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Membor of th· Associated Prose The Associated Press Is entitled exclusively to the use for republication of all the iocol news printed in this newspaper, as well os all AP news dispotches. C—4 SUNDAY, May 4, 1947 Too Close for Comfort Thanks to the notably proper atti tude of Chairman Leo E. Allen, the all-powerful Rules Committee will permit the full membership of the • House to pass judgment on the $400,000,000 Greco-Turkish aid bill. But the one-vote margin by which the measure squeaked through the committee was entirely too close for comfort. This slimmest of possible margins came about because Chairman Allen, although personally opposed to the bill, felt that the issues involved were so important that the House, and not the committee, should decide the matter. For that he is to be com mended. To say the least, however, it is disquieting to reflect that a bill which passed the Senate by a vote of 67 to 23, which bears the unqualified indorsement of the PresideSt and Secretary of State, and upon which the hope of the western world may depend escaped a committee pigeon hole only by grace of the good judg ment of one man. Fortunately, the indications are that sentiment in the Rules Com mittee is not typical of sentiment in the House. The bill, according to all expectations, will be passed by what ομ/cajtci îvitii oui ue&criucà a.5 a SUD stantial margin." To the extent that there is uncertainty, it has to do with the threat of destructive amendments, and it is in this area that the real danger lies. It Is expected that the opposition forces will attempt to reduce the amount of money called for, to eliminate aid to Turkey and to "demilitarize" the program. Any or all of these proposals, if adopted, could have disastrous consequences, and all members of the House should search their consciences before vot ing on them. The demagoguery of men like Representative Bender, who attacks the bill with shouts of "in ternational globaloney," should not be permitted to influence the deci sion. The consideration which should control is whether we can attempt to check the spread of com munism with our hands tied by crippling amendments. It seems evident enough that the answer to that is no, for we would be better off without any program than with one which cannot work. Example for the World In their statement on measures to promote economic co-operation between the United States and Mex ico, President Truman and President Aleman have made clear that their exchange'of visits has been produc tive of much more than common agreement on the ideals of democ racy and the virtues of good neigh borliness. Those ideals and virtues, as Mr. Aleman d^lared in his excellent address to Congress, are of the great est importance. But they are not enough i^i themselves. They must be supported by concrete steps cal culated to put them into practice as well as preach them. The broad democratic policy of the good neigh bor can accomplish little standing alone. In Mr. Aleman's words, it must be accompanied by "an economy ui me guuu iteigiiuur anu a, eunure of the good neighbor." This is a matter of self-interest all around, for it is certainly true, as he says, that "whatever Mexico and the United States achieve in this respect will benefit our two coun tries." Beyond that, it will benefit the Americas as a whole because relations between us are "a touch stone of hemispheric solidarity." This point is fully recognized in the Truman-Aleman statement. In addition to calling for a new "agree ment to stabilize the exchange rate between the peso and the dollar, the statement announces that the United States Export-Import Bank is ready to extend additional credits to Mexico to finance a number of projects designed to improve the Mexican economy. The two Presidents, more over, have revealed that other phases of economic co-operation are under etudv. Thus, as between our two countries, the good-neighbor policy is being implemented by specific, practical measures designed to pro mote mutual benefits and strengthen our ties of friendship and solidarity. As far as Mexico is concerned, all this can do much to speed up the development of its economic poten tialities. In natural resources gold, silver, zinc, lead, copper, man ganese, oil, food-producing capacity, etc.—it is one of the richest coun tries in the world. Relatively, how ever, its agricultural and industrial setup is backward. It is in need of irrigation projects and efficient in dustrialization—a need that requires a wider spread of education, training In labor skills, fnd the techniques, machinery and credits that the United States is capable of offering. With these, Mexico can build itself into a prosperous land, and in doing so can contribute greatly to the well being and security of the entire hemisphere. Considered in either the narrow terms of dollars and cents or the broader apd more Important terms of a peace-serving foreign policy, economic co-operation between Mex ico and the United States thus adds up to good business not merely for our two countries but for all the Americas. President Aleman and President Truman have set a fine* example for the hemisphere and the world. Oiven this kind of good neighborliness on an ever-widening scale, the family of nations could look to the future without fear. Facts Instead of Fears There can be no question as to the courage of the District Commission ers in delivering their surprising eleventh-hour broadside against the teachers' pay bill. There is a great deal of question about the soundness of their position, however—so much question, in fact, as to arouse won der as to how they possibly could have arrived at their strange con clusions in this long-studied matter. What makes the belated blast of the Commissioners even less under standable is the fact that only two weeks ago, at hearings before a Senate-House committee, they went on record as giving conditional ap proval to the bill. At that time they admitted, however, that they had not studied the bill in detail—a re markable admission in view of the fact that the Board of Education voluntarily had supplied the Com missioners with full details in docu mentary form months ago. Friday's written statement is, as the com mittee remarked, of a controversial nature, indeed. It is controversial wcv/αuct ib UiCO U1 01AC JLctUC U1 £111 CV1" dence from authoritative sources regarding the teachers' pay problem. It would make the Nation's Capital probably the only large city in the country which is not preparing to pay teachers more next year than now. It would shove Washington next year further down the list of major cities with respect to school pay levels—and at a time when en lightened States and cities every where are moving to correct the salary injustices which have afflicted the teaching profession in recent years. The Commissioners stressed two points in their statement. First, they said they found no evidence before the committee to "establish the fact that we are not getting qualified teachers because of the in adequacy of the salary scale." Sec ond, they seem to fear that the proposed increases for teachers win ning master's degrees might lead to a requirement that all teachers have such degrees. They offered no facts to support their apparent belief that the teachers' shortage has nothing to do with salaries or to indicate the basis of their fears regarding mas ter's degrees.· But there are plenty of facts avail able to indicate that the Commis sioners have been ill advised on both counts. Had the Commissioners at tended more than one day of the hearings or had they read the widely publicized reports of the National Education Association and numer ous other groups they would know that low pay for teachers has been the very crux of the teachers' short age crisis—here and elsewhere. Washington still has approximately 450 temporary teachers on the pay roll because of the drift of qualified teachers into mpre lucrative occu pations. As for the master's degree provision, most large cities long have rewarded elementary teachers who better themselves by winning higher degrees, and there is no known evi dence that the system has led to wider application. On the contrary, it has served as an inducement for more persons to enter the teaching profession. The procrastination and confused thinking which has been evidenced at the District Building over the teachers' Dav bill inpvit.ahiv niuor rise to a suspicion that the Com missioners are irked over the fact that Congress bypassed them in ordering the Board of Education to study teachers' salaries and report direct to the Capitol. If the Com missioners are mqved by something more than schoolboyish petulance, they should back up their objections to the teachers' pay bill with some thing more than vague opinions and fears. The Air and Argentina . The new air agreement signed by the United States and Argentina is important on two counts. It repre | sents an encouraging development j in the field of international commer J cial aviation, and it indicates a turn t for the better in relations between i Washington and Buenos Aires. What the agreement does is to commit Argentina to abide by the principles of the Bermuda pact drawn up last year by Britain and the United States. The pact estab lishes the policy of free competition in international civil air transport. It sets up machinery for the opera tion of reciprocal routes and land ing points, and it provides that any signatory country may pick up mail, cargo or passengers in another signatory country for flight to a third signatory country. In other words, while setting up safeguards i against unfair competition, it opens the sky to freedom of travel and aims at giving all the signatories equal opportunities in offering the services of their commercial airlines. In now agreeing to all this, Argen tina has reversed its past policy—a i policy fav|ring strict limitations on flight and frustrating our earlier attempts to negotiate an Tinder standing. The change of heart means that the Buenos Aires gov ernment has joined some thirty other countries in committing itself to work out arrangements with us in line with the Bermuda pact. Accord ing to aviation officials, besides widening the area of air freedom, the development removes the last major obstacle to setting up facil ities for a globe-circling service by our commercial airlines. Perhaps even more important than this, however, is the fact that Argen tina's decision suggests that the Peron government is anxious to speed up an easing of the strain still existing in its relations with us. The more this strain is eased, the sooner will there be a genuinely friendly atmosphere between us, and the better that will be not only for our two countries but for the whole hemisphere. A New Way for Japan As far as their basic law goes, the Japanese now have formally droppe4 the curtain on their feudal, mili taristic and totalitarian past. Mark ing the event with special holiday ceremonies, they have put into effect their new democratic constitution. This constitution—written largely by their American conquerors— launches them on a way of life en tirely different from any they have known before. Not the least important feature of this change is that it cuts the Em peror down to the stature of a mere man. Hirohito took part in a Tokyo rally celebrating the inauguration of the constitution, but he did not take part as a ruler-divinity exer cising supreme ultimate power over the Japanese people. Henceforth he and his successors will serve merely as a unifying national symbol. Fur ther than thàt, the militarists will no longer be free to work behind the "sacred" imperial facade. Theocracy is out. Feudalism is oyt. The to talitarian rnlf> nf t.hp warrinr pines is out, with members of the army and navy-permanently forbidden to hold public office. Indeed—and this makes the new Japan unique in world history—the nation itself is constitutionally bound never again to maintain armed forces or appro priate funds for any military estab lishment whatever. To mark this far-reaching transformation, Gen eral MacArthur has lifted restric tions against flying the flag of the Rising Sun, but the flag itself— which once represented real physical might—now represents a land whose basic law disarms it "forever." The Japanese, as they make their fresh start, thus must rely on their neighbors' good-will and on the United Nations to make them secure against external aggression. Inter nally, however, they must rely pri marily on themselves and on the parliamentary self-rule now open to them. Only time can tell how they will use this opportunity. Grave economic problems are in the mak ing for them. They will need help. They will need to be spared the danger of having outside govern ments use them as a pawn. Their new constitution will not be enough in itself to give them a democracy that will work. Their future in that sense will depend on the double factor of their own resolution to make it work and on the attitude of the great powers now engaged in a diplomatic war with each other. Important Assignment It is fortunate that President Truman, in appointing Rear Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter as the new director of the Central Intelligence Group, has given this struggling young agency a head who, like his short-term predecessors, fully appre ciates the importance of military intelligence. It is reassuring to know that Admiral Hillenkoetter recog nizes the gravity of his job, despite the regrettable tendency to revert uyj une Hicwfli ui icgaruiiig an intelligence assignment as a tem porary steppingstone to other duties. For Lieutenant General Hoyt S. Vandenberg, whom Admiral Hillen koetter succeeds, the post proved to be a steppingstone to deputy com mander of the Army Air Forces. The White House said he was released for the AAF job at the urgent re quest of General Eisenhower. He had served less than a year in CIG, which is even less than the usual tour of duty for Army and Navy intelligence officers in the past. How long Admiral Hillenkoetter will be permitted to remain as head of the group is a matter of concern to those who have deplored the pre war policy of relegating intelligence to the approximate role of a step child of the armed services. As General Vandenberg told the House Executive Expenditures Committee, which is considering the part to be played by intelligence under the merger bill, our prewar intelligence neglect was so great, that when World War II broke out this country had to go "hat in hand, begging foreign governments for the eyes— the foreign intelligence—with which to see." Admiral Hillenkoetter knows first hand of the déficiences of our pre war intelligence setup, having served as naval attache or assistant naval attache at Paris, Madrid and Lisbon prior to and during early phases of the European War and as intelli gence chief on Admiral Nimitz's staff in 1942 and 1943. Thus, he is well equipped to supervise and co ordinate the Army-Navy-State De partment intelligence services under the proposed Central Intelligence Agency. He should be given plenty of time to carry out his task before being transferred somewhere else. In other words, his should be a quas^-permanent assignment. é Lifting the Lid on Political Spending But Eilender Bill Imposes New Restraints on Pressure Groups By Gerard D. Reilly An intelligent effort to revise and codify the laws relating to Federal elections bas culminated in a bill just introduced in the Senate by Senator Allen J. Eilender of Louisiana. The present statutes in this field dating from the Federal Corrupt Practices Act of 1925, including the Hatch Act, the Powers Act, and a section of the Smith Connally Act forbidding political con tributions by labor organizations, con tain a number of provisions which are outmoded and which experience has shown can be readily evaded. The new bill which Would replace them is the product of a report of the Special Com mittee to Investigate Campaign Ex penditures of which Senator Eilender was chairman. A major reform which the bill en visages is the extension of current re strictions on campaign funds to primary as well as general elections. Since the belated recognition of the Supreme Court in the Classic case of the fact that party primaries were an incident of Federal citizenship! rather than pri vate polls of political clubs, it has been possible under the Constitution for Con gress to regulate primaries as well as general elections. * * * * The most controversial feature of the bill relates to the amendments to the maximum limits on expenditures. Under the Hatch Act the national committees are held to a $3,000,000 limit for their respective presidential candidates. The imposition of this figure was regarded as a drastic reform at the time the Hatch Act passed in 1939, for a former treasurer of the Democratic National Committee had stated at that period that the committee had spent about $11,000,000 in President Roosevelt's re election campaign in 1936—figure which was matched on the Republican side, according to many political ob servers. The subsequent Roosevelt π ii»«v«c viuiipnigii ueuiuiistratea mat the act did not fulfill the hopes of its spon sors. By the device of having campaign funds received and disbursed by State committees or organizations like the Independent Progressives or the Willkie clubs, the amount of money spent was probably as great as it ever had been. The Ellender bill would eliminate this maximum limit entirely and encourage the official national party committees to resume principal responsibility in campaign financing. It seeks to dis courage excessive spending by requir ing the national committee to publish a statement of its contributions and disbursements in two or more leading newspapers in each State. It also makes it a duty of the congressional commit tees to publish the name and address of every contributor of $5,000 or more, and the amount contributed. * * * * Ceiling limitations placed upon can didates for the.Senate and the House would also be changed. Under present law a candidate for the Senate is lim ited to $10,000 and a candidate for the House to $2,000, or in the alternative, an amount obtained by multiplying the total number of voters in his State or district by 3 cents. Even then, however, the senatorial candidate's expenditures must not exceed $25,000, or $5,000 if he is running for a seat in the House. For many years it has been obvious that in populous States these limits have been honored more in the breach than in the observance. In the opinion of most Congressmen, a candidate for whom lees than $10,000 ic available in a closely contested dis trict is at a great disadvantage. Many congressional districts contain as many as 100,000 voters. Simply to send by first-class mail a personal letter to each voter inclosing some printed biographi cal and campaign material about the candidate costs in the neighborhood of $10,000. To this must be added the cost of any billboard advertising or radio time—items regarded by all schools of thought as "legitimate" in contra-distinction to money spent to "bring out" the vote on election day. So far as the top limits on senatorial campaigns are concerned, they are perhaps fair enough in States which have less than four congressional dis tricts. But to limit the amount which a senatorial candidate in States like New York, Pennsylvania or Illinois may spend to a figure only twice as great as that applying to candidates for the corresponding office in Nevada, Wyom ing, Vermont or Delaware (States in which there is only one congressional rilst.rir»H womc imfeU The proposed legislation corrects this discrepancy in only a minor way. It gives the senatorial candidate an option of conforming either to a $25,000 limit or the formula based upon the number of voters, but in no event are the expenditures in his behalf to exceed $50,000. There would be less tendency to circumvent the law if the last figure quoted should be eliminated and a pro vision inserted which would permit the maximum amount to vary in all instances in accordance with the num ber of voters. * One major loophole in the present laws which the bill proposes to plug is the provision relating to contributions by banks, corporations and labor organ izations. The CIO delegations which have been buttonholing Congressmen in connection with the pending legislation on the Wagner and Norris-La Guardia Acts have been indicating that any defiance of their advice would mean retaliation by PAC in the next election. To a less blatant degree, similar hints at reprisal have been made on the other side. Until now both labor organizations and corporations have been able to engage in spending money in political campaign^, despite the Corrupt Practices Act. This has been possible not only because of the fact that the act was not applicable to primaries, but also because it merely prohibited "contributions." Consequently, organizations like PAC and the Constitutional Educational League, without making direct contributions to political candidates or to committees, have spent large amounts of money directly by advertising, circulars, and the purchase of radio time. In many dis tricts the amounts spent in this way have greatly exceeded the money offi cially received and disbursed through orthodox political channels. The new bill meets this problem by prohibiting expenditures in the interest of any candidacy as well as contributions. Adoption of this legislation would tend to curb some of the power wielded by private pressure groupe in political elec > tions. A Looking Ahead îSWifff/Œ (By the World Staff of the Associated Press.) Congressmen are heading for a battle royal over proposed economy curtail ment of navigation and flood control programs. Republicans and Democrats alike are striving for approval of projects in their States. They argue that it's an invest* ment to spend money to develop water ways and prevent floods. Opponents—also in both parties—in sist that the time has come to cut down even if it means discarding major proj ects. Many of these projects would cost at least twice as much now as before the war. Aleman Assures Mexican President Aleman is assuring United States capital that there won't be any more expropriations in Mexico like that of United States, British and Dutch oil properties in 1938. He has hopes for private aid in financing a $500.000,000 program of making Mexico produce what she eats, wears and uses. Mexico now requires that Mexican money be included in foreign-owned or managed corporations so that Mexicans themselves will be interested in guard ing foreign interests. Greek-Turkish Aid House Republicans are quarreling over delegation of power to the President in connection with Greek-Turkish and other foreign relief. One GOP leader says, privately, it would give the President a "blank check," which is what the Republicans so often criticized during the Roosevelt administration. Another Try MOSCOW—British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin, leaving Moscow after the inconclusive Council of Foreign Min isters, put his arm around James Wil son, British overseas secretary, who had just arrived with the British trade dele Delayed Action There'* still no date set for the be ginning of operations of the Interna tional Bank of Reconstruction, although there are requests from nine nations before it, totaling $2,553,875,000. Bank supplies of gold and dollars won't cover that, and most of the na tions want dollars. The bank will get them through the sale of debentures, but the board is still trying to work out what type of debenture to offer. United Nations CAIRO.—Persons close to Premier Mahmoud Fahmy Hokrashi Pasha say Egypt is determined to take to the United Nations her proposals that British troop· immediately quit the Suez Canal zone and that Sudan be united with Egypt. BELGRADE.—Alex Bebler, deputy Yugoslav Foreign Minister, says his government is prepared, "among sev eral other resolute diplomatic steps," to refer to U. N. the question of alleged Yugoslav war criminals remaining in Italy, Western Austria and Germany. Yugoslavia wants them extradited. Amity in Canada MONTREAL.—The Synod of th* Anglican (Episcopal) diocese of Mont real deplored "any form of publicity which tends to sow hatred, fear and distrust of the Russian or any other peoples." The social service council of the diocese recommended sharing of atom bomb knowledge and international con trol and inspection of atomic energy plants. Reverse English Waterman Steamship Corp., a leader In the light to assure shipping interests a place in the air, is demonstrating that the sea-air combination can work both ways. Taca Airways, a subsidiary. It ex plained at a Civil Aeronautics Board hearing that the idea was to help the airline make some money. Taca oper ates mostly in the Caribbean area. Carrying On LONDON.—Regardless of the ups and downs of empire, Britain apparently intends to keep up appearances. The ministry of works has decided to carry out the prewar plan for refurnishing Trafalgar Square. Bronze busts of World War I naval leaders will be installed. Production and Productivity Some Government analysts say that unemployment is likely to be sharpei because of recent wage increases it that drop in prices comes along and leads to a production cutback. They see it this way: If price drop cuts into profits, producers will lay off more workers because of the increased cost per worker. But the analysts say this can be averted if "productivity"—the average output per worker per hour — rises enough to give the boss more added production than added costs. Indonesian Citizenship BATAVIA—The Working Committee of the Indonesian Parliament has ex tended for a year the deadline for Eurasians, Chinese and other South eastern Asiatics living in Java and Sumatra to decide whether they want to become citizens of the new republic of Indonesia. The minister of justice says that so far only 2,204 of 1,200,000 Chinese, 48 of 240,000 Eurasians and on| of 116, 000 other Southeastern Asiatics have objected to citizenship. "I'm leaving without an agreement," he told Soviet officials bidding him good bye, "but don't let him go away without one." 4 Books NEW YORK.—Several publishers say it's not true that they're less willing to taka a chance on unknown writers because of increased production costs. They point to the names of several previously unheralded authors on best seller liste. One publisher says costs have gone up 100 per cent since 1940. Others say 30 to 40 per cent. y Universal Training Mark up universal training as one of the issues with which Congress is likely to avoid coming to grips this session. Short of a crisis—such as a military explosion at Trieste, for example—most Congress members will want to put off any decision as long as they can. Mackenzie King to Quit? OTTAWA.—Return of Prime Minister W. L. Mackenzie King from a United States vacation after a serious illness has again raised speculation as to how long he will hold the reins of the Ca nadian government and the Liberal Party. He is 72 and has been Prime Minis ter, with interruptions, for an aggregate of 20 years. Louis S. St. Laurent, 65, ft corpora tion lawyer, is generally regarded as most likely to take over party leader ship if Mackenzie King steps doem be fore the 1949 general- elections. If the party wants a younger man for long-time leadership, possibilities include Douglas Abbott, 47, minister of finance, and Brook Claxton, 48, minister of national defense. From City Hall By John W. Thompson, Jr. There is a definite resentment brew ing in powerful quarters at the Capitol over the tendency of the Commissioners to send agents to represent them at hearings on District legislation. Latest to complain is Senator Mc Grath, Democrat, of Rhode Island, and a good friend of the District, Senator McGrath wanted to know kwhere the Commissioners were during his hearing last week on a bill to continue the child day care centers. Usually the representative of the city heads at these sessions is Corporation Counsel Vernon West. The members feel, however, that Mr. West is appear ing simply as a messenger for the Com missioners on the particular matter at hand and is not empowered to speak for them on other matters that might come up. On top of this they seem to feel that the city heads, unless more pressing ob ligations require their presence else where, should take time for a personal appearance on these issues if they are going to expect members of Congress to give time likewise to city problems. * # * * If you think you were "gypped" on that fifth of liquor you bought, you won't be able to prove it by Supt. J. Thomas Kennedy of Weights, Meas ures and Markets. District law is set up along the standard liquid measure of gills, pints, quarts, gallons etc. Mr. Kennedy has no means of measuring a fifth nf α irallrn Th. "fiftu ·< l—~ Fifty Years Ago "After serving this community most faithfully for.nearly a quarter of a cen tury, Mr. Harry P. Harry P. Godwin Godwin has gone to Appreciated New York." With these words, The Star on May 3, 1897, began an editorial on the departure of one of the most favorably-known newspapermen in "the business." The notice continued: "The press of Washington loses one of the most capable, honorable and untiring workers ever connected with it. From the time when he commenced his news paper career as a reporter on the old National Republican he has been closely identified with every effort for the bet terment of the National Capital. When he came to The Star, some 16 years ago, his sphere of usefulness was consider ably enlarged: as writer and city editor he contributed, with remarkable judg ment and volume, to the chronicles of Washington. Having a wide acquaint ance and possessing the confidence of every one who knew him, he was not only an exceedingly successful news gatherer but a most influential factor for good in the city's existence. He leàves Washington with the warmest love and esteem of his associates in journalism, and of the entire community as well." A son of the Mr. Godwin thus eulogized is Earl Godwin, the news commentator at WMAL. * * * * It is a tradition that "anything can happen in a jury." This was demon strated in a brief ac uiyiinguisnea uuuin puuusucu m Juryman The star ior M»v 3, 1897, reading: "When the list of the names of the jurymen drawn to serve at the next session of the county court at Dutchess County, New York, to begin May 18, was pub lished a few days ago, the fanners were astonished to see: 'F. W. Vanderbllt, residence Hyde Park, occupation gentle man.' This was the first intimation that many · · * In the interior of the county had of the fact that Frederick W. Vanderbllt was a real resident of Dutchess County. They knew he was building a $500,000 mansion at Hyde Park, but never guessed that with the mansion came the possibility of any farmer in the interior sitting side by side with the millionaire In the jury box. , * * * * The front page of The Star for May 5, 1897, carried the tragic story of a terrible fire at the Grand Disaster in charity Bazaar in Paris, Paris an <venfc of the previous day. "When the confla gration broke out shortly after 4 o'clock," the featured dispatch explained, "there were 1500 to 2,000 people present" and I "it is believe<^over 200 lives were lost." ever, is recognized by the taxing author ities who have a special stamp for the bottle. * * * * Public support and appreciation of the work of the Board of Public Welfare is definitely handicapped by the poor public relations' of Chairman Edgar Morris. Newsmen complain Mr. Morris wont "talk" on really important wel fare matters. Despite earlier good intentions of the. board, too, totdo more of its business in open public meeting along lines of thé Board of Education, most key matters are still handled behind closed doors. This may have unfortunate conse quences at the hearing later this month at the District Building when the Com missioners try to find out whether the community wants welfare administra tion to continue under a board or to be transferred to their control. * ♦ # # Neatest trick of the week: The flip flop of District officials on the new j teacher pey bill. Now they oppose it. ! Russia Watches Our Military Progress Will Take Greater Gamble* If American Strength Declines By George Fielding Eliot The attitude of the Soviet delegation ■ at the November meeting of the Big Four in London will be very largely determined by America's military posi tion at that time. Soviet stalling at Moscow was in part due to the fact that the major aspects of American military policy are as yet undecided. The realistic, power-respecting Russians want to wait and see what actual strength will sup port America's new foreign policy; or to put it in another way, what the size of the risk factor must be in their calculations if they decide to oppose that policy. By nerft November they will know. ' Uppermost in their calculations of risk is, of course, our strategic air force. This is the long-range striking arm, the arm with which we could do serious damage to Russian vital interests. They have seen what strategic air power is capable of in Germany and Japan. They are aware that they are in no state to defend themselves against a powerful and sustained air attack today, whatever may be the case five or 10 years from now. But they are thinking less in terms of actually running the risk of war now than in terms of gauging American determination to back up the President and Secretary Marshall by what is done, this year, about military appropriations and in the line of popular reaction to such matters as recruiting. * * * * If, in this year of apparent crisis, Congre&ï cuts our strategic air force, for example, below the level of safety, and the American people stand by and shrug their shoulders, the Russians will feel much more secure as to what will happen next year, and the year after, · whpn nprhsns rrtsie nrill «Af Ko ·λ apparent and when the long, hard pull of carrying out an expensive and annoy ing policy will be taking effect. They will. continue, therefore, to obstruct and sow confusion. But If, In this year, Congress shows understanding of the need for military support of foreign commitments, and if the Amer ican people stand firmly behind their representatives—then in November some at least of the compromises which Generalissimo Stalin speaks of may develop into actuality. For the Russians have a grudging respect for the words of the strong. The state of our long-range air force, the No. 1 American military item on the chart that hangs on the Kremlin wall, may be used as some criterion of what Russians will be thinking next November, and how they will be acting. Right now our air force is in bad shape; It Is Just recovering from the effects of the horribly disorderly demobilization which followed V-J day. It has barely 20 operational groupe of all types (a group is a unit corresponding roughly to a ground force regiment; It includes three-or four squadrons, with from 12 to 18 airplanes in each). Gen. Spaatz and his air staff, after careful study, prepared a budget for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948, which called for rebuilt strength, at the end of that year, of 70 groups of all types. Of these, the long-range striking force would have included 30 groups—20 of long-range bombers (B-29 and B-36) and 10 of long-range fighters to escort the bomb ers. This was considered the minimum force necessary to provide a prohibitive risk factor in the calculations of any possible aggressor. * * * * The Bureau of the Budget carved a healthy slice from this proposal. Hence the budget submitted to Congress will provide enough money for only 55 op erational groups altogether, Including a striking force of 15 bomber groups and seven or eight fighter groups. This is lower than it should be, but it is perhaps barely enôugh to command some degree of respect. Economy minded Congress will hardly restore the 70-group program; if they did they would have to restore virtually the whole air force budget to Its original state, which is too much to hope for. But it is certainly not too much to expect that It will not be further reduced. There is talk of a cut which would' mean a reduction to 35 groups (meaning a striking force of 10 bomber and five fighter groups). This is not enough for a sustained operation against any se rious opponent. The result of such a cut would be immediately reflected in the Russian attitude around the Coun cil table. And so it will be with other American military decisions. * » * * The opinion rests upon the lessons of experience. Generalissimo Stalin was commenting on a suggestion that the capture of Rome would deliver the Vati can from German control. He asked coldly: "How many divisions has the Pope?" Gen. John R. Deane, in his admirable book "The Strange Alliance," notes that Soviet reluctance to admit China as a signatory of the four-power pact in October, 1943, was due to China's fortunes being "at their lowest ebb, a condition not calculated to induce Soviet respect." The Russians could scarcely conceal their contemptuous delight at the swift dissolution of our armies at the end of the war. Their attitude toward the British is gauged by Brit ish weakness and exhaustion. The same is true of the French, And as to lesser powers, it is the Soviet view, repeatedly expressed, that they ought not to have any voice at all in the settlement of important world affairs. In the months between now and November, America must decide the strength of her regular armed forces for next year, air and ground and naval. We must decide whether or not we shall have universal training for our young men. We must decide whether or not we shall have a reason able co-ordiation and streamlining of our military administration, and our young men themselves—and their famil ies—must decide whether the recruiting campaign for the armed forces is to be a success or a failure. These are vital decisions. They will be watched just as carefully, If not more carefully, by the gentlemen in the Kremlin as they will be here at home. The pay-off will come next November. (Copyright, 1947.) I Charred remains of 111 victims had been recovered up to the moment wtan i the cable was sent. Most of those who ; perished were women, a great many were members of the nobility, others the wives and daughters of bankers, wealthy merchants, government officers, etc.; some were nuns belonging to dif ferent Catholic educational and philan thropic ^orders.