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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, July 14, 1947, Image 7

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Vetoes by President
Held Responsible for
Loss of Popularity
By David Lawrence
The Gallup Poll poses two differ
ent questions every lew weeks. One
asks the citizen 11 he “appfoves oi
disapproves of the way Mr. Trumar
is handling his ...
joo as ^resi
dent,” and the
other asks: If
the presidential
election were held
today, which
party would be
voted for?
On the first
question, a Re
publican might
approve of the
way Mr. Tru
man was handl
ing the job at a
Darticular time
and yet in an D»»i* Lawrence,
election cast his vote for the Repub
lican nominee. Likewise, a dissent
ing Democrat might disapprove ol
Mr. Truman’s course at the moment
but would not desert his party in an
election.
The Gallup polls have always
drawn a distinction between the
answers to the two questions and
usually the party strength is sev
eral points below a popularity curve
poll.
But today President Truman is
weaker than his party. His popu
larity poll has dropped from 6C last
March to 54 in July, while the Demo
cratic party-strength poll is now at
55 per cent of the estimated total
vote of the country—a drop of 2
points from the 1947 high reached
in May.
Gain From Labor Offset.
Why Is Mr. Truman’s popularity
dropping? Undoubtedly the two
vetoes recently have hurt him con
siderably in the political sense. Thus,
while making slight gains among
labor voters, the drop in other cate
gories has been substantial. Mr
Truman has thought he would gain
politically by his vetoes but he is
losing more votes in certain groups
than he is gaining in others.
Another chance is to be given the
Democratic Party in the next 10
days to pull Mr. Truman out of a
hole on J.he tax bill. If he vetoes
it and the Senate fails to override
the veto, the Democratic Party gen
erally will feel the ill effects next
year.
Mr. Truman has no logical argu
ment now with w'hich to veto the
second tax bill. Chairman Millikin
of the Senate Finance Committee
has just made public the official
data gathered by the Joint Congres
sional Committee on internal rev
enue by nonpolitical statisticians.
These figures show that, even after
allowing $1,500,000,000 as the cost
of the tax reduction provided in the
new bill, approximately $5,400,000,
000 of surplus will be available on
July 1, 1948, for reduction of the
national debt.
When a government has a surplus
of nearly $7,000,000,000, as indicated
bv the latest figures, and is able
to‘put aside for debt reduction vir
tually $4 for every $1 that is used
in tax reduction, it is apparent
that such a government’s finances
are, in a healthy state.
Truman Embarrasses Party.
The Democratic Party in Congress
has been embarrassed by Mr. Tru
man’s mistakes as revealed in his
first veto message. He said it was
the “wrong kind of tax reduction,
at the wrong time.” Congress, with
a heavy majority in both houses,
now has yielded oh the matter of
timing and has asked that the tax
reduction take effect next January
fnr the calendar Year 1948.
Will Mr. Truman now say 1948 is
the wrong time? And. if so, will he
insist on draining out of the pockets
of the taxpayers $7,000 000,000 more
than is expended? This is one way
to produce a real depression. Due
to various factors of a stimulating
nature, particularly the heavy ex
port demand, it looks now as if the
economic readjustment which has
been predicted will be deferred until
1948. It will be too late then to
pass a tax bill to overcome the
deflation.
Actually the absence of tax reduc
tion will produce a serious deflation.
Mr. Truman is gambling on the
possibility of riding through 1948
without a recession and without tax
reduction. This ignores entirely the
psychological effect on the voters of
the "dog in the manger” policy
which says that because some tax
payers may get a little more saving
than others, nobody shall have any
tax reductions. That is the wrong
kind of political judgment at the
wrong time. '
Polls a little later this year may
be expected to reflect a further drop
in the Truman popularity and in
Democratic Party strength if the
Democrats in the Senate fail to
override the coming veto on the tax
reduction bill.
(Reproduction Rights Reserved.)
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This Changing World
Wedemeyer’s China Mission Shows
U. S. Is Seeking Way to Help Chiang
By Constantine Brown
Lt. Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer’s
rryssion to China as a special in
vestigator for President Truman
puts into closer focus the whole
quest by the other organized militant
force in that great country — the
Communists. Such a contingency
could not be countenanced by the
American government, for China is
America’s first line of defense in the
Far East, and the preservation of a
friendly government there is basic
in American world policy.
The Chiang government can be
preserved and it will be Gen. Wede
meyer’s task to provide the facts on
which a concrete program of bolster
ing the Nanking regime can be based.
Although the United States has
failed to grant China the promised
$500,000,000 loan—because China has
failed to pacify itself—possibilities
of loans through other channels re
main. The task is to determine
specifically the direction in which
American economic assistance can
be most effective.
Gold Loan Is Possible.
Certainly one of the principal
points of attack will be the currency,
centering perhaps on a gold loan to
provide the basis for a new stabi
lized money. How the effectiveness
of such a loan could be guaranteed,
so that China would not head into
another financial tail spin, is still
another question which Gen. Wede
meyer may explore. It would be es
sential, from the American stand
point, that certain corrupt elements
be swept out of the Chinese admin
istration.
Another point of attack may well
be armed assistance to the Chiang
regime, not by American soldiers,
but in the form of American guns,
planes and ammunition. The Nan
king government cannot be ex
pected, undermined as it is by an
economic crisis, to continue success
fully to battle the Communists who
have at their backs the armed re
sources of Russia. Recent Commu
nist successes and separatist rum
blings within China testify to the
waning military power of Gen.
Chiang’s government.
Gen. Wedemeyer’s departure on
his mission will have, at least, a
temporarily salutary effect in China,
by serving notice to all concerned
that the United States intends to
assist Gen. Chiang and that this
assistance is simply a matter of
time and determination of the form
it will take.
proDiem o i
China as it re
lates to Ameri
can policy and
the global polit
ical situation.
The former
commander o f
American forces
in China — who
succeeded Gen.
Joseph W. Stil
well in 1944 after
the latter’s break
with Generalis
simo C h i a n g
TCni ShAlr—is r»n
a fact - finding Con«t»ntine Brown,
mission, and his task therefore is
entirely different from that on
which Gen. Marshall embarked in
December, 1945.
Gen. Marshall's experience in
mediation of the conflict between
the Chinese Communists and the
Chiang regime was so unhappy that
it is not likely to be repeated, at
least not at this particular moment.
He returned to the United States
thoroughly convinced of the evil
aspects of both factions in the Chi
n6Se
With the United States avoiding
any further mediation in the Par
East, the questions which will absorb
Gen. Wedemeyer chiefly in his fact
finding are those concerning the
strength of the-Chiang administra
tion, particularly as it relates to
China's economics, although the po
litical elements surrounding the
economic crisis in China will hardly
■ be ignored.
Economy Close to Collapse.
China’s economy is in a state of
virtual collapse, with the currency
depreciated almost to the point of
worthlessness, ami trade thereby
throttled. As a result Gen. Chiang’s
government, hard-pressed militarily
by the Communists in Manchuria, is
on the point of downfall.
Needless to say, the collapse of
the Chiang government, and the
Kuomintang which supports it,
would leave China open to easy con
Capper, 82 Today, Forecasts
Eventual Suffrage for District
Ulaesr senator bnows
Optimism on World,
National Prospects
Senator Capper, Republican, of
Kansas, the oldest member of the
Senate, Is 82 today and optimistic
about the future, Including eventual
suffrage for the District.
He planned to spend the day at
his desk and on the Senate floor.
However, he was scheduled to take
time out from his duties to attend
a birthday luncheon, given in his
honor by the Northwest Citizens’
Association.
Other Senators and the Kansas
delegation were expected to attend
the affair planned in the Capitol.
There is only one other mem
ber of the Senate—Senator McKel
lar, Democrat, of Tennessee—who
has served longer. Both men reside
at the Mayflower Hotel.
Senator Capper commented to
day that “I feel as well as I did
20 years ago.” In fact, he hasn't
missed a working day on the Hill
in 10 years.
Taking a look into the future.
the chairman of the senate Agri
culture Committee and ranking ma
jority member of the Foreign Rela
tions Committee does not see any
particularly black clouds on the
horizon.
“We have our ups and downs in
this country. But I don’t see any
prospect at present of an upset in
the business program,” he said.
“Internationally, I think we are
going along pretty well. We have
made some progress toward a per
manent peace.”
He says that District suffrage
possibilities are getting more en
couraging.
Senator Capper would not com
ment on whether he would be a
candidate for renomination next
year. He has served 28 years in the
Senate—two less than Senator
McKellar.
Premier of Indonesia
Meets Dutch Officials
ly *h» Associated Press
BATAVIA, July 14.—Prime Min
ister Sjarifoeddin of the Indonesian
Republican government arrived here
today to confer with Netherlands
officials in an effort to reaeh a
final basis of agreement on estab
lishment of an interim government
for the United States of Indonesia.
Mr. Sjarifoeddin refused to dis
cuss the situation with newspaper
men.
SENATOR CAPPER.
House Group Puts Off
Hearing on Seaway
•y tho Associated frets
The House Public Works Com
mittee today postponed a scheduled
hearing on legislation to authorize
the St. Lawrence seaway and power
project, out of respect to the late
Representative Mansfield, Democrat,
of Texas, a member of the committe
who died Saturday.
Chairman Donbero said the hear
ing will open tomorrow. Witnesses
who had been scheduled to testify
today will be called at that time.
Pending before the committee Is a
bill. Identical with one introduced
in the Senate, that would authorize
construction of the half-billion dol
lar international development and
make it pay for itself through tolls.
The first two witnesses scheduled
to go before the House committee
are Lt. Gen. R. A. Wheeler, chief of
Army Engineers, and Julius H.
Barnes, president of the National
St. Lawrence Association. Both sup
ported the project before the Sen
ate committee.
The hearing is expected to extend
through the week with proponents
and opponents being heard on al
ternate days. ,
Mr. Dondero. conceding “little
possibility” of the bill being acted
upon by the House during the pres
ent session of Congress, said never
theless the current hearings would
“save time” when Congress recon
venes in January.
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SUBURBAN HEIGHTS
m~ OI ~P7T~ZS^T~L~TTTm
By Harold L. Ickes
In mine-like seclusion, with the
newspapers barred, and all leaks
plugged, John L. Lewis and the big
coal operators met with Herbert
Hoover, tnen
Secretary of
Commerce, some
25 years ago in
a New York ho
tel to do two
things — settle
the annual coal
strike and cure,
if possible, the
recurrent ills of
the sick coal in
dustry. They de
cided that there
were three
things wrong
nrifK inHiic.
try: Too many h**®1* Ick*»
mines, too many miners, and wages
that were too low.
The formula that was evolved 25
years ago is the same that Mr.
Lewis adhered to in negotiating his
latest contract with the coal opera
tors, although the shape of the
world has changed considerably
since then. The formula is a simple
one. Just pay the miners so high
a wage that the mines with high
production costs would be forced to
close down, and as the mines closed
down fewer miners would be needed
so the number would be reduced.
The very simplicity of the scheme
endeared it to Mr. Lewis and he has
based his strategy upon it again
and again, but this year has been
the first time he has been able to
put his original formula into effect.
The first time that it was tried, 25
years ago, the Southern coal oper
ators double-crossed Lewis by pay
ing less man me nign wage agieeu
upon.
Miners Were Weak In South.
Since the United Mine Workers
were weak in the South, Mr. Lewis
was forced to beat a temporary re
treat. Not until the day that the
Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor did
Mr. Lewis achieve a labor monopoly
over the whole coal industry, and
thus reach a position where he
could enforce his demands.
Despite this, however, the fruits
of his monopoly were denied to Mr.
Lewis during the war years when
Government regulations curbed his
power.
Now. in 1947, with governmental
controls ended and with an even
more complete monopoly over coal
labor. Mr. Lewis felt that- he was
in a position to realize on the plan
that was hatched at the secret con
ference of 25 years ago. Results
have demonstrated that he was
right.
Incidentally, the available reports
of the conference of 25 years ago
and the evidence produced during
the years since give little indication
that the cold brutality of the plan
made it any less palatable to Mr.
Lewis. As a matter of fact, he has
never been squeamish about cold
brutality. In any event, there can
be no doubt that the plan of 25
years ago was a brutal one, for,
if it had been effective at that
time, it would have thrown 200,000
miners out of work and left them
and their families to shift for them
selves. ;
*369
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V
at OF The MY5ltRlf6 OF LIFE fo FRED pfRliY 6
IN DRY SUNNY WEATHER HE CAN'T 60 INTO THE COAT ClOSEl*
. WtfHOUT 1RIPPIN6 OYER UMBRELLAS -MS OWN, OR THE ONE HE BORROWED
M1HE OFFICE, OR HI5 WlFt'5, OR SOME HE HAS NEVER SEEN BEFORE; BUT
COME A RAINY DAY, AND THERE'S NOT AN UMBRELLA 1b BE
TO0ND IN The HOUSE <suw*
n»n«« » — tf—w. «-■» 7->4-4-7 tU
Man to Main
‘Brutal’ Formula of 25 Years Ago
Held Basis of New Lewis Contract
Nor was there any provision made
to take care of the coal operators
who would have gone broke and
have been forced out of business had
the plan succeeded. When it serves
his purposes, Mr. Lewis can endure
without a pang even the suffering
of the mine workers themselves.
The net effect of the present con
tract and the ones that it will beget
will be precisely the same as that
planned for 1922. Scores of high
cost mines will have to close and
thousands of miners will be forced
into other fields of endeavor—or so
Mr. Lewis thinks.
Coal Is Not King of Economy.
portant fact that coal is not king of
the American economy by govern
mental decree or by divine right.
For all of his supposed grasp of
hard realities, Mr. Lewis has listened
to so many stories about his
strangle-hold upon the throat of
American economy that he has ap
parently forgotten that coal is the
driving force of our economy be
cause it has been cheap. The wheels
of American industry are driven by
coal because industrial America has
found it cheaper and more profit
able to run them by coal than by
any other means.
The principal item in the cost
of coal is wages. The miners will
now get approximately $2 for each
hour spent actually mining coal.
When Mr. Lewis gets the price of
coal too high for industry to
stomach, it will turn elsewhere. To
illustrate, a sharp increase in the
price of steel, resulting from the
higher cost of coal, will mean that
the automobile makers of America
will begin to cast their eyes on
aluminum for making car bodies.
There are other industries, including
the railroads, where a sharp increase
in the price of coal will lead tc
coal pricing Itself out of the present
market and John L. Lewis’ miners
will find that he has priced them
out of jobs.
There is a very real danger that
Mr. Lewis has over-reached himsell
and placed in jeopardy the jobs
of more than a few thousands ol
his followers, and more than the
coal mines of the high-cost .pro
ducers. He may have placed the
entire coal industry in Jeopardy.
(Copyright, 1947)
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McLemore—
Recalls 'Vacations'
As Child on Farm
By Henry McLemore
With the coming of summer my
heart goes out to the thousands
upon thousands of children who
have been or will be shipped to
spend their sum
mer vacations . .....
delivered to customers who, it
seemed to me as I swung down the
hot, dusty clay roads, never lived
closer than the next county? What
had they done for some one to mow
the lawn, feed the chickens, chop
the wood for the kitchen range,
run to the store, shell the peas and
peanuts, and dry and put away the
dishes?
Picked Walnut Meat.
But the omeri^t job I ever had
was cracking and picking out the
meats of black walnuts. I spent one
entire summer at this, some one
having given an aunt of mine what
must have been half of the black
walnuts in existence at the time.
I had to crack them with bricks,
and pick out the meats with hair
pins, and hairpins do not have the
stamina to uproot black walnut
meats from their moorings.
I still wonder what my aunt and
uncle ever did with all the black
walnut meats I picked. They must
have used them to build a new barn
or an addition on the house, be
cause there never has been enough
candy and cakes made to use them
all up.
mere were all sorts of rewards
heaped on me for doing my chores
so well. One was to allow me to
sleep as late as 5 in the mornings
in a room with two or three cousins
I didn’t get along with very well.
I remember one uncle who said I
was such a help that he almost had
a mind to let me learn to plow.
“Then you’ll be a real little man,”
he said. He didn’t seem to realize
that I didn’t want to be a “real
little man”—that I was a child and
wanted to be treated as a child.
Maybe it was good for me. but
I’ll tell you I wouldn’t want to go
through with those summers again.
I’d rather do without roses in my
cheeks if I have to put cricks in
my back to get ’em.
(Distributed by McNaught Syndicate, Inc.)
FEEL
BETTER
After Fir at
T reatment
OR NO
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with aunts,
uncles and
grandparents.
What a build
up the young
sters are given
before they are
gotten rid of,
especially those
who have been
sentenced to
visit on farms
for two or three
months. How
well do I know,
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because during n«n*r M««m«p«,
the years I was growing up I was
doomed to many such summer
treats.
Well do I remember the parental
conversations which led to my be
ing sent from a hot place in Georgia
to a hotter place in Georgia.
“Henry is looking a little peaked
this summer, don’t you think? I
think it would do him a world of
good to go to sister’s for the sum
"I certainly do. Write her today
and ask her If she would be willing
to take him for a while. Be sure
to tell her he has grown quite a
bit since she saw him last, and he
will be a real little help to her
around the place.”
Welcomed by Aunt.
In a week or so a letter would
come back saying what I dreaded it
would say—that I’d be welcome, and
that every one was sure that the
country air, the milk and the fresh
vegetables would have the roses
back in my cheeks in no time.
After my first such vacation I
never was under any illusions as to
the fate that awaited me. For a
day or two I would be made over
quite a bit, and shown around the
place. Then I would be shown what
to do around the place. By the end
of 10 days I used to wonder who
did things around the farm before
I got there.
Until I came for my “vacation,”
how did the eggs ever get gathered,
the setting hens taken off the nest,
the butter churned, and the butter
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