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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, July 05, 1947, Image 6

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‘gfte gening ffe
With Sunday Morning Edition.
Published by
Th« Evening Star Newspaper Company.
' FRANK B. NOYES, President.
B. M. McKELWAY, Editor.
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A—4 SATURDAY, July 5, 1947
Requisites of Peace
President Truman’s Monticello address
contains truths of a sort that may seem
almost platitudinous. Yet, like so many
other time-worn ideas, they cannot be
stated too often or stressed too strongly.
Emphasis and repetition can render good
service. Slowly but surely, in the field of
principle, they can do much to win converts
in an ever-widening area. The story of the
spread of Christianity is proof enough of
Basically, indeed, it is Christianity about
which the President has spoken at Monti
cello. He has outlined four key requisites
of peace. The first of these is ttyat there
must be common adherence among nations
to the principle that governments derive
their just powers from the consent of the
governed. The second is that there must
be universal respect for basic human rights.
The third is that there must be a free and
full exchange of knowledge, ideas and
Information among peoples everywhere.
Finally, the fourth is that the different
powers—large and small—must shape their
economic policies to support a healthy,
mutually enriching world economy rather
than separate nationalistic systems. These
are ideas animated by the Christian spirit,
by the Christian doctrine on the unique
worth and dignity of every child of God,
by the simple but profoundly practical
Christian precept that we should do unto
others as we would have them do unto us.
If mankind ruled itself in this manner,
the age ahead could be the finest and
happiest in history.
But the “if” here is very big. Nothing
could be more obvious than that the world
is virtually split in two over the four
requisites listed by Mr. Truman. A perfect
Illustration of the division is what he has
called the “folly” of Russia’s refusal to co
operate in a European-wide recovery pro
gram. It is the kind of folly against which,
despite recurrent discouragement, the
United States and all the W^tern democ
racies must ceaselessly uphold and seek
to spread the self-evident truths restated
in the President’s Monticello address.
Christianity still has a long way to go
before it encompasses the world. Obviously,
however, the fact that it continues to meet
strong resistance does not mean that there
is no further point to preaching it and
doing missionary work for it. The same
holds true for our kindred democratic
political philosophy. As long as men and
nations exist, there will be reason to cele
brate and advocate the principles just
reaffirmed at Monticello. With their con
stant espousal and strengthening by
peoples of good will, the world may yet
be able to achieve, in the President’s words,
“not peace in our time—but peace for
all time.”
The World Police Problem
To the extent that they translate the
problem into more concrete terms, the first
provisional estimates on the size and
makeup of a world police force represent
some progress. But they will remain largely
meaningless until there is full agreement
among the powers on operating principles
and on other vital issues as well, not
excepting the issue whether the United
; Nations itself is to continue in its present
; form. J
The difficulties blocking such an agree
; ment are typified by the fact that the Big
! Five members of the Security Council’s
; Military Staff Committee have been unable
; to settle their differences even as regards
; the preliminary Estimates. The United
; States has suggested a force made up of
' the following elements: (1) An air arm of
, 3,800 bombers, fighters and miscellaneous
! military planes; (2) ground strength add
ing up to 20 divisions, and (3:) naval power
consisting of more than 200 vessels, rang
ing from battleships to assault craft. The
French have proposed much less than this.
The British, with the Chinese concurring,
have offered still smaller figures. As for
the Russians, they have declined to submit
any at all, arguing that it will be pointless
to do so while basic policing principles
remain up in the air.
These principles were drawn up in the
Military Staff Committee’s first report to
* the Council two months ago. They num
ber forty-one in aU. Of these, twenty-six
have been supported unanimously by the
;* committee’s members, but the remainder
—with the Soviet Union the chief but not
- sole dissenter—are still subject to dispute,
i Nor is it probable that there will be agree
' ment on them for a long time to come.
' 'The world is still made up of nations
extremely distrustful of each other. Ac
' cordingly, as in so many other matters,
they are slow to see eye to eye on such
questions as how contributions to the
police force are to be apportioned among
them and on ways of pooling military in
formation or arranging for bases to be
handed over to the United Nations. The
truth is that even if a full understanding
r were reached on these and similar con ten
!. tious points, effective policing would still
he far from realization. Subject to the
I veto power of any of the Big Five, it could
! *e useful at best only to stop trouble
■ among the smaller nations, and there, too,
! the veto could Impede swift action.
Thus, everything considered, the most
; vre can expect in this field is progress by
‘ glow stages. What if primarily needed is
a far-reaching change for the better in
the international atmosphere. When we
have that—and it is desperately needed to
keep the United Nations alive—then we
can hope that the world will be able,
step by step, to work out over-all policing
arrangements strong enough to prevent
a self-annihilating cataclysm in the age
of the atom.
New Coal Wages
It has been estimated that the new wage
increase and other benefits won by John L.
Lewis for his coal miners will add $500,
000,000 a year to the costs of the steel
industry and boost the price of coal to the
consumer seventy-five cents a ton.
Perhaps experience will show these esti
mates to be excessive over the long pull,
for the history of American industry re
veals that higher wages have been accom
panied by greater productivity. Today
industry, or at least many industries, can
produce products at prices far below what
the cost of production would have been
in the old days of low wages and inefficient
methods. So it is reasonable to hope that,
in time, some part of the apparent higher
costs resulting from the- new coal wage
scale will be offset by improved production.
Still, the immediate prospect is that
inflationary processes at work in the coun
try will get a new shot in the arm, and this
will be the more true if, as is to be expected,
other union leaders should try to get as
much for their members as Mr. Lewis has
gotten for his. What the ultimate result
will be is difficult to say. A substantial
increase in the volume of production could
soften and perhaps absorb the impact on
the economy of another sharp advance in
buying power. If the increase in produc
tion should fall to materialize, then the
rise in prices and the advance in earnings
could be disastrous.
In either event, however, it is a form
of wishful thinking to expect that workers,
with controls lifted, will, abstain from
efforts to Increase their incomes merely
because they may be building up infla
tionary pressures. Human nature being
what it is, that is too much to ask.
And certainly, nothing constructive will be
achieved by sitting back and denouncing
unions because they try tot get as much as
they can for their members. They have
always done that and they always will.
With respect to the miners, there are
good arguments for higher wages. With
the new increases, their basic daily wage
will be $13.05 for eight hours underground.
Measured against what they were paid a
few years ago, that is a lot of money. But
if it is measured against current wages for
other types of work, and if the peculiarly
hazardous and difficult characteristics of
coal mining are taken into account, it does
not seem excessive. Few of those who are
complaining about the new wage scale
would want to dig coal for a living, even at
$13.05 a day.
Gold Star Mothers
The Civil Service Commission has shown
good Judgment in withdrawing its “rou
tine” objection to a bill which would ex
tend civil service preferential benefits to
widowed mothers of servicemen killed or
totally disabled in line of duty during the
war. The commission’s former position in
opposition to the measure was in line with
its traditional policy of resisting, as a
general principle, any exceptions to estab
lished rules of the competitive civil service
But the fact is that, despite the com
mission’s attitude, exceptions already have
been written into the law in behalf of
veterans and the widows or wives of serv
icemen killed or totally disabled in the
war. Through an obvious oversight, no
provision was made under the veterans’
preference legislation for the widowed,
dependent mothers of men killed or
permanently invalided while serving their
country. This omission cannot reasonably
be defended. 1
Recognizing the inequities of the situa
tion, the House Civil Service Commission
recently approved an amendment to the
Veterans’ Preference Act designed to cor
rect the injustice done the small group
involved. These unfortunate mothers
thus would receive the same civil service
benefits now accorded the wives of the
totally disabled, or the widows of the
dead heroes. The chief benefit will be a
ten-point stepup in examination rating.
The House committee properly recognized
that the Government has a “moral obliga
tion” to see that the widowed mothers
receive consideration equar to that given
widows and wives. Thereupon the Civil
Service Commission reconsidered the mat
ter in the light of “moral obligations” as
well as “general principles” and decided to
withdraw its opposition. The chances of
the bill’s passing therefore have been
greatly improved. Congress will be per
forming an act of simple justice to a
deserving group of women if it gives
prompt approval to this small but sig
nificant measure.
Revamping the House of Lords
The British Labor Party’s decision to
alter radically both the powers and com
position of the House of Lords fore
shadows another major landmark in the
long course of Britain’s constitutional his
tory. During the opening decade of the
present century, the Lords lost much of
their political power, but they still have
the power to delay the decisions of the
House of Commons. Furthermore, the
Lords are still a hereditary body, with
certain exceptions, such as Lords Bishops
and Law Lords, who acquire their seats by
virtue of their office and cannot transmit
their titles and memberships to their
eldest sons.
In typically British fashion, the changes
meditated by Labor are to be made only
after the issue has been put before the
electorate and thoroughly debated in the
next general election, which will normally
be heltl in 1950. And even then, the Lords,
by use of their present prerogative, could
twice reject the bill for their own demo
tion, which would consume another two
years, since Commons must wait a year
before again sending up a bill thus rejected
by the Upper Chamber. Lastly, such action
would be taken only in the event of another
Labor victory in a general election, since
it Is most unlikely that either the Con
servative or Liberal Parties would support
the measure.
There are two main ideas in the Labor
proposal. The^flrst of these is reduce the
* f
political power of the Lords to discussion
and recommendation of bills passed by
Commons, thereby eliminating both rejec
tion and amendment. The upshot, in prac
tice, would be to center all power in the
House of Commons and thus give Britain a
virtually single-chamber legislature.
The second idea would be to abolish the
hereditary principle on which the House
of Lords is founded. Membership in the
Lords would henceforth be personal; either
ex-officio, as now with the Lords Bishops
and Law Lords, or to holders of titles
granted for exceptional public service. In
this Labor proposal there is no intention
of touching the institution of a hereditary
aristocracy or abolishing titles. Hereditary
peers would still exist, with all their honors
and emoluments except their present legis
lative prerogatives. And finally, the pro
posal does not touch upon the institution
of monarchy in any way.
Summer Sunset
Now drops the great red ball low above
the hills. Midsummer ocean stretches
quietly to the line that divides the water
and the sky. Quietness rests on sandy
beaches, rolling dunes and grassy marshes.
In little fishing harbors dories ride at
anchor, dipping quietly with the water.
Gulls slowly beat homeward to nesting
sites, quiet now that day is ending. Far
across the waters trails of pearl-gray
smoke mark the path of a coastal ship.
Quietness falls gently on earth and sea.
Minute by minute the sun closes the gap
between earth and sky. Groups of people
gather on granite headlands, plank piers
and jutting promontories to watch day’s
requiem. Purple, orange, scarlet and gold
are the colors above the sinking sun. As
the sun drops behind the hill there is a
brief period of breath-taking beauty. Great
broad splashes of bright colors are thrown
into thi sky, lighting the land beneath.
Then the brightness slowly fades but
for long minutes there is beauty in the
sky—a softer blending of colors more satis
fying perhaps than the stark emphasis
uexuxe. xxie xxgxib uxues aiux yexxuws ana
shades of bronze paint a pastel picture.
Across the steel-gray water is a shimmering
wide path reflected from the color spot
where the sun has dropped from sight.
Sometimes across the’bay the path leads
from land to land. Moment by moment
the color lessens. Dusk pushes the last of
daylight over the horizon. Stars break
through the curtain above. Far up the
coast the first flash from the lighthouse
tears a rip in the gathering blackness. A
night heron calls from its perch on the
trap-net buoy. A summer day is ended.
The peace and quiet of a summer’s night
rests on the ocean.
According to the Federal rent control
bill, a fifteen per cent increase is legal
if landlord and tenant sit down with each
other and agree. It is anybody’s guess
what happens if they stand up to each
other and fight.
It has now been ruled that the Federal
Government has title to suboceanic petro
leum off the California coast, putting an
end to a long dispute over troubled oil
under the waters.
.... ■ ;
A Baltimorean has invented a mechan
ical pitcher. There may be a place for it
in the big leagues if he can teach it to
field bunts and squawk at the umpire.
This and That
By Charles E. Tracewell.
“Dear Sir:
“Within the past week, we have found four
sick sparrows in our front yard.
“We fed them milk and bread, and put a
large basket over them for protection from cats.
“In the morning the birds were dead. We are
puzzled as to the cause of death.
“Our house and the house next door have
been painted this past week. Could it be
possible that the birds were poisoned by the
paint? “Respectfully, W. C. P.”
* * * *
Paint is not likely to kill birds, unless they
eat insects which have crawled through it.
Poisonous sprays used in gardens are more
likely to be the cause.
The birds do not eat the poisons directly,
but get them through poisoned insects, still
wnne many claims nave Deen made of tne
harmlessness to birds of DDT and other high
powered materials, there still are many ob
servers who take all such claims with the
proverbial grain of salt.
They feel certain, at least as far as their
observations go, that no one has yet actually
determined the effects of such sprays on the
bird and small animals.
There is little doubt that DDT, as commonly
used, is dangerous to house cats, although dogs
do not suffer.
The cat is a licking animal, and spray on
its coat is licked off at once. A cat which
gets into a real spray is in danger.
If a pet cat has been so sprayed, it should
be given an all-over bath at once, immediately,
so that it has no chance to .get the dangerous
material inside it.
Though cats do not like to be washed, they
should be bathed regardless, once they have
been exposed to the danger of a poisonous
spray. „
There are other materials, containing deadly
things as phosporous, which are put out
for rats.
Such poisons are unnecessary for rat killing.
They endanger little children, dogs and cats.
The death in terrible convulsions of a pet
animal which has taken phosophorous into
its stomach is horrible, and no sane human
willingly would wish such an end to any crea
ture, yet it sometimes happens through lack of
knowledge, carelessness and indifference.
The letter which follows shows a better way
to kill rats.
* * * *
“Dear Sir:
"The subject of rats is not a very pleasant
one, but in a spirit of public safety I am con
strained to relate a recent experience in the
capture of this most dreaded of all vermin.
“A recent installation of automatic heat has
resulted in an exposed place at the floor line
which should'have been covered by a collar.
“The opening, just about the C.i oi a tea
spoon, permitted access of a full sized rat, and
his first depredation was the complete con
sumption of almost a full pound of my favorite
chocolates. <
“I have learned from past experiences that
a rat is too foxy to be trapped, even with a
savory piece of bacon, and since I trapped a
handsome cardinal over a year ago by setting
a rat trap outside, I placed it inside, covering
with a fire screen to protect the dog.
“There is to be purchased a sure-fire, fool
proof preparation containing red squill, and if
directions are followed to the letter—and I
do mean letter—the rats will positively be
eliminated. But one should keep eyes open for
any offspring, and get some one to cover all
holes leading into the house.
“Sincerely yours, O. E. C.”
Red squill, a material recommended by the
Department of Agriculture, is deadly to rats,
since they lack the vomit reflex, but only
makes cats and dogs ill. It is best, however,
even in its use, to make sure that children,
birds, dogs and cats cannot get at the bait
1 containing it.
Letters to The Star
A Wartime Washingtonian Praises City’s Beauty and a
1 _ Housewife Complains of High Prices
aw wiv uuivvt w* aui Bvai i
As I prepare to return to the hinterland at
the end of a term of war service in the Nation’s
Capital, I should like to report a few of the
Impressions made upon me during this period
of residence.
Before I
came here to
live, Washing
ton, to me, con
sisted of fc few
small parks;
the Washing
ton, Lincoln
and Jefferson
monuments; a
triangle of con
ventional hotels, stores and office buildings,
having as its base a line drawn from Con
necticut avenue at M street to the intersec
tion of Fifteenth street and Pennyslvania
avenue, and as its apex Union Station,
and pile after pile of huge symmetrical stone
structures along Constitution and Pennsyl
vania avenues, wearing yet one precious jewel,
the White House.
I leave here, however, with an entirely differ
ent conception of metropolitan Washington.
Space would not permit mention of more
than a few of the most notable spots of interest
and beauty which it is found to possess, and
they might be the following^ The Tidal Basin
with its lacework of drives and bridges, fringed
in blossomtime with a giant wreath of inde
scribable beauty, but sharing equal If not great
er honors with Kenwood with its canopies of
fleecy breath-taking clouds of cherry blooms;
the quiet, sustained and surpassing beauty of
the pink and white dogwoods decorating the
wide lawns of the Forest Hills, Cleveland Park,
Foxhall road, Spring Valley and other areas;
the quaint historic buildings of old George
town skirted bv the sleepy little C. and O
Canal and the broad Potomac; the Water Gate
outdoor theater where, on warm summer eve
nings, you may thrill to the performances
of such artists as Gladys Swarthout and Hans
Klndler while looking out upon the Venice
like scene of the moored stage surrounded
by small powerboats and canoes bobbing rhyth
mically in the tidewater; Hains Point inviting
you to loiter along its peaceful seawalls, but
shorn of all .Hospitality when the flamboyant
double cherry blossoms attract riots of nature
lovers; the majestic trees or Framum Fane
and its azaleas rivaling those of New Orleans
and Mobile for brilliance, if not for luxuriance;
Dumbarton Oaks exuding peace, quietude and
solemnity until you suddenly step down into
its fairyland of gardens and pools and prome
nades; Rock Creek Park where miles of scenic
highways and bridle paths wander through
primeval forests and Dast placid picnic grounds;
and Rock Creek itself with its lively cascades,
deep clear pools, rippling fords and here and
there long eddies for wading children and float
ing fowl; the endless exhibits and works of
art in the Smithsonian Institution and the
National Gallery of Art; Mount Vernon Me
morial Highway framed in springtime with
flowering dogwood and Judas trees, in autumn
with many-colored sumac; the embassy build
ings on Sixteenth street and Massachusetts
avenue by which you walk in silence and won
der; that baronial estate, Tregaron, on Klingle
road, far removed in both geography and ap
pearance from the source of its welsh name;
in midsummer the shaded avenues bisecting a
city lost in a dense arbor of oaks, elms, maples,
poplars and apparently all other specie* of ^
deciduous trees that grow in the north temper-'
ate zone; and at last the sobering and inspir
ing Mall where you must pause and become
freshly imbued with patriotism and national
I have learned that Washington is not merely
a condition of public affairs nor altogether a
mecca for tourists and patronage seekers, but
a real, charming, though much maligned,
metropolis. WALTER L. POPE.
Mr. Lawrence and Social Action
To the Editor of The Star:
I once saw a small boy, bested in back-yard
fisticuffs, hastily climbing the fence, leaving
shirt and tie behind him but clutching des
perately at his falling pants to avert the final
indignity. David Lawrence might be that small
boy "growed up,” judging from his article of
June 30.
Poor Mr. Lawrence! So disgruntled because
nasty people didn’t (so he says) read his criti
cism of the Social Action Department of the
National Catholic Welfare Conference all the
way through, and therefore (so he believes)
misunderstood his position entirely.
Mr. L.’s “pants,” in this instance, consist of
the final paragraph of his original essay, and
it reads: "There is not the slightest objection
to the expression of views by individual clergy
men on public questions when they are plainly
Irtslfiririiial HtlmMlA Blit fOT &HV
church unit, functioning as an institution, to
mix in as a pressure group on specific laws in
the economic or political field is to involve
America in unfortunate controversies where
the influence of the churches will be weakened
instead of strengthened.”
This "pants” of the original article Mr.
Lawrence is determined to defend to the end.
Obviously, he sees nothing wrong in it. But
there is something wrong—terribly wrong—and
it is the assumption that specific laws in the
economic or political field are perforce outside
the field of morality. This looks suspiciously
like the old "religion-and-business-don’t-mix”
According to Mr. Lawrence’s thesis, congress
might pass a specific law in the economic
field disbanding all unions; or a specific law
taxing 100 per cent all incomes over $10,000
and distributing the proceeds to the poor; or
a law confiscating all church properties of
whatever denomination; but the churches
should throw up their hands in horror at the
thought of "mixing in.” Or if a State should
vote a $1,000 poll tax, thereby restricting the
vote to the well to do, the churches should
not dare protest this specific law in the
political field.
Of course, Mr. Lawrence would counter that
these absurdities are not merely political or
economic, but that they have a moral aspect,
too. This is precisely the contention of the
Social Action Department on the Taft-Hartley
Too bad! But it does seem that Mr. L.,
on this issue, will go limping home not only
shirtless, tieless and coatless, but pantsless
as well. C. J- ENZLER.
Vetoes ‘Irrational’ and Otherwise
To the Editor of The Star:
Should not the veto power of the President
be restrained? Is it not absurd to assume that
any President is possessed of greater wisdom
or integrity than that of the combined mem
bership of the Senate and the House of Rep
resentatives? Giving the President power to
nullify an act of Congress would seem to be
irrational unless the veto were sustained by a
majority vote of Congress. At times carelessly
enacted congressional measures should be
vetoed. When Cleveland was President he
vetoed a $25,000 farm relief bill for two good
reasons; (1) because such a measure would be
unconstitutional; (2) because it is the province
of the people to support the Government but
not the province of the Government to support
the people. This, of course, was long before
socialistic changes were made in the Govern
ment at Washington. Perhaps it would be well
to enable the passage of an act of Congress
I . •
Letters for publication must bear
the signature and address of the
writer, although it is permissible for a
writer known to The Star to use a
nom de plume. Please be brief.
over the presidential veto by a majority vote
instead by a two-thirds vote of both houses
Wichita, Kans.
Dependent Parents’ Claims
To the Editor of The Star:
It is a shameful act of ingratitude to the un
married men who died in action, having been
the support of dependent parents before the
Government called them away from their jobs,
that such a dependent parent receives only a
$54 compensation, and only $6 more if there are
two, while dependents (even foreign wives) of
deceased servicemen who never were employed
nor married nor had any- dependents before
entry into the armed forces are allowed $60
for the widow and $18 for one child and more
if there are additional children, besides receiv
ing other benefits.
Certainly the Government is responsible for
the loss of income of dependent parents of
men who died in action and one dependent
parent should receive* the same as a widow,
and, if there are two, the same amount as a
widow and one child, especially if the deceased
war hero signed allotment'papers evidencing
dependency before death in action.
" Complaint About Prices
To the Editor of The Star:
With complete apathy the average American
is being engulfed in the quicksand of depression
without making the slightest effort to stop
rising costs through protests and boycotts.
Unless the
housewife be
comes aroused
over present *
food conditions
and demands
that Congress
curb these
shortages (in
the midst of (4/
plenty) malnu
trition faces us
AiUUUgn ocuocicoa oupyvib jjfugilUiio, TUitu
by Congress, and export abuses, prices have
skyrocketed out of reach of the average pocket
book. Is there any wonder that people are
discouraged and frustrated when essential
foods, milk, meat, cheese, eggs, butter and
grains are breaking all records?
Just as soon as prices start down the Gov
ernment steps in with exaggerated predictions
of scarcities, raises support levels, or increases
overseas shipments which reverse the price
trend. This manipulation distorts the whole
price structure.
Last week corn prices reached an all-time
high after the release of the com crop damage
report. However, the remaining crop still com
pares favorably with prewar years.
An egg shortage this fall can be placed in
the lap of the Department of Agriculture.
On May 1, at the height of the storage season,
the support price paid per pound for powdered
eggs was increased six cents, which diverted
to the processors fresh eggs that should have
gene into storage. Millions of pounds of pow
dered eggs are filling storage space but the
processing goes on unabated.
Heavy shipments of butter to Africa in re
cent weeks and extensive buying of lard for
export are potent factors in the price rise of
these two commodities.
Mountains of potatoes bought with the tax
payers money, under the same preposterous
program, were recently dumped, saturated with
kerosene (a scarce oil item) in order to hold
the price up.
Can these practices continue longer without
serious consequences? Let the voters unite
and demand that the price support program
be repealed. If this isn’t done, these abuses
will continue until the end of 1948, as the law
provides. What we need is less Government
price control, not more. DOROTHY DAVIS.
Thanks for Outings Provided.
To the Editor of The Star:
The Summer Outings Committee of the Fam
ily Service Association wishes to extend Its
most heartfelt thanks to The Star for Its gen
erosity and true spirit of public service in plac
ing before the people of greater Washington the
benefits of a camping experience for children.
We, of the committee, are grateful for your
gift of $9,600 to our program operating In co
operation with 19 other health and welfare or
ganizations. It should be a heart-warming
thing to know that through your efforts, we will
now be able to provide for 240 more children
whom we otherwise would have had to turn
You have given these children three weeks
of sunshine, hiking on shaded trails, invigorat
ing swims 1n woodland pools. You have given
them three weeks pf rich, nourishing meals
planned by a trained dietitian; health super
vision by registered nurses; guidance by friend
ly counselors. You have opened the worlds of
music, arts and crafts, dramatics and nature
to them by providing skilled instructors. You
have substituted laughter and songs by out
door campfires for drab streetcorner play.
For all these things, we thank you.
FAY R. BENTLEY, Chairman,
Summer Outings Committee.
‘Know • Your History.’
To the Editor of The Star:
In a recent issue of The Star, under the
caption “Know Your History,” it is stated that
Harvard is the oldest college in the United
While Harvard was established as a primary
school in 1639, it was not chartered as an in
stitution of higher education till after the Col
lege of William and Mary was chartered in
I was a visitor at Harvard some time ago,
when the same claim of seniority was made,
and I called for the record, which supported
my statement.
To t^e Editor of The Star:
The column, “Know Your History,” by Briga
dier General Paul C. Paschal, U. S. A., Retired,
has held unusual Interest for my family and
me. Not only is it an interesting test of our
knowledge of history, but it also has added
additional information on this subject for all
of us.
I sincerely hope this feature will continue
to appear in your paper.
Government Responsibility?
To the Editor of The Star:
We say the home, school and church should
work together to prevent juvenile crime. Nc
mention is made of the functions of gov
ernment, be it Federal, State, county or city
whose duty it is to provide for the general
welfare of all by doing something to prevent
the disintegration of American families.
It seems the aims of government are to Jail
people, levy taxes and make politicians wealthy
These trying times remind me of the last
days of the Roman Empire. BEWILDERED.
The Political Mill
Russia Has Served Notice
Of Communist Expansion
Final Evidence Was Given World by
Warning at Paris Conference
By Gould Lincoln
The United States and the rest of the world
have now been put on notice what' to expect
from Soviet Russia. It is not co-operation. It
is a determination to expand communism —
which now takes on the corollary of Russian
control and domination. When Foreign Com
missar Molotov flatly declined to continue to
work with Bevin of Britain and Bidault of
France on plans for the economic rehabilitation
of Europe, and warned both Britain and France
that if they continued such plans they might
have to face Russia, the last convincing evi
dence was in. It was, in truth, only the last of
a long series of refusals of Russia to co-operate
with the Western nations since the close of
the war and creation of the United Nations.
The American people want peace. They do
not want an atomic war. The alternatives
which confront them are appeasement of Soviet
Russia or preparations to defend this country.
Appeasement, even if a majority of the people
favored it, would in the end achieve nothing.
It never has. Adequate national defense—
'which is a real road to peace—cosfk-money and
national effort. The attitude of Soviet Rus
sia, however, is forcing the United States to
prepare for any eventuality.
Two Courses Open.
Two courses, two ways of attacking this new
problem which has arisen because of Russia's
determination to continue its war against capi
talism and the freedom which western demo
cracy gives to the individual, are at hand. The
first is to continue with the Marshall plan to
aid the countries of western Europe to get back
on their feet economically and to become strong
again. The second, is to prepare for war.
Two measures now before Congress look to
strengthening the national defense—the so
called “merger” bill and the proposal for a
system of universal military training. Hie
merger bill, which calls for a single department
of national defense, has been slated by the Re
publican leaders in Congress for final passage
before this session adjourns. The universal
military training bill, however, has no place
on the immediate program. It should have',
even if it delays the adjournment of Congress.
No other action taken by the United States
could so clearly convince the leaders of Soviet
Russia that the American people are com
pletely and totally serious in their determina
tinn ficyVlt- if nomcconr fm* tholi* nnm free_
dom and to aid others who may be subject of
attack from totalitarian sources.
Military training has been resisted in this
country for years by those who believe that
war can be avoided by merely setting a peace- '
ful example to .the rest of the worjd. The op
ponents of military training have been potent
in the past. They, however, are now in the
minority, judging from public opinion polls
and from the mass of favorable letters—letters
supporting the training plan—which have
come to members of Congress in recent weeks.
Congress Still Hesitates.
President* Truman's special commission to
study the question of military training for the
youth of this country, headed by President
Compton of the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, let new light filter through the
prejudices against such a training program—
and provided powerful arguments in support of
it. Still Congress has hesitated, because of the
opposition of some churchmen, some labor
leaders and of pacifist groups.
The House Committee on the Armed Serv
ices has commendably started public hearings
on universal military training, and several
more days of hearings are scheduled for the
coming week. The bill may be whipped into
shape for presentation to the House in a com
paratively brief time, if the committee could
get a “go” sign from the Republican leadership
of the House. So far, however, there has been
no such sign. Now that the Republicans have
determined to go ahead with the repassage of
the Knutson -Millikin tax reduction bill,
there should be time in the House for the
consideration of Ihe military training bill while
the Senate debates other measures, including
the tax bill. Even if the training bill could
only pass one house of Congress before ad
journment of the session, it would be a formal
notice of what is to come. Further, much
time will have been saved if the bill can be
ready for Senate consideration early next
Militarily trained men are needed—and
needed in large numbers—whenever this coun
try engages in war. They will be in the next
war, if and when it comes. The skeptics who
constantly argue that the training of all young
men is unnecessary pay no attention to that
fact. Does any one seriously believe that fewer
men will be needed to fight a third world war
than were needed in the first and second world
Questions and Answers
A reader can obtain the answer to any queatjon
of fact by writing The Evening Star Information
Bureau, .lift I Street N.E.. Washington 2. D C.
Please inclose three (3) cents lor return postage.
Q. What became of the Navy’s first sub
marine, the U. S. S. Holland?—L. V. E.
A. The Holland was removed from the Navy
list in 1910 and eventually sold as scrap. Shs
was put on public exhibition in 1915 but scrap
ping apparently was completed 1917-18.
Q. How long does it take a baseball to travel
' from the pitcher to the catcher and from one
base to another?—J. F.
A. A pitched ball travels from the pitcher to
the catcher in about one-half second or slight
ly less. A fast ball travels from 125 to 140 feet
per second. A ball thrown from the catcher to
second base would require about one second or
a fraction more to reach its destination. A
throw from one base to another would taka
approximately three-fourths of a second.
Q. How far behind the peak prewar registra
tion of automobiles Is the present registration
figure?—L. M. G.
A. The largest number of cars ever registered
was 29,507,113 in 1941. This was about two and
a half million more than the number regis
tered last year.
Q. Which is the correct designation of th#
country, Irish Free State or Eire?—B. J. A.
A. Under the constitution operative from De
' cember 29, 1937, the name Irish Free State was
replaced by that of Eire. In official American
usage the name is Ireland.
The Young and Lonely
The youth has lived too short a time to feel
Secure within himself. The coming years
Are dim as starlight when the sun appears
To meet a harvest moon with silver wheel.
His childhood hours have been too few to
His mind to pain that cannot yield to
A vessel filled with joy or subtle fears
His heart is swaying on uneven keel.
In restlessness he tries to lose himself,
To speed away to far, uncharted seas,
To find the peace that man has never
And, lifting jinchor from the dark-blue
With filling sails he scuds before the breeze
To seek the land that each must make his
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