school
routes have been made passable at all
seasons.
The biennial cry of rural legislators
in the General Assemblies of both States
is, “Get the farmers out of the mud.”
Virginia law requires that at least 30
per cent of its highway revenues be
spent on secondary roads, and the latest
1-cent increase in gasoline tax, for a
total of 6 cents, was earmarked for
secondary roads.
Maryland divides its highway money
differently. The gasoline tax there will be
increased from 4 to 5 cents this year,
under a new law. The State gets 50
per cent, Baltimore receives 30 per cent
and the counties the remaining 20 per
cent.
The latter amount is allocated on the
basis of the proportion of county roads
in each county.
A similar division between State, Bal
timore and the counties is made of the
total funds from license and title fees.
Highway departments of both States
constantly face arguments when they
propose to spend money for the expen
sive primary roadways. The impor
tance of the primary network is real
ized from the fact that it comprises
19.8 per cent of the rural mileage of Vir
ginia but carries 80.2 per cent of all rural
traffic. In Maryland the primary sys
tem comprises less than one-fourth the
total rural mileage but carries 84 per
cent of the traffic.
The lightly traveled roads in the
Virginia primary system cost the State
$19,395 per mile while the divided four
lane highways cost $118,425 per mile.
iiiiiiiUMuuiuuo nuc UUWIUU15 m ittUC Up
to the problem, to calculate the amount
of funds necessary, and to ask the users
of the highways to supply those funds.
It may be also that the revenues which
have been supplied by the motorist and
by commercial users have not been as
w'isely expended as was the case else
where.”
Highway Funds Diverted.
Latest statistical data of the Federal
Bureau of Public Roads is for 1945. It
shows that: l
Of Maryland’s total highway receipts
of $16,365,000 for that year, $395,000 was
diverted to non-highway purposes. Many
other States, including California, Flor
ida and Georgia, divert to a far greater
extent.
Virginia highway revenues for 1945
amounted to $27,561,000 with no diver
sion. That has been the record all along.
The Maryland Legislature recently en
acted Gov. Lane’s highway program with
a view to curtailing further diversion.
In addition to a $100,000,000 bond issue
which is to finance only revenue-pro
ducing toll bridges and highways, the
legislation allocates all motor vehicle
titling tax fees, formerly a part of the
State general funds, to the State Roads
Commission for construction purposes,
and transfers support of the State police
from motor vehicle revenues to the gen
eral fund.
The program, however, retained pro
vision for support of the Department of
Motor Vehicles, the Baltimore Traffic
Court and the trial magistrates in the
counties and towns from road revenues.
The commission also was given
authority to issue other bonds, the
amount of which is limited only by the
The Political Mill
By Gould Lincoln
Senator Ball, Republican, of Minne
sota is going to the mat—in Senate
consideration of the labor bill—for the
right of employes to decide whether they
will join a union or not. Senator Bail
considers this fundamental if the indi
vidual worker is to be a free agent. He
has offered an amendment which would
outlaw the union shop as well as the
closed shop. In a union shop, a non
union worker may be employed, but by
the end of thirty days he must join the
union if he is to retain his job. In a
closed shop—which is banned by the
labor bill recently passed by the House
and also by the bill reported to the Sen
ate from the Committee on Labor—the
employer may hire only workers al
ready members of the union. The
House and Senate bills permit the union
shop, provided a majority of workers
voted for it.
Since the right of collective bargain
ing has been firmly established in Fed
eral law—and is recognized by both the
House and Senate labor bills—it is
argued that the argument for a closed
shop or a union shop falls by the way
side: that neither is longer necessary
as a weapon in controversy between
labor and management over wages or
working conditions. There is something
repugnant, anyway, about compelling a
man or woman who desires to work to
join an organization which he or she
does not care to join.
* * * *
The Ball proposal, however, is anath
ema to organized labor and its leaders.
The closed shop or union shop prevail in .
Senate Committee on Labor he fought
in vain for the outlawing of the union
shop. He is hopeful that his proposal
will have more strength in the Senate
itself. However, the fact that the House,
which put through a much more
stringent bill than the Senate commit
tee measure, failed to include a ban of
the union shop, is indicative of the
rough road ahead of this Ball amend
ment.
* * * *
Prospects for reasonably quick action
by the Senate on the proposed labor
legislation seemed good today. Organ
ized lpbor, however, as represented par
ticularly by the American Federation of
Labor and the CIO, is preparing for
a bitter struggle to defeat the pending
bill. The Executive Council of the AFL
has voted a $1,500,000 fund to be used
in this battle against labor legislation,
for propaganda of various kinds, includ
ing the use of the radio, to build up
public sentiment and to make members
of the Senate think twice before sup
porting the bill. The House passed its
labor bill by a 3-to-l vote, and unless
all signs fail the Senate will put through
a bill, less drastic than the House
measure, but strengthened beyond the
provisions of the Senate committee bill.
The labor unions and their leaders are
looking to President Truman to come
to their rescue—and' the big propaganda
fund voted by the AFL is an effort to in
fluence the presidential mind as well as
the minds of Senators and Representa
tives. A presidential v.eto of the labor
bill may well be effective—not in the
House, where it is helievpri o v«n
mauj uiuuou ico. miu jet, ao mx, uau
contends, the principle involved is fun
damental. Hie strength of the workers,
however, lies in union, and labor unions
have been the weapon by which workers
have improved their condition over the
years. For security, the workers have
been compelled to surrender part of
their individual freedom. The great trou
ble. for the workers, in this more com
plete organization today, arises from the
dictatorial power in the hands of these
organizations, and particularly of their
individual leaders. They are compelled
to strike, for example, whether indi
vidually they wish to continue to work.
They are bound round with rules and
regulations, established by the unions
and their chiefs.
Outlawing the closed shop, as the
House and Senate bills both do, teaches
one evil—it gives a worker or would-be
worker a chance to get a Job, even
though he is not a member of a union.
But under the union shop, this measure
of freedom quickly vanishes—for to re
tain a job the worker must join a
union, and if the-union will not accept
him. out he goes from his work. This
is a tremendous power over the right
and ability of any worker to earn a
living.
The Minnesota Senator has become a
crusader on the subject of protecting tha
freedom of the individual worker. In the
>
can receive the necessary two-thirds
vote to override a veto, but in the
Senate where the lines will be more
closely drawn. Many Senators are now
arguing that the Senate committee bill,
as reported, would be approved by the
President—but that is extremely doubt
ful
What's iif a Name?
Prom the 8t. Louis Post-Disoetch,
Eugene Dennis, general secretary of
the Communist party, is a man sensitive
about his name (pardon us) names
When reporters asked him for his real
name, he waved his hand and said 1
-What’s in a name?" Ordinarily we
would bite on that. But the FBI relates
that Dennis was born Francis Eugene
Waldron and has variously been Francis
Xavier Waldron, Frank Waldron F E
Dennis, Gene Dennis. P. e. Wakh and
Wso one “Milton." Like Owen Wister’s
Virginian. Dennis could look anybody in
the eye and say, “When you call me that,
smile! And who wouldn’t?
Fool's Paradise
Prom the Reinoeek (lawn Courier.
We cannot help but feel sorry for
some poor folks these days. Thev are
going around with their" pockets full of
money, harboring the idea that they are
rich.
A
Politics Seen Dealing
Blow to Economy
Truman Reasoning on Wages
and Taxes Called Curious
By David Lawrence
Something curious is happening to the
reasoning processes of the Truman ad
ministration-something that may result
in a serious blow at the American econ
omy.
The administration, on the one hand,
is saying that it would be inflationary
to reduce taxes and put extra money into
the pockets of the people and. on the
other hand, it is encouraging wage in- •
creases which also put extra money into
the pockets of certain workers and is
saying nothing about this inflationary
trend.
The tax reduction is spread straight
across the board, affecting all people,
while the wage increases affect a small
segment where union pressure or politi
cal influence of the administration causes
an uneven application of the wage-in
crease idea.
The Congress last year passed a law
creating an Economic Council and ex
perts have been appointed to it, but
the political views of the administra- »
tion seem to have pervaded the so
called economic theory that emanates
nowadays from the Government. The *
argument against tax reduction while
encouraging wage increases is a case in
poirjt.
. Recession Is in Sight.
Most serious, however, is the fact
that high prices are not being really
remedied. In many instances industries
cannot reduce prices even if wages are
kept at present levels. Other industries
where the labor cost is the paramount
factor will find it necessary to increase
prices if wage increases' are forced on
them by unions.
A recession is in sight but union labor
leaders, aided and abetted by President
Truman’s misguided remarks, are slowly
but surely threatening something more
serious than a recession. Already many
companies which had high profits in 1946
are finding their profits absorbed by high
costs of materials. Already, also, many
companies which have the capital avail
able to use for new equipment and for .
expansion have stopped their buying
because they cannot pay the high prices
involved either In equipment or mate
rials. Such prices cannot, in various in
stances, be reduced because the labor
cost will not come down.
It had been hoped that the increased
wages would mean increase in output
per man and that in this way price
reductions could be brought about. But
the increase in output per man hour has
been alarmingly small since V-J day
and the disappointment that has swept
industry over the failure of labor to co
operate in increasing output is notice
able.
Issue to Be Forced.
It looks now as if wages will not be
revised downward as they were in the
recession after World War I and that the
union pressure will be adequate to main
tain high wage scales. This ultimately
will mean a tremendous unemployment
roll for America. Companies will force
the issue by laying off men and Insisting
on higher output per man.
The rise of unemployment will be mora
serious this time than it was after World
War I because the wages paid now are
higher 3n total and the cut in family
income will be felt more acutely. Em
ployers, however, who have to meet ex
penses will have no alternative but to
cut down their number of employes.
This is already happening in some
industries.
President Truman’s responsibility for
the debacle will become clearer as un
employment grows. For he has sup
ported the unionized group’s wage de
mands and compelled the unorganized
workers and persons on State, city and
Federal payrolls, who have had no com
mensurate increases in income, to foot
the bill. These people cannot continue
to buy, and that will be one of the fac
tors in the eventual drop off of retail
sales in various communities.
The economy is out of balance because
the .politicians, led by the President,
have put it out of balance. All the
political speeches denouncing business
and encouraging wage groups to ask for
mere pay at the expense of the other
groups in the community will not erase
the facts when they emerge—as they
certainly will before the end of 1947.
(Reproduction Rights Reserved.)
Forty-Niner?
From the New Orleans Times-Plcayune.
Statehood for Hawaii has progressed
through a unanimously favorable report
of the House public lands committee,
confirming a subcommittee recommenda
tion brought back last summer. Tire
resolution introduced by the Hawaiian
delegate is appropriately numbered, it
is pointed out, “49.”
Congressional approval would be the
first step in a probably long process of
conversion from Territory to 49th State.
A State constitution would have to be
formulated, adopted by the voters and
approved by-Congress. The House com
mittee indorses a sort of five-year mora
torium of the question of State or Fed
eral ownership of Hawaiian public lands.
It seems to us t.he time has come to
take the plunge” with respect to th#
admission of this far-distant unit. Presi
dent Truman has urged it and Secretary
Krug of the interior department is ah
enthusiast on the subject. Hawaiian
voters petitioned two-to-one in 1940 for
full status.
The decision should not be based oh
obligation, since so far as we can dis
cover there was no pledge in this con
nection when Hawaii's offer of annexa
tion was accepted in 1898. It should be
based rather on performance, both as a
territorial unit, and in respect to its
population's loyalty to the United States
as a nation and to democratic institvfc
tions. High tributes have been paid
on both scores.
As for its position in United State*
defense, the war department apparently
sees nothing to affect it one way or an
other, while Mr. Krug believes state
hood would improve this position.
Wild Hyacinth
He is the kind who takes his troubfy
far k
Into the woodland. Latticed on leAf,
Trembling anemone kissed by a star.
And song-shaken grasses allay hit
grief. ■
And those who pass him as he It
returning, :
With ferny odors, leaf-mold on hjt
See in his eyes new-lighted fires hu-rnretL
See in his stride the strength
hickories.
But more than might, and more tug*
fire of flame *.
It peace attained, marked by the
petaled bell
Blooming along the tranquil way he
came. . ■ . , . . , ,,
A blue wild hyacinth for hit lapel1
ROSE MYRA PHILLIPS,
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