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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, May 09, 1947, Image 9

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Congress Conference
On Labor Bill Due to
Last Through June
By David Lawrence
The labor legislation that goes
to President Truman for approval
or disapproval will not be either
the Senate or the House bill but a
measure written
after several
weeks of confer
ence between
committees of
both houses of
Virtually all
the amend
ments which
have been voted
on this week in
the Senate re
late to phrase
ology or sub
stance which
already is con
tained in the D»Yid UwruM.
House bill, and hence are germane
for consideration by the Joint con
ference. The conference committee
can accept or reject particular pro
visions that differ or these may be
rewritten entirely and a new version
The various votee in the Senate,
therefore, are not too significant.
Thus, for instance, the amendment
on industry-wide bargaining which
was rejected by one vote on Wednes
day of this week will come up again
for consideration because members
of the House may insist upon it.
Put* Lawmaker· en Record.
Hie votes do afford an oppor
tunity, however, for each Senator
to record himself on certain con
troversial issues. There are many
points of view on industry-wide
Thus, in eome Instances a na
tional union is a constructive In
fluence in forbidding a local union
leadership from going haywire.
Again and again national union
officers have stepped in to settle
strikes and to prevent them. In
dustry-wide bargaining In some
businesses is urged by employers.
In others It is bitterly opposed, as,
for liistance, in the coal industry
where John L. Lewis holds sway.
The close vote Is a reflection of
the wide differences that exist on
this issue.
It is in the conference that all
viewpoints will have to be weighed
and the advantages and disadvan
tages balanced to determine the
best way to legislate on certain
questions, If indeed on some of
them it is found desirable to legis
late at all.
The labor bill may be In con
ference several weeks—possibly un
til the latter part of June. It will
be one of the most important con
ferences on legislation in many
years. The objective, of course,
will be to write a measure that it
will be difficult for President Tru
man to veto.
owrei sessions as usual.
The conference committee will
meet in secret session as usual.
It will receive suggestions from em
ployer organizations and unions and
doubtless will be under pressure
from all sides. But the bill that
emerges will be the product of the
members of Congress.
The labor-union publicity drive
Is already claiming the labor bills
pending were written by spokesmen
for employer organizations. The
same sort of charge by analogy was
made in 1935 when the Wagner Act
was written. At that time there
were two major factions inside the
American Federation of Labor—one
which later became the CIO and
favored industrial unions and the
other which sponsored craft unions.
This correspondent in a recent dis
patch referred to CIO lawyers as
having written the Wagner Act.
The .CIO was not in existence in
1935. It was intended to say that
lawyers who advocated the view
point of the faction inside the AFL
which subsequently became the CIO
had influenced the writing of the
Wagner Act. The power was given
to the National Labor Relations
Board to determine the appropriate
unit for collective bargaining, and,
for several years after the Wagner
Law was passed, AFL unions
charged that the CIO was being
favored in selecting appropriate
bargaining units.
It was natural that lawyers
sympathetic with the industrial
union philosophy should have influ
enced Senator Wagner of New Ydrk,
for in 1935 that was the dominant
note of the radicals in the labor
movement who were calling the
leaders of the AFL "reactionary."
Even today, when there is an effort
to merge the CIO and the AFL,
this fundamental difference in
philosophy Is the chief barrier to a
reuniting of the two major labor
(Reproduction Right» Reserved.)
Two Paraguayan Gunboats
Believed Joining Rebels
By th· Assoc attd Press
Paraguayan river gunboats which
have been docked here since the
start of Paraguay's civil war two
months ago steamed homeward to
day amid some indications that
their crews might be planning to
Join the insurgents.
Both the Paraguayan Embassy
and Argentine maritime authorities
said they had no knowledge of the
vessel's destination. However, the
fact that several officers from the
ships remained behind to confer
with the Paraguayan Ambassador
strengthened belief they might be
going over to the revolutionists.
Asapress quoted the Paraguayan
rebel radio today as saying Loyalist
planes had bombed the insurgent
headquarters town of Concepcion
The Brazilian news agency quoted
the broadcast as saying:
"Many axe dead and wounded
among the civilian population."
This Changing World
Arms, Not Loan, Is What Turks Want;
Ottoman Debt* Is Painful Memory
By Constanting Brown
The Turkish government has In
structed its ambassador in Wash
ington to make no move and to
have no talk with State or War
Department of
ficials which 1β
could be inter
preted as a
Turkish request
for American
assistance, in
tiny shape or
form. I
This policy of I
high Ankara of- f
ficials springs
from the loose
talk now cur
rent in Turkey
to the effect
that America
may want to tie cwutwrtta· Br.wn.
a loan of $100,000.000 with control
of Turkey's financial resources.
The memory of the much-hated
"Ottoman debt," an institution
which existed for many decades t^
fore the republic was established,
is still vivid among Turkish politi·
cians. The debt arose when the
Sultans borrowed indiscriminately
from British "and French bankers
and placed the country's revenues
under foreign control. The "Otto
man debt" was abolished by Kemal
Ataturk, who repaid the loans and
removed all foreign economic and
political influence from the country.
Moscow Radio Fans Fire.
The debates in Congress, which
are sketchily reported abroad, gave
the opponents of Premier Recep
Peker's government ammunition to
accuse the administration of selling
out to foreigners. Foreign propa
ganda, principally the Moscow radio
and its affiliated stations in Syria
and Lebanon, are adding fuel to
the fire.
The historical truth about the
so-called Turkish loan is that
Turkey never actually has asked
for any specific sums.
Last October the State Depart
ment sent a note to Moscow, with
President Truman's approval, stat
ing that the question of the Darda
nelles must be settled, not by
bilateral discussions, which had
failed, but by agreement between
all the signatories of the Montreux
■reaty. The United States, which
vas not a signatory of the treaty,
irould take the place of Japan,
nrhich could no longer have a voice
since It was one of the defeated
tads states.
Planes and Gnns Asked.
The note, couched in polite diplo
matic language, was laden with
dynamite. There was serious dan
ger that Russia might precipitate
conflict by attacking Turkey. The
Ankara government was asked what
type of military equipment was most
urgently needed. We knew that the
Turks had a large army, but we also
knew that they were deficient in
modern defense weapons.
The answer from Ankara was
prompt. The Turkish military at
tache in Washington presented a
long list of materials, which made
some of our military experts a little
dizzy. But among the many items
submitted there were some, such as
anti-aircraft guns, trucks, planes,
radar and materials for airfields,
which the War Department con
sidered of top priority.
Since Congress had not been in
formed yet that aid for Turkey was
being considered, it was believed
that some of the essentials could be
sent from the European areas, par
ticularly from the stock piles of
lend-lease materials still in Britain.
Plan Allowed to La*.
Either because of a lack of equip
ment in Britain or because of fear
that Foreign Minister Molotov's
new friendly attitude might be
jeopardized, the plan to reinforce
Turkey was not followed up at that
When, last March, the State De
partment and our top military men
realized that Russian expansion
ism had not been abandoned, and
Becret information was received in
dicating that the Middle East was
still a potential target of Moscow's
ambitions, President Truman made
his well-known speech asking for
funds for Greece and Turkey.
Greece, which was expecting the
British to leave within a few weeks,
appealed urgently for American as
sistance. Turkey, however, made no
new request. It received the official
ifler of American assistance with
joy, but did not make a fresh ap
peal, since a list of urgent needs
bad been presented a few months
Man to Man
Merger Bill Puts Worst Foot
Forward in All Directions
By Harold L. I ekes
President Trtman, more than a
year ago, asked for a merger oi the
Army and Navy. President Roose
velt had been in favor of consoli
dation for a long
time. With
Pearl Harbor in
mind, both de
sired to correct
the weaknesses
of a divided
command, as
well as to save
the Ν ation
money, and to
provide a
stronger de
fense. A bill,
generally called
the Army-Navy
merger bill, and
presumably in- H»roia l. ick«.
tended in a general way to achieve
what the President had in mind and
what the Nation hoped for, will
probably be adopted by the Congress
within the next week or two.
If and when this bill becomes a
law, let no one be fooled. Under
it the Army and the Navy will not
be merged into one unified fighting
force. The bill does not even pro
vide for a unified command except
in the higher echelons of super
brass, and even then only on a
purely piatonic basis. Secretary of
the Navy Forrestal and his ad
mirals and the Air Force, with
tongue in cheek, have pretended to
favor a unification, but they never
have. Where new and strong bone
was needed to be'grafted into the
skeletal structure, they have seen
to it that cartilage was substituted.
If and when this so-called merger
bill passes, one of the great hoaxes
of the 20th century will have been
perpetrated. For the country, after
che passage of the "merger" bill, will
"nave not one defense establish
ment. It will not even have the two
that it now has. It will have three
—a department of the Army, a
department of the Navy and a de
partment of the Air Force.
Look at the Salaries.
Many former soldiers and sailors,
who witnessed the wasteful duplica
tions by the Army and Navy dur
ing the war, are supporting the bill
in the belief that it will save the
country money while strengthen
ing it. The last war proved how
expert the armed forces are in the
way of spending money recklessly.
The bill does establish a secretarj
of national defense, complete with
four special assistants at $12,00(
each a year, but it gives him little
or no power over the three depart
ments. It provides for a new Secre
tary for the Department of the Ail
Force at $15,000 a year, complete
with an undersecretary and twc
; assistant secretaries at $10,000 te
$12,000 a year. It sets up a Munition!
Board headed by a chairman whe
may receive $14,000 a year. It car
ries in its cornucopia a National Se
curity Council, complete with staf
and an executive secretary at $12,00<
a year. It ordains a Central Intelli
gence Agency, complete with a di
rector at $14,000 a year. And il
creates a National Security Re
sources Board, complete with ι
chairman, at $15,000 a year.
Of course, the bill provides that al
of these secretaries, undersecretar
ies. boards, councils, agencies, chair
men, directors and what-nots shall
in a vague way, co-ordinate all ove:
the national-defense lot. What thi;
so-called merger bill amounts t
can best be illustrated by drawini
on the imagination. For the pur
poses of illustration, consider Près
ident Truman as a farmer who y
having eiifBculty getting his field:
plowed because his two horses d<
not get along together, and becaua
even though hitched to the sami
! plow each horse has its own driver
If the farmer approached the prob
lem sensibly, he would get rid ο
one of the plowmen—that woule
make for unified command. Then
! if he could not get the horses t<
pull together, he would either ge
: rid of one or, more likely, substitut»
a tractor.
How Not to Plow a Field.
What he is about to get is quit<
different. He turned the problen
over to the Congress. It called ii
the experts and advice was takfc
\<Tom every one in sight, includin
/the horses. The result, as set fo£l
In the bill which Is about to be
enacted, has been something like
this: The experts decided that the
solution to the farmer's problem
was' to hitch together a horse (the
Department of War), and two mules
(the Department of the Navy and
the Department of the Air Force)
to the plow, attach an extra handle
and another set of reins to the plow
and hire a third man to hold them.
Then they hired a bareback rider
(the Secretary of National Defense)
to ride the three "critters" and gave
him a walkie-talkie tuned in to the
farmer's ear. But, not wanting to
hurt the feelings of the three men
on thç plow handles, they also gave ,
them walkie-talkies tuned into the
same wave length.
I doubt whether any farmer would
get much plowing done under a set
up such as the one just described,
or, at least, get it done well and in
expensively. I also doubt the wis
dom of conducting the defense of
our nation in so burgeoning a fash
ion. One of my doubts is caused
by the fact that all of the secre
taries, undersecretaries, assistant
secretaries, chairmen and directors
cannot operate without stenogra
phers, messengers, clerks, assistants,
special assistants, administrative
assistants, assistants to special as
sitants and assistants to assistants,
who, in the event of another war,
will be able to decorate each other
for extraordinary bravery in the
swivel chair. What has really been
done is to operate our armed forces
as a three-ring circus under one
transparent tent.
<Copyrl*ht, 1847.)
Answers to
A reader can get the answer to any
question of fact br writing The Eve
nt» Star Information Bureau. 3Ιβ I
street N.E., Washington 2. D. C. Please
inclosed 3 cents for return postage.
Q. Are there prisoners of war in
the United States or have.they all
been returned to their respective
countries?—W. D. T.
A. According to a statement made
on March 15, 1947, by the Secretary
of State George C. .Marshall, the
United States had a total of 30,976
German prisoners in Ameri^ and
Europe. The goal was to complete
the discharge of all of these in June.
Only 103 prisoners were left In
America as of the March date.
Q. At what age does the training
of circus dogs begin?—R. I. C.
A. Experienced circus dog trainers
prefer to defer training until the
dog is at least 2 years old.
! Q. How many separate states were
! united to form the German Empire
! in 1871?—N. P. C.
. A. The empire was formed from Mi
states; the 4 kingdoms of Prussia,
Bavaria, Saxony and Wurttemberg;
5 grand duchies; 13 duchies and
principalities, and the free cities of
Hamburg, Bremen and Lubeck.
Q. Why is the United States Am
bassador to Great Britain referred
to as the Ambassador to the Court
j of St. James's?—H. W. S.
J A. The Court of St. James's is the
' usual designation of the British
couh, so called from the old Palace
; of St. James's long used for royal re
ceptions, levees and drawing rooms.
' The spelling "James's" is official, al
; though the final "s" is often dropped
Q. How many islands belong to
! the United States?—J. D. E.
! A. Without counting small rocks
I and reefs it is estimated that the
, United States has approximately 7.
294 outlying islands. This does not
include inshore islands along the
continental United States and
Alaska, but it does include the
[ Aleutians.
J Q. What is the origin of the cus
tom of lowering the flag to half stall
' in honor of the dead?—D. McK.
A. The custom is believed to have
arisen in the old military and naval
ι practice of lowering the flag as a
. sign of submission in time of war.
t Reference to the display of the flag
ι at half staff as a sign of moerning
; occurs In Capt. Smith's Serpen's
\ Grammar as early as 1627. S*
By Gluyos Williams
rftesorf>UYiN6N0MN follows some men
&ov;/WDTee4 το
The Great Game of Politics
Senate Is Urged to Add to Amendments
Of House in Foreign Relief Measure
By Frank R. Kent
Whether or not the Senate re
stores the $150,000,000 which the
House cut from the foreign relief
bill (and. since Gen. Marshall's ap
peal, this seems
likely) it certain
ly should retain
the House
imendments and
Insert several
very vital ones
which the House
Lgnored. In oth
er words, the
time has come
(two yews after
the war) when
irery real re
straints should
be put upon the
iemands for
;harltable relief Fr«ak R. Kent,
from the United States.
There are a number of things to
be said about this pending bill. In
the first place, it should be under
stood that it sets up a new formula
for foreign relief, largely devised by
Herbert Hoover at the request of
President Truman. It takes the
place of the outrageously incompe
tent and mismanaged UNRRA.
In the second place, restoration of
the $350,000,000 does not mean that
;hat much will be spent. Senator
Taft, who favors restoration, does
lot believe more than the House's
&200,000,000 will be needed, points
jut that the $350,000,000 is merely
in authorization. In the third place,
f all the Hoover recommendations
ire incorporated, the money will be
osed in a way to provide the maxi
mum relief with the minimum waste
jy the moet truthworthy people.
Restrictions Recommended.
Among these recommendations are
imendments to take away the blank
:heck nature of the bill by limiting
■elief to certain specified countries,
providing essential safeguards con
:eming dollar exchange and for in
sisting that the money be spent for
Jnited States products and trans
portation. There is a further rec
>mmendation, which the House
idopted, eliminating handling of the
noney by foreign agents and insist
ng on other obvious steps to insure
-hat it will be honestly and capably
«. ι
It is also suggested that the Presi
ient be given power to withdraw
shipments from countries which
Droduce enough grain from the 1947
larvest to supply themselves for a
iix-month period. But, perhaps, the
nost trenchant amendment is one
χ» meet the very clear fact that we
:annot much longer continue to
;arry these enormous foreign relief
jurdens which increase our own
;ost of living by undue drain on our
supplies and deprive the country of
leeded improvements for our own
We, should, of course, be resolute
In the alleviation of suffering
abroad, but we should invoke every
possible pressure to see that these
demands are held to the lowest
levels and that every effort is made
by the receiving countries to in
crease their own productivity and
Improve their own administration.
As to the latter, it is pointed out,
some of the demands now made on
us are due to the failure of govern
ments to collect surplus food from
their own farmers and allowing it
to disappear into the black market.
The ônly way to stop this, and
kindred forms of evasion, is prompt
ly to serve notice that large scale,
unrestricted charity is at an end
and that repayment in some form
must be undertaken.
Repayment Plan Proposed.
It happens that all countries re
ceiving supplies from us resell them
to their own people as a necessary
part of their rationing system.
Therefore, to effect at least a mod
erato* pressure in the direction of
repayment, the following amend
ment Htas been recommended by Mr.
"All receipts from sales of these
supplies by governments to their
citizens shall be paid into a deposi
tory in that country, designated by
the United States, to the credit of
the United States. Such sums may
be used by the United States for
any expenditures on its own account
within that country and, in any
event, shall not be withdrawn from
that country until, in the view of
the President, it will not embarrass
the economy of such country. In
case of repayment in kind, a pro
portional amount of such deposit
shall be released."
It 1s true, these deposits may not
materialize as much of an asset.
They would, however, prevent
Communist-dominated governments,
such as Poland and Hungary, from
using the funds thus collected for
the strengthening and spread of
Communist control.
Another recommendation is that
no relief be sent to countries whose
armies are in excess of police needs.
The argument here is that It is
simply unbearable that American
taxpayers should be called upon to
pay for relief in countries with such
excessive military establishments.
Such establishments not only ab
sorb their resources and deprive
them of the manpower for producing
their own supplies, but threaten the
peace of the world.
With these amendments, together
with the provision for the appoint
ment by the President of a $10,000
a-year administrator to be cm
firmed by the Senate and supervised
by the Secretary of Agriculture, it
is intelligent and practical, as well
as enlightened self-interest to enact
the bill with the full authorization
of $350,000,000. Without f?Jse re- ,
strictions and safeguards, t£~ whole j
proposal li weakened and made
The House has partially adopted
some; ignored others. The Senate
ιβη fully Justify the full amount if
It adopts them all. They are largely
the product of the ablest and most
sxperienced man on the subject of
tood relief in the world—one whose
unselfish patriotism is beyond ques
tion and whose information is fresh,
iirect and firsthand.
Wearing No Man's Collar,
Dog Has Town by Heart
By Henry McLemore
Our town la perhaps the only
one in the United States in which
every dtlaen owns at least a part
of a dog.
The dog's name is Brownie, we
guess. Everyone
started calling
htm that when,
some five yean
ago, he took up
residence on one
of our busiest
He has no
master, no mis
tress, no one has
ever known
where he came
from, and no
erne has ever
come to claim
him as his own
Brownie is a
mongrel whick loves to he patted,
and h· must get more patting than
any dog ' in the world. No one
passes the corner without stopping
to pass the time of day with him
and give him a-pat.
A few weeks ago Brownie strolled
into the street and was hit by an
automobile. It was then that the
town really came to realize how
much a part of it Brownie was. A
taxi driver picked him up and took
him to a vefs and then posted a
little sign with a little box on it
saying, "Brownie has been hurt and
is at the veterinarian's. Would you
like to help out with ,his hospital
Henry HeUnin,
great big brown
$32 in Half an Hour.
In half an hour there was $32
in Brownie's box. Until he got out
of the hospital there wai a dally
story in the paper telling of hie
Brownie had never had a real
house to live in as far aa we know.
He always slept in a doorway near
the corner. But he came back from
the hoepital to one of the nicest
little doghouses any one ever saw.
The boys who run the taxi stand
on the comer spent their spare time
during Brownie's abeence in build
ing the house. On the day he was
to come home the taxi dfivers drew
lots es to which one would have the
honor of delivering Brownie back to
his home on the corner.
Word that Brownie would be
home had'got around the neighbor
hood, and restaurant owners saved
not only the scrape they always keep
fer Brownie, but a few Juicy steaks
and a pork chop or two.
A Dog ef Dignity.
So much money was collected for
Brownie that he now has a tidy
bank account In his own name In
case he gets hurt again or needs to
be taken care of in his old age.
Brownie Is a dog with great dig·
nity. He doesn't run or frolic
around his corner, or jump on you
when you pass. Early'in the morn
ing he selects a shady place which
he thinks will be the coolest for the
day and holds court there. One of
his favorite spots is just outside the
bank door, and it is very encourag
ing to have Brownie wag approval
at you before you go in the bank
and start talking big-mouth to a
vice president about tha little old
bit of money you could use right
handily at the moment.
Yeah, Brownie is quite a dog.
(Distributed by McNaurht Syndicate. Inc.)
World Aviation Assembly
To Ad on Spain Today
λ A ... - - y -. * _ I —
•y hm AwociBwg rms
MONTREAL, May ·.—'The cours·
vas laid today for reading Spain
out of the International Civil Avia
tion Organisation (IOAO) until the
Franco government is repalced with
one satisfactory to the United Na
Hie ICAO Committee on general
policy all but closed the door behind
the Spanish delegate yesterday in
two long sessions, during which it
voted to join the United Nation
orbit of specialized organisations,
accept a special condition of such
affiliation, and adopt a resolution
for a treaty amendment to exclude
Franco Spain from membership.
Two steps remained today. The
committee must smooth out the
form of its resolutions and forward
them to the Assembly, which in
turn must put them to vote in gen
eral session, scheduled for 4 pjn.
Spain's delegate, Esteban Terra
das, widely respected aeronautical
technician, has decided to leave as
soon as the Assembly formally mo
tions him to the door, although it
appears that If h» wanted to force
the issue he could participate until
the ouster amendment has been rati
fied by the governments of two
thirds of the ICAO members.
Amy Briggs to Speak
On Corcoran Biennial
Miss Amy Briggs will speak on
the Corcoran Biennial Exhibition at
8:30 o'clock tonight in the Corcoran
Gallery of Art.
The Biennial will continua
through Sunday. It will be open to
the Public without charge from g
to 10 o'clock tonight, from 9 a.m. to
4:30 pm. tomorrow and from 2 to S
p.m. Sunday.
Brakes Bellned I
While You Wait
rr$t Adfuttments for lift of Unmet
BUICK "Special'
DODGE, » f '«
Duplicating D. C. Teiting Uachint
MM Κ 81. N.W. ME. «S3S|
|THE MODE ... Importent Men's Cornei
More of those cool, comfortable
More- #>/>- tie-Money
Richard Prince
Tropical Suits
This !■ our third important shipment of
Richard Prince tropicals—and if previous performance
means anything, they won't be on our racks long.
Since 1933 Washingtonians have been enjoying the
enduring quality and handsome appearance of

Richard Prince suits. Now—today and tomorrow—
you may provide for many summers of time-tested
wearing pleasure in Richard Prince—a recognized
Mode value at
Has Pel Seersuckers 9 Cords, $19.50. Sir Preme, $2210
Goodall Palm Beach, $23JO
Goodall Sunfrost, $29.75
Mohara, $35M
Fashion Park, $60 & $65.00
Take Your Pick of
• §tet«on
• Ecuadorian
• Koro
• Elit
in The Mode's
Hat Department
Get set to enjoy the breezes with ventilated
lightweight hats. The Mode's selection em·
braces fine domestic straws as well as imports
from the South Seas, Nassau and South
America. Included are stiff straws, panatnas,
raffias, leghorns, jungle palms and tulcans
, h
from $5
(Panamas from VSO)
F Street at Eleventh
Hours 9 to 6
3331 Conn. Are.
Hqurs JO to 9
urtesy Parking at Star Parking Plaza—10th and

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