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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, July 25, 1947, Image 8

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With Sunday Morning Edition.
Published by
The Evening Star Newspaper Company.
FRANK B. NOYES, President.
B. M. McKELWAY, Editor.
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A—* FRIDAY, July 25, 1947
Removing a Source of Friction
Congress has sent to the President a
measure which will correct an inequity of
long standing and remove an annual
source of friction between the municipal
and Interior Department authorities. The
measure provides for annual reimburse
ment to the District of funds spent on the
United States Park Police.
The Park Police were authorized in 1882
in an act which placed them “under the
exclusive charge and control of the director
of the National Park Service.” At that
time the Federal Government was splitting
all local expenses fifty-fifty with the Dis
trict government. But while the Federal
share has been reduced through the years
(It is something over 11 per cent this
year) the cost of the Park Police, propor
tionately and in total amount, has
Source of greatest friction, however, has
.been that while the people of the District
furnished most of the money for the Park
Police the control remained exclusively
with the Interior Department. A few
years ago Congress approved a bill merging
the Park Police with the Metropolitan
Police, hoping to remedy the matter in
that fashion. The President vetoed it.
The arrangement just approved, however,
is not expected to run into any opposition
from the Interior Department. The tend
ency there, as a matter of fact, is to favor
It. The Park Service has consistently held
out for its own Park Police. It has never
made any objection, however, to paying
for it.
.This move by Congress is in line with a
changing attitude toward the District,
with increasing disposition to clear up
continuing sources of controversy. Some
very able men in Congress are taking an
active interest in District affairs, with
the result that everybody is getting a
better deal all around. This year the
House Appropriations Committee reiter
ated a previous xaquest j to thg Com
thlssioriers to prepare * legislation for
transfer of the expenses for the National
Zoo to the Federal Government. “* • • It
is the opinion of the committee,” the
report said, “that the financial responsi
bility for the maintenance and improve
ment of this parti is a responsibility of
the Federal Government and should not
be a burden upon the taxpayers of the
District of Columbia.”
The Commissioners no doubt will take
ftHl advantage of the Appropriations
Committee’s invitation to get busy.
Russia and Japan
• Nothing could be less surprising than
Russia’s rejection of our proposal for an
early eleven-nation conference to begin
work on a peace treaty for Japan. Nor
could anything be clearer than the fact
that this ought not to be allowed to stymie
action. The United States and the other
members of the Far Eastern Commission
willing to co-operate have every reason to
undertake the task—without Soviet par
ticipation—at the earliest possible moment.
Under our proposal, the commission’s
members would meet next month, or soon
thereafter, to initiate the drafting process
and to hear the views of all other countries
at war with Japan. This would then be
followed by a general conference for final
action. The Council of Foreign Ministers
would have nothing to do with the pro
cedure. There would be no veto. Decisions
would become effective on the basis of an
affirmative two-thirds vote. In short,
the peacemaking in Asia would not be
bedeviled as it has been in Europe by the
power of one nation to block progress
•imply by saying “no.”
In refusing to go along with this plan,
the Russians have accused our State
Department of acting in a “unilateral”
manner in proposing it. Moreover, they
have cited a number of agreements—
notably the Potsdam agreement—in an
effort to show that we are obligated to
use the veto-laden mechanism of the
Foreign Ministers’ Council in dealing with
Japan. But the Potsdam text contains
no such specific obligation, though Mos
cow’s hair-splitters undoubtedly can draw
up lengthy briefs arguing that it is implied.
Whatever they may contend, however, the
fact is that we have not committed our
selves to paralysis or to the kind of frustra
tion encountered in drafting the European
settlements—a frustration caused solely by
Soviet delaying tactics and deliberate
Soviet obstructionism.
Tt 4 m Wanea fhe Pnccionc flnH fhis
obstructionism to their interest that they
have rejected the vetoless procedure pro
posed for the Japanese peacemaking.
They can be answered effectively in only
one way: The United States, Britain,
China, Australia and the other members of
the Far Eastern Commission must refuse
to be forced to do nothing simply because
Moscow wants nothing done or insists upon
having things done in its own way. They
must go ahead with the settlement without
the Soviet Union if the Soviet Union will
not co-operate. Certainly, it is far better
to do something without the Russians than
to do nothing with them. TJie western
nations are following that procedure now
in drawing up a plan for European recov
ery. The same course can be followed as
'regards a treaty for Japan. To be sure,
guch separate action must be less satis
factory than action by all the powers to
4 (
gether, but a reasonably effective settle
ment ought to be possible with it.
Japan has its own government; it is
practically disarmed; it is*not cut up into
separate occupation zones. These and
other favorable factors make the problem
of writing a peace for it much less difficult
than the problem of the European settle
ments. The members of the Far Eastern
Commission, whether Russia holds out or
not, should begin acting on the matter
without delay. They cannot let themselves
be paralyzed any longer by Soviet nay
saying without doing violence to common
sense and hurting their own best interests.
The 'Real Truth'
Charging Bulgaria, Albania and Yugo
slavia with being menaces to international
peace, Herschel V. Johnson, deputy United
States delegate to the Security Council,
said that if the “real truth” could be dis
cussed in the Council these Balkan nations
would And themselves in a difficult
That this is correct, as far as it goes,
is hardly open to dispute. But if the dele
gates felt free to speak the truth, the
whole truth and nothing but the truth in
the Security Council, their indictment
would not be conAned to these satellite
No one believes, least ox all Mr. Jonnson,
that the governments of Bulgaria, Albania
and Yugoslavia are free agents, framing
and executing their own policies. If they
are a menace to international peace it is
because the larger menace of the Soviet
government stands behind them, calling
the signals for the moves that are in
tended, not to promote peace, but to make
peace in any real sense of the word im
possible of attainment.
Of course, Mr. Johnson knows this, and
so do the other delegates. Yet for reasons
which they consider valid, and which may
be valid, they do not feel that at this time
they can go the whole way in calling a
spade a spade. It is significant, however,
that diplomatic niceties are being dis
pensed with in talking to the Russian
satellites. This is an important step
toward open discussion of the “real truth”
of what is wrong in the world today.
And it may be that the pressure of events
will drive the delegates the rest of the way
—to the point where they will come right
out and say that the real menace to inter
national peace is not only the attitude of
the satellite countries, but, more im
portantly, the attitude of the Soviet gov
ernment, acting through its satellites.
This might prove to be the straw that
would break the back of the faltering
efforts at Lake Success to find a formula
for living in harmony with the Russians.
But those efforts have already reached a
point where it seems almost fatuous to
hope that anything constructive will come
out of them.
Miss Nicoloy's Gift
Occurring on the eve of the opening of
the Robert Todd Lincoln deposit to
morrow, the presentation of the papers
of John G. Nicolay by his daughter repre
sents an enrichment of the Library of
CjAigress whose value and importance
conceivably might be missed. Public in
terest In the event yet to come could result
in neglect of what well may prove to have
been an Incident of at least equal
Miss Nicolay has given her country the
documentary estate of her father. He was
a newspaper man who was appointed
Abraham Lincoln’s private secretary when
the Railsplitter was nominated for the
presidency and who subsequently in associ
ation with his lifelong friend, John Hay,
wrote the official biography of the Emanci
pator. Ten years of labor went into the
manuscript, but before the composition
was started, Mr. Nicolay spent six years
accumulating material and studying it.
The Robert Todd Lincoln collection passed
through his hands page by page—and was
used by him copiously.
But his own data were as precious as
anything obtained from the President’s
son. Mr. Nicolay had preserved his notes
of Lincoln’s conferences with his cabinet
officers, military personnel, diplomats and
other eminent characters. He also had
saved his records of Lincoln’s comments
on public policy, Army and Navy opera
tions, partisan activity, journalism. To
these reports he added many letters to
and about Lincoln, transcripts of Lincoln’s
speeches and correspondence, various
diaries, clippings, etc. Now by courtesy
of his daughter, herself the author of
“Personal Traits of Abraham Lincoln” and
many other books, the whole accumula
tion is joined to similar files which once
belonged to Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S.
Grant, Salmon P. Chase, Caleb B. Smith,
Edwin M. Stanton, Gideon Wells, George
B. McClellan, Benjamin F. Butler, Philip
H. Sheridan, Fitz John Porter, Horace
Greeley and Lyman Trumbull.
From each of these many sources have
been derived the threads of the vast over
all fabric of Lincoln's story which is
certain to be produced again and again
as the decades wax and wane. The Library
of Congress is the proper place for the
treasuring of such materials. Miss Nico
lay’s share in the development of the
national thesaurus is notable as well as
Samuel G. Blythe
For more than half a century the byline
of Samuel G. Blythe was a familiar symbol
of American news writing at its best.
His chosen field was that of politics, and
none of his contemporaries was more
intimately acquainted with its ramifica
tions, its characters, its effects. Between
1886, when he joined the staff of the
Rochester Democrat and Chronicle, and
1940, when at last he retired, he knew
every President and practically every other
important figure on the Government side
of the American scene. His reporting was
factual, his interpretations scrupulously
objective. Yet his work did not lack
warmth and sympathy. He wrote with a
frankly vital concern for people as human
beings. Mere statistics meant little to
him. What he wanted to discover—and
then reveal—was the story behind the
surface, the spirit within the event.
Especially as Washington correspondent
for the Saturday Evening Post from 1907
onward, Mr. Blythe “covered” the political
evolution of the United States. Historians
decades hence will find in his articles the
data they will need for Judging the era
to which he belonged. He took himself
seriously and the fruits of his labors there
fore have permanent worth. But he was
not painfully solemn, never pretentiously
pontifical. His sense of humor "was keen,
he frequently dealt with his material
with an unconcealed smile. The “in
tellectual acrobatics” of certain aspirants
for high office amused him, and he did
not hide his reaction from his readers.
Perhaps at heart Mr. Blythe specialized
in politics because he was by nature a
philosopher. There was a kinship between
him and the David Grayson of Ray Stan
nard Baker. Conceivably, they inspired
each other. In any case, the author of
“A Calm Review of a Calm Man”—to which
President Harding allegedly was listening
at the moment of his death—was himself
placid, tolerant, liberal of instinct, courte
ous in manner, kindly in temperament.
Such men nflay be out of place in cross
times, but if so it is a pity. They are
needed, they do not live in vain, they
should be remembered with gratitude and
doubtless they will be.
The Senate's Visitor
There seems to be some doubt whether
President Truman’s surprise visit to the
Senate was unprecedented, or whether
George Washington paid a similar call on
the legislators on a hot August day back
in 1789. , But if Mr. Truman is the first
to break down the unwritten rule that a
President must avoid the Senate floor as
a burned child avoids the fire, he has
achieved something for which he merits
a figurative pat on the back.
After all, why should not the President—
especially when he has been a Senator
himself—drop in on the Senate from time
to time for a friendly visit? Surely that
is not going to break down our form of
government or wipe out the constitutional
distinction between the executive and
legislative branches. Yet, giving George
Washington the benefit of the doubt, it
had not been done for 158 years until Mr.
Truman called on his former colleagues
I tVlio ItTAftlr
This is not an incident from which one
can distill any significant conclusions. It
does not herald the dawn of a new day
in the relationship between President and
Senate. Nor does it mean that party lines
have been broken or party divisions closed.
The President is still a Democratic Pres
ident and the Senate is still securely in
control of the Republicans.
All that this incident signifies is that
our President and Senators are human
beings. Sometimes we tend to forget this.
Upon occasion, or so it seems, we expect
of our high officials a perfection of per
formance that could come only from
supermen. So it is a good and wholesome
thing to be reminded that they are pretty
much like the rest of us, to know that the
President of the United States, with all
of the cares and responsibilities of that
office, can yearn for his old associates and
find time to drop in for a visit with them.
Scientists have discovered that diisobu
tylphenoxyethoxyethyldimethylbenzylam -
monium chloride will cure a turkey disease
known as enterchepatitis of poults. Pro
vided, presumably, that some way can be
found of'stuffing all that into the mouth
of the enterchepatitic poult.
A Japanese statesman recently an
nounced that the aims of Japan and Amer
ica now are identical. But only because
our aim in the war was better.
The House of Representatives was told
that the United States is fighting with
dollars, not men. “Buck” privates, so to
This and That
By Charles E. Tracewell.
Early fall?
We would judge so, from the appearance In
our own yard of the Carolina wren several
weeks in advance of his usual time.
In most seasons, for some reason or other,
this largest of the wrens comes about August 15.
This year he shows up in July, and so may be
the first sign of autumn.
After all, fall is not so far off. It won’t be
long now before it becomes plain to every one.
In the meantime, no doubt the Carolina wren
senses the fact alar.
He smells autumn, he throws his high syl
lables far and wide and over the neighborhood
he bounces through the air with the greatest
of ease.
This is his way of saying, “Watch out, fro6t
will be here before you know it.”
* * * *
This big wren is as pert as the smaller mem
bers of his family.
He stays hereabouts all year, but has a way of
coming to certain places only at certain times
of the year. Ours is mid-August.
He has what has been called a pin-wheel or
whirligig sort of tune.
Hie impression it makes is that of something
going around and around.
This bird ordinarily will not come to feeding
stations, but something may be done to lure
him by putting out the usual fare, including
seeds, grain, raisins, etc.
Some enthusiasts have tried supplying him
with meal worms, but these vanish quickly in
the outdoors, owing to the heat—as well as the
“heat” put on them by the other birds.
Meal worms, growing best in old flour, tend
to wither in the air. They are favorite live food
of certain birds, including the wrens, and all
the tropical fishes kept in aquariums.
Even little guppies love meal worms, if they
are broken into pieces.
Speaking of bird photographs, here is an idea
for the ambitious photographer!
Take a photo of a bird standing on the glass
cover lid of -an aquarium, looking down into
the water at the swimmers below.
This would be a shot for the books.
Such a photograph would not require half
the patience of getting a cat to pose on top of
the tank.
Rnth rtf these wnnlri make heantiful. inter
esting and appealing photographs, but as far
as we know they have never been taken.
Patience is required, of course, but either shot
might be done in the full sunlight by an open
window. Or flash bulb, of course, would permit
them to be taken any time.
The Carolina wren ordinarily is not a poser,
but he is pleasant to have in a neighborhood.
This onejs large only for a wren, about an
inch longer than the house wren, but with an
equally appealing and pert tail.
What would wrens be without those tails?
The animal tail is one of the most expressive
features. It shows wrath, satisfaction, and
above all seems to balance the animal. This
sense of balance is important both to the
creature and to the observer.
The Carolina wren is not more “Carolina"
than Maryland or Virginia or District of Colum
bia. Just because he had that name hitched
onto him long ago means very little nowadays.
He is still the same fine creature, wherever
we And him, blithely moving around the sub
urban tracts, sending his fine voice far and
wide, announcing his satisfaction with life.
If a human were to make such a noise, it
would be called shrill, but the vocal abilities of
birds is such that seldom is their highest pitch
called so; their voices seem to fit in perfectly
with the outdoors, bringing a sense of—what
shell we call it?—balance, again.
Juries and Traffic Deaths
They Seldom Convict, Even for ‘Negligent Homicide’;
Reasons for Leniency Differ With Points of View
By William A. Millen
wasnmgton omciais administering me iz
year-old Negligent Homicide Act give a vari
ety of reasons why more automobile drivers
are not convicted under this law, dealing
with traffic deaths.
One official thinks a campaign of education
should be undertaken; another believes the
caliber of jurors should be improved, while
others say there is nothing wrong with the
law and it is purely a question of fact for the
The Negligent Homicide Act was passed
June 17, 1935. It was designed to create a
traffic charge between reckless driving and
the more serious crime of manslaughter.
Juries had been loath to convict drivers for
manslaughter in traffic cases. So the less severe
Negligent Homicide Act was decided upon.
This law provides: “Any person who, by the
operation of any vehicle at an immoderate
rate of speed or in a careless, reckless or negli
gent maimer, but not wilfully or wantonly, shall
cause the death of another, shall be guilty of a
misdemeanor and shall be punished by impris
onment for not more than one year or by a fine
of not more than $1,000 or both.”
Few«r Convictions Than Acquittals.
Municipal Court Judge Ellen K. Raedy says
of the application of this act: "It is purely a
question of fact for the jury, just as it is in a
murder case. There seem to be fewer convic
tions than acquittals under it. The only thing
the judge can do is to give proper legal instruc
tions to the jury.”
Judge Armond W. Scott of that tribunal
thinks the jurors are to blame. He said: "It
is up to the juries. Something ought to be
done about the American Jury system. The
Jury Commission here has the say about jurors.
They ought to be sifted. A better selection
should be made to get a better type of juror.
“We want to get the business and professional
man who is ordinarily too busy to serve on a
Jury. That is the type we want. We don’t
want the man or woman who is coming down
merely to get the $4 a day paid for jury service.
I sit on the bench with disgust and see juries
acquit defendants in driving while drunk and
negligent homicide cases.”
Judge Nathan B. Margold, who has been
sitting recently in the jury branch of Municipal
Court, considering, among others, negligent
homicide cases, takes this view:
“There is nothing wrong with the negligent
homicide law. Sometimes, the jury does not go
according to the evidence. The statute is com
plicated as it stands, but the judge can make
the jurors understand it clearly by explaining
the law properly. The law was framed to dis
tinguish it from manslaughter.
“I haven’t had any cases where I differed
with the jury. Every case stands on its own
bottom. To convict a driver, he must be at
fault, one way or another. Just because a
person is killed and it is not the fault of the
driver, he should not be punished for a crime.
It is the view of the jury on the facts and not
any trouble with the present law that results
in acquittals. I have sat on quite a few negli
gent homicide cases and gotten a number of
convictions. This type of case should be tried
as quickly as it can be presented for trial.”
Jurors Suspicious of “Homicide.”
George E. Keneipp, Director of Vehicles and
Traffic, believes the word “homicide” in the law
scares juries. “Manslaughter” also frightens
them, he thinks. He declared: “We are power
less to take away a permit where there are
acquittals in driving while drunk and negligent
homicide cases.”
Assistant United States Attorney John B.
Diamond III, in charge of the District At
torney’s office at Municipal Court, says: “My
theory is the entire population is not sufficiently
traffic conscious. As a result, the juries can
not appreciate the seriousness of traffic acci
dents, where defendants are charged with run
ning over and killing somebody.
“Negligent homicide and involuntary man
slaughter are the mo6t serious of all the traffic
violations, because they involve death. How
ever, the courts, prosecutors and police are
complaining they cannot get verdicts against
these drivers, as a general rule. We are start
ing at the top instead of the bottom. There
should be a campaign of education. The popu
lation of Washington should be educated on
the traffic regulations, such as is done in De
troit, precinct by precinct. After a sufficient
educational program, the courts should make
violators realize the seriousness of their crimes.
“Such crimes as exceeding the speed limit,
Few Are Punished
In Traffic Fatalities
Here is the disposition of traffic fatali
ties for the past three fiscal years as shown
by statistics compiled by the District De
partment of Vehicles and Traffic:
Department of Vehicles
and Traffic: 1945. 1946. 1947.
Total traffic deaths... 84 81 78
Coroner’s jury action:
Accidental . 58 59 52
Held for negligent homi
cide . 15 15 12
Held for grand jury.... 8 7 11
Hit and run. 3 0 2
Grand jury action:
Ignored - 2 0 0
Indicted for manslaugh
ter . 1 1 2
Changed to negligent
homicide . 0 6 6
Pending . 5 0 3
District Court action
(manslaughter cases):
Guilty, sentence pending 110
Sentenced, 3 months- 0 10
Sentenced 4 months to
year and a day. 0 10
1 Sentenced 9 months- 0 10
Sentenced 11 months... 0 10
Sentenced 1 year- 0 10
Sentenced 20 months to
. 5 years . 0 0 1
Defendant died before
trial ...'. 0 0 1
Police Court action (negli
gent homicide):
Not guilty . 6 4 6
No papers.-.— 110
Nol-prossed ..— 7 9 4
Pending .. 12 4
Sentenced 90 days. 0 0 2
Sentenced 180 days and
$350 fine, but placed on
probation and time
sentence suspended,
but fine paid.. 0 0 1
Sentenced, fined $350... 0 0 1
driving while drunk, driving on the wrong
side of the street, leaving after colliding should
be dealt with severely, as should, of course,
those involving death.
“My feeling is that the average motorist
here does not appreciate the seriousness of
traffic offenses. He is allowed to go to the
precinct and post collateral, often a nominal
amount. If he were made to come down to
court, wait around and be inconvenienced, he
would realize the seriousness of his offense
and hesitate to repeat it.
Sees Lack of Public Education.
“Half the time, there is not an immediate
death in a negligent homicide case. The
injured person is taken to the hospital and
subsequently dies. The driver is held for the
action of the coroner’s jury. That jury can
find: (1) accidental death; (2) hold the driver
for the action of the grand jury, which can
indict for manslaughter, or (3) hold him for
the action of the criminal division of Municipal
Court, where a negligent homicide charge is
“It is not the fault of the Police Department
or the courts or the jury system under present
circumstances. The peogla are not properly
educated as to the seriousness of the situation.
If the general public is properly educated and
observes the traffic laws, we will not have
Inspector Arthur E. Miller, Police Depart
ment, in charge of traffic, said the Negligent
Homicide Act, copied from a Michigan law,
does not seem to be more successful than
involuntary manslaughter in traffic cases.
"The judges instruct the Jurors that if the
deceased contributed in any way to his death,
the Jury cannot hold the accused,” he said.
“This seems to be a stumbling block for juries.
The juries seem to be in sympathy with the
driver. Where a driver has been indicted
for manslaughter, some lawyers are willing to
plead the client guilty to negligent homicide,
a lesser offense. Even though the grand jury
ignores a case for manslaughter, we can still
hold a driver for negligent homicide, if the
District Attorney's office gives us the necessary
“It is a mystery why the Juries do not con
vict more.”
Letters to The Star
Temporary Employes’ Qualified
To the Editor of The Star:
I wish to take an exception to your recent
editorial “Personal Patronage” as it refers to
temporary Government employes. It is evident
that your editorial writer holds the same false
assumption as many entrenched permanent
status workers. Their connotation of the term
“career employe” is a Government worker ap
pointed before February, 1942, as few perman
ent status positions have been filled (except
10 point preference veterans) since that date.
Isn’t your writer implying that no one has
entered the Government service recently who is
sincerely interested in making his public Job
a life’s career?
If the available vacancies in any one agency
are filled by transferees from other depart
ments, as you propose, even though the dis
missed temporary employes are highly qualified,
what opportunities are there in governmental
service for the post-1942 worker and the re
cently discharged veteran?
If “personal patronage” is your charge now,
what assurance do you claim that will prevent
the interagency transfer of individuals qualified
only by right of appropriate grade-level and
that unimpeachable, permanent status?
Many, many temporary employes are now
qualified on Civil Service registers by virtue of
successful examinations (even though your
editorial hints that no temporary employes have
ever taken them) and find that nothing is being
done to convert their status, and probably will
not be until all of the “career” employes are
well settled. P- M. P.
Proportional Tax Reduction
To the Editor of The Star:
With reference to the data quoted by David
Lawrence in his column of July 21, it should
be pointed out that the increase of 1946 taxes
over those of 1939 and not the total tax paid
in 1946 should be the basis for comparing the
reductions given to the various income groups.
Elementary calculations «taow that the vetoed
tax bill would give a reduction to the $2,500
group which is 29 per cent of the increase of
the 1946 tax over the 1939 tax. For the $100,000
group, however, the reduction would be 41 per
cent! ,
This means that the $100,000 group would be
about 0.4 of the way back to 1939 levels when
the $2,500 group is only 0.3 of the way. Obvi
ously, the $100,000 group is going to reach the
1939 level much sooner than the $2,500 group If
additional reductions are made using the same
A Just procedure, cm the other hand, would
give to each group reductions which are the
fraction of the Increase of 1946 taxes
over 1939. If this fraction is 39 per cent, the
percentages of total tax paid in 1946 would be
Letters for publication must bear
the signature and address of the
writer, although it is permissible for a
writer known to The Star to use a
nom de plume. Please be brief.
29 per cent and 14 per cent for the $2,500 and
$100,000 groups, respectively. This is to be
compared with 29 per cent and 19 per cent in
the vetoed bill. R- F. W.
CIO History Recalled
To the Editor of The Ster:
Bernard Phillips’ letter of July 19 disagrees
with statements made by Fletcher Pope that:
"Mr. Wallace. Senator Pepper, Mr. Reuther,
Mr. Bridges and John L. Lewis, et al.” are
giving "aid and comfort” to the enemies of
America, and Mr. Phillips carefully excludes
Mr. Reuther and Mr. Lewis from such unhappy
Past records, however, show that: "In the
early days of the New Deal, when the Old
Guard in the AFL was turning its back on the
opportunity of organizing millions of unskilled
workers in industry-wide unions, Dublnsky
joined John L. Lewis in creating the commit
tee that later became the Congress of Indus
trial Organizations: but when Mr. Lewis made
partners with the Communists and hired hun
dreds of their panting young organizers to go
out and corral the unorganized, Dublnsky
warned him that the Communist Party with its
swollen power would try to capture the CIO.”
Perhaps Mr. Pope might have reference to
some of these past performances.
On Helping Ourselves
To the Editor of The Ster:
On July 15, The Star published an address
by Secretary of State Marshall concerning
the re-establishment of peace in the world.
The Secretary said that the aid granted our
friends in Europe would affect the lives and
fortunes of people in every State of the Union.
All Americans want to aid the people in the
Old World, and too, there are folks at home
that want help also.
For example: The residents of the City of
Washington should be aided by the right to
vote in national and local elections. The
pi«in people of some States should be helped
by the abolition of the poll tax. And the
Hawaiian Islands and Alaska should be granted
Then, with clean hands, the United States
could show an example of a peaceful democracy
to the Old World nations.
Stars, Men and Atoms
Astronomers Discover
Densest Milky Way Spot
Nucleus of Whole Stellar System
Believed Discovered
By Thomas R. Henry
A part of the Milky Way galaxy where stars
are 30 times thicker than anywhere else in
the vast aggregation of more than 30,000*000,
000 celestial objects has been found by astron
omers of the Carnegie Institution of WtUShT
This is almost certainly, concludes Dr. Waiter
Baade of the Mount Wilson Observatory staff,
the nucleus of the stellar system of which ff>V
sun and its plants form an inAnitesm$t&
minute part. It is approximately 19,000,000,000.
000,000 miles from the earth in the great cloud
of stars which surrounds the constellation of
It long has been assumed that the hub of
this part of the universe must be in this
neighborhood, but it has been impossible to
verify the hypothesis because it is hidden be
hind one of the black clouds of star dust
which obscure some sections of the Milky
Way and which always will be impenetrable
with any telescope. Dr. Baade has made a
systematic search for variable stars, objects
which fluctuate in brightness at regular inter
vals, in the Sagittarius star cloud.
30 Times More Abundant.
He found that they were at least 30 times
more abundant than the average for the
Milky Way. Since they exist in a fairly con
stant proportion to other stars, they give ait
least a rough approximation of the density
of an area. Even more significant is the fact
that the great majority of the variables are of
the cluster type, which ordinarily constitutes
only a negligible percentage of the fluctuating
stars found in other sections
The finding tends to confirm the picture of
the Milky Way galaxy which astronomers have
deduced from the appearance of other star
aggregations of approximately equal size
across such gulfs of empty space that light
moving at 200,000 miles a second require#
hundreds of thousands of years to cross them.
This galaxy is only one among many million#
of these, scattered to the farthest reach*
of space far beyond the scope of any telescop#,
Andromeda Is Cited.
One of the nearest—and the first discovered
about 25 years ago—is the great nebula of'
Andromeda. Its appearance on photographic
plates is that of a gigantic pin-wheel. It cart
be deduced that this is about the way the
Milky Way galaxy would look if viewed from
some planet in the Andromeda nebula. The
area of thickly packed stars found by Dr.
Baade would correspond to the hub of the pin
Admittedly, reports the Mount Wilson Observa
tory, the search is incomplete and it is diffi
cult to make too far-reaching deductions. The
search, however, is being continued and ap
pears to offer the only means of locating defi
nitely the heart of this great star system. The
sun and its planets are believed to lie fairly
near its rapidly rotating edge.
Questions and Answers
A reader can obtain the answer to any question
of fact by writing The Evening Star Information
Bureau. 318 I street N.E. Washington 2. D. C.
Please inclose three (3) cents for return postage.
Q. Are there more accidents in farming
than in other industry?—H. P.
A. The occupational death total in agricul
ture is the largest of any major industry. How
ever, it ranks fourth among the six major
industry groups in death rates.
Q. What city is known by the nickname
“The Western Capital”?—J. W. G.
A. Denver, Colo., which claims to rank next
to Washington, D. C., in the number of Federal
Government offices. In 1945, there were in
Denver four large Federal buildings housing
over 84 Federal units. Others were quartered
in downtown office buildings.
Q. Why is the temperature of birds so high?
—L. W. A. ^
A. The temperature of birds is the highest
of all vertebrates, and hence of all animals. It
is 2 to 14 degrees higher than that of
mammals. The reason is the greater efficiency
of the bird’s physical processes, associated with
flight. A bird uses up its energy faster and
lives at a higher tempo.
Q. Was the poem “The New Colossus” writ
ten by Emma Lazarus especially to be inscribed
upon the Statue of Liberty?—L. D.
A. The poem was written in December, 1883,
for the portfolio of the art loan collection in
order to aid the pedestal fund. It was placed
on a tablet in the pedestal of the statue by
friinds ot Miss Lazarus in 1908.
Q. By whom are generals appointed?—r. r.
A. The War Department says that the Presi
dent nominates for appointment all general
officers above the rank of colonel. Such nomi
nations must be confirmed by the Senate.
Below the rank of brigadier general the pro
motions are automatic, being based on merit.
q. what famous English literary men were
born in India?—C. P. E.
A. Three outstanding writers bom in India
are Thackeray, Kipling and Eden Phlllpctt*.
Thackeray, whose father was employed by ttys
East India Company, lived in India until Jm
was 6. *ri -
- .iac'
Q. Which is the most popular opera ever
written by an American?—M. C. R.
A. “The King’s Henchmen,” by Deems Taylor,
is considered to be the most successful of
American operas by many critics.
Q. Is it possible to grow four-leaved clpver
plants?—E. S. D.
A. Scientists of the Department of Agricul
ture believe that to grow four-leaflet leaves
exclusively is difficult, if not Impossible. It ll
however, possible to plant cuttings froin |
plant which has many four-leaflet leaves ttd
thus produce a great many of them in a saftil
patch. _ rn T
q. Who appoints the Alaskan delegate. ,1#
Congress?—J. R. A.
A. Alaska is represented in the United Stitql
Congress by a delegate who sits in the Hedn
of Representatives but has no vote. The delft,
gate is elected by the people for a two-year
term. ’ 9 J
' * .
Q. Are English sparrows of any value?—A. O.
A. This unpopular bird has at least one good
trait in that it destroys weeds by eating great
amounts of the seeds. It has been estimated
in one State that English sparrows destroyed
some 875 tons of weed seed in one winter, in
the fanning section alone.
Each one brings with him to eartfy}
Some fixed kinships of his births—
Willing or unwilling, ovons
Patterns from preceding bones. ^
Blood whose type is set within ,,
Its periphery of skin.
Yet is each, life-wandering, t
Orphaned, half-remembering,
Hunting under noteless skies \
Features he would recognize,
Coming on quick hints and traced
In the most unlikely places—
So each seeks and each must find
Children, parents, of his mind—
Those in whom there rings out free
The clear voice of Identity:
These are kinfolk set apart
By election of the heart.
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