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With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON, D. C. Published by The Evening Star Newspaper Company. FRANK B. NOYES, President. B. M. McKELWAY, Editor, MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE: 110 East 42d St. CHICAGO OFFICE: 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier in All Areas Daily and Sunday Daily Only Sunday Only Monthly—1.20* Monthly 90c 10c per copy Weekly ...30c Weekly —20c 10c per copy •10c additional when 5 Sundays are in a. month. Also 10c additional for Night Final Edition in those sections where delivery is made. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United States. Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday 1 month ..1.50 1 month . 90c 1 month _ 60c A months . 7.50 6 months .5.00 6 months .3.00 1 yeor ...15.00 1 year —10.00 1 year ...6.00 Telephone NAtionol 5000. Entered at the Post Office, Washington, D. C., as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use for ropublication of oil tho local now* printed In tni* __ nil ▲ P newt disoatcheS. A—10 WEDNESDAY, September 10, J947 Toward a Metropolitan PUC Day by day and week by week the Pentagon bus fare battle becomes more complicated. The latest move in the free for-all is the Army’s appeal to the Inter state Commerce Commission for continu ance of the controversial Virginia-District bus transfer arrangement, which has brought the ICC into conflict with the District Public Utilities Commission and the Capital Transit Company. It all goes back to the wartime system by which the Capital Transit Company fur nished bus service to the Pentagon, as an emergency expedient. With the close of the war, the company obtained permission to discontinue the Virginia extension. But, at the insistence of the ICC and over the protest of the District PUC, Capital Transit was required by the ICC to enter into a special ticket agreement with two Virginia buslines. These tickets favor Pen tagon workers with rates below the lowest fares available to non-Pentagon customers. The PUC last June notified the Capital Transit Company that the ICC-sponsored joint ticket plan was, in its opinion, in valid for the reason that only the PUC has power to fix fares within the District. The company used this statement in support of a petition to the District Court for relief from the ICC order. The Secretary of War joined the ICC in resisting the court attempt to void the transfer plan. The case is yet to be heard. But that is not all. Last month the Virginia buslines peti tioned the ICC for permission to withdraw from their joint ticket arrangement with Capital Transit and the latter promptly joined in the application, it was in oppo sition to this joint petition of the bus companies that the War Department filed its protest yesterday. Thus the battle to decide the bus fare dispute and the respective jurisdictions of the ICC and PUC goes merrily on, with the outcome not likely to be known for some weeks, at the earliest. This is but one part of an over-ail problem that involves not only buses but taxicabs operating across the line into Maryland and Vir ginia. It becomes increasingly evident that the only hope for an end of these recurring jurisdictional disputes is the creation oy Federal-State-District compact of a public utilities commission for the whole Metro politan Area. It is to be hoped that the current squabbles will facilitate a move in that direction. London's Bear Market The London Stock Exchange is an •excel lent barometer of the economic “climate” in Britain. Its quotations certainly reflect the prevalent financial opinions of those who own or control money for investment in stocks and bonds. Furthermore, the London market is somewhat more inter national in character than Wall Street, owing to the number of traded items from various parts of the British Empire and certain other countries with heavy | British capital investments, such as Argentina. It is against this factual background that the performance of the London Stock Exchange in recent weeks should be eval uated. And that performance indicates profound pessimism on the part of the moneyed interests, great and small. The result has been a series of sharp market breaks, with recoveries which the “market wise” esteem as merely technical, due chiefly to covering of oversold accounts. The cumulative picture is that of a pro found slump, the market floundering in a sea of uncertainty and apprehension over the national and international outlook. A large majority of investors have ob viously made up their minds that they are confronted with a real “bear market” and that it is therefore high time to get out. This accounts for the recurrent waves of selling, much of it urgent though mingled with speculative factors. The British investment public not only takes a dark view of the country’s economic crisis, but is also highly skeptical of the Labor government’s ability to handle it. The “wildcat” strikes in the Yorkshire coal fields, with the government and the Labor hierarchy sidestepping drastic measures to halt them, produce a very bad impression in moneyed circles. Coal pro duction is absolutely vital, not only to Britain’s recovery, but likewise to avert a deepening of the current economic crisis into downright catastrophe. Yet the Labor government seems to have little to offer in the way of concrete and effective action. Financial and business pessimism is re flected in the virtual drying up of new capital offerings. These fell to the por tentous low of 3,250,000 sterling for the month of August, as against a total of 45,750,000 sterling for July. “The City” seems to be as irritatedly scornful of Foreign Secretary Bevin’s sug gestion that America’s Fort Knox gold hoard be redistributed as we are on this side of the Atlantic. Financial London was practically unanimous in deeming the proposal to be as useless for Britain and for Europe as was gold to King Midas in the mythological tale. Financial experts were quick to point out that what Britain .wants and needs is, not gold, but food and raw materials wherewith to increase ex ports. Their conclusion is that, even if tbe Amepjcan Government did take Mr. Bevin’s advice, the gold shipped to Britain would go right back again to Fort Knox. All this shows that Britain’s financial circles have their feet on the ground. Un fortunately, this grasp of economic realities does not seem to be shared by other seg ments of the British people. New Atomic Studies Within recent days the United States Atomic Energy Commission has announced the beginning of two new studies of great potential importance. One has to do with possible long-range hereditary changes stemming from the Japanese survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The other is aimed at determining the most effective safeguards against the peculiar hazards involved in our present nuclear-fission projects.and the additional ones certain to be built in the future. The latter study speaks pretty much for itself. To be conducted by a special ad visory board made up of experts on in dustrial health and safety, it will cover the problem of protecting workers and communities associated with atomic de velopment. Up to now—at Oak Ridge and affiliat.prl nlanfcs—t.hprp has hppn PYppllpnt. protection against such dangers as expo sure to radiation and radioactive contam ination. But in preparation for the time when nuclear power will be operating in a much wider field common sense demands that action be taken now to work out a comprehensive set of safeguards for life and limb. Not less important than this—in some respects, far more important—is the he redity study. It will be carried out jointly by the Atomic Energy Commission and the National Research Council, with the co operation of Japanese scientists. ‘Its pur pose will be to find out what effects, if any, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki explosions will have on children yet unborn. The explosion unleashed an immense amount of radiation theoretically capable of affect ing the makeup of the survivors’ descend ants. As yet, despite loose talk to the contrary, there has been no authoritative evidence of monstrous abnormalities in babies born in the two cities since the A-bombs went off. Nevertheless, it is possible that there will be a delayed re action. When today’s babies grow up, their offspring conceivably may deviate from the norm. Hence the study now under way will take many years to complete; meanwhile, the subject must remain largely a matter of somewhat gruesome speculation. What is not speculative, however, is that the special study in this field, together with the study of the health and safety hazards of our developing nuclear power, is a necessary project likely to lead to signifi cant new information. The United States knows much about the atom, but not all by any means. To live safely with it in the age ahead, we must keep on inquiring into every aspect of it. We have done little more than scratch the surface so far. Worth Pursuing The realities of the world being what they are at the moment, it would be optimistic to the point of absurdity to expect an early universal acceptance of the ideas contained in the American draft treaty on international freedom of infor mation. Nevertheless the ideas deserve to be promoted abroad, and they should serve as a useful guide to our representa tives at the United Nations conference to discuss this subject at Geneva early next year. •>, • Drawn up at the request of the State Department by a group of professional experts headed by the publisher of the Chicago Times, the draft treaty calls, In effect, for the application in all nations of the American concept of freedom of the press, with the word “press” meaning not merely newspapers, magazines and books, but the radio and motion pictures as well. Excepting only matters of military se curity, it would—if universally adopted— permit reporters, photographers, broad casters, etc., to travel and work freely everywhere, unhampered by the censor ship and other restrictions that now stand in the way of an untrammeled interna tional interchange of news and informa tion. In the world as it is, of course, it is obvious that ft treaty of this kind is not going to win wide acceptance for many a long year to come, if ever. Numerous countries—not Russia alone—sincerely dis agree with the American idea of press freedom. Philosophically and otherwise, interpreting life and society in terms of cultures, economies and historical back grounds far different from ours, they honestly believe—at least some of them do—that we are on the wrong track or that what is good for us would be bad for them. All authoritarian and semiauthoritarian governments have strong convictions on this score, and they are not going to swing around to our view unless and until the peoples they rule insist upon it—a thing not likely to happen in the foreseeable future. All this is understood by the Americans who have worked out the draft treaty. What they hope for, however, is that the United States will be able to negotiate such a treaty with at least a few other countries of like mind, so that little by little, slowly but surely, the ideal might be put to work in an ever-increasing area of the world. The objective is a decidedly good one. The more progress we make toward it, the more chance there will be of reducing the dangerous suspicions and misunderstandings that harry our age and make for war. We should pursue it earn estly, even though the obstacles are very great. What Do Parents Think of It? School days are here again—for almost everybody in the country except the pupils of the District public schools. Parochial schools of Montgomery and Prince Georges Counties and the public schools of Arling ton County opened a week ago. District parochial schools opened Tuesday and the public schools of Montgomery and Prince Georges Counties are opening today. But it will be almost two weeks—and what a long two weeks!—before our own little darlings in Washington trudge off, unwill ing, to public school. Why is this? Nobody at the. Franklin School seems to know, exactly. The Board of Education, of course, makes the decision, usually in June. But the Board of Education is in a rut. It has been de creeing a late opening date and a late closing date for the Washington schools for many years. Even its august members, if pinned down, might not know why. There is usually some desultory debate. One small bloc, a minority of independ ents, argues for early opening and closing dates. They are promptly voted down by a heavy majority, preferring a late open ing and closing. The majority undoubtedly votes that way because it always has voted that way. Parents ought to be heard on the matter. Do they not feel, about this time in Sep tember, that it would be a fine thing to see their young hopefuls getting busy again? Would they not like to share with teachers again the beauty of their shining faces? Would they not give almost any thing under the sun to get them out of the house and, started on the routine of school? For while a child around*the house is a priceless possession, worth its weight in pure gold, is it not a fact that the little treasures become almost insuffer able as the summer wanes and the autumn sets in? Answer yes or no. And in the lovely month of June, would it not be better for the youngsters to be free of school, early in the month, to go with mamma and papa on picnics in the park? Oh, well, there may be another side to the argument. But next year the Board of Education should ask the parents what they want. The parents might start a new custom and get the Board of Education out of a rut. tomorrows Kocket Nightmare Guided-missile warfare is still a long way off, the experts say. But the rocket-firing experiment conducted by the Navy aboard the carrier Midway shows that-it is pos sible, in effect, to “guide” a missile to within a few hundred or a few score miles of an enemy coast. Thus, the V-2 rocket’s maximum range of approximately three hundred miles can be extended as far as the cruising range of its mobile platform. The fact that the Navy chose the forty five-thousand-ton Midway for its first sea test with the German-made V-2 rocket does not mean that today’s carriers are to be converted into sea platforms for giant rockets. While it may be that future carriers will be rocket-armed, their pri mary mission of launching planes for reconnaissance and attack requires that their flight decks be kept clear of rocket launching apparatus. If rockets are to be launched from a carrier, they must be located where flight operations will not be hampered. And if the reports are correct, it would have been impossible to carry on # flying operations while the V-2 was being ‘launched—although planes were put into the air soon afterward. As a matter of fact, the Navy has been concentrating its rocket activities on two noncarrier-type ships, the huge battleship Kentucky and the battle cruiser Hawaii. These new ships are the guinea pigs of naval rocket research for the time being. They are experimental prototypes of what is envisioned as the atomic-powered, rocket-firing warships of the future. It is such unprecedentedly fast and maneuver able ships that most likely will be the mobile platforms for guided missiles with atomic warheads. These missiles not only will be carried to within effective striking range of enemy shores, but will be capable, on becoming airborne, of finding their way unerringly to their targets by electronic control. This will be push-button warfare in its most formidable sense—a develop ment which, fortunately, is little more than in the nightmare stage today. This and That By Charles E. Tracewell “EDINBURG, Va. “Dear Sir: “Do skunks really eat up the sweet corn? “I thought they are carnivorous animals the same as cats. "I cannot imagine my little Moppet being able to climb a com stalk and eat an ear of Com. “I would appreciate it if you would set this matter right. “I enjoy This and That all the time, and am pleased over the tips about cats. “Sincerely, H. E. C.” ’ Our correspondent is probably thinking about the raccoon. While the ’coon, or coon, as he is commonly called, is a flesh eater, as is the skunk, the coon will occasionally vary his diet by eating nuts, fruit and corn. Skunks seldom if ever eat corn. Old Mephitis prefers field mice, birds and chicken. When he takes up his residence near a barn yard, he is sure to get away with scores of baby chicks. The way he (skunk) goes after the baby chicks is marvelous to behold. He does not scare the mother hen, but merely reaches in a paw and snags out a baby. Over night he will get half the chicks, and the next night the other half, unless the hen is given protection. i This skillful paw work is regarded as one of the marvelous things in nature. Old Man Skunk will eat field mice and in sects, the latter by the hundreds. In fact, few living things, not even birds, get away with more insects than the playful skunk. This makes him the great friend of the farmer, but seldom does the latter give him any credit. Farmers, as a class, harbor deep prej udices. One of them is that every hawk ought to be killed, the other is that skunks deserve the same fate. And truly, when one happens to whiff the essence of skunk, one will not wonder at this deep prejudice! Modem skunks can be deodorized, when they make excellent pets. Some persons make pets of them without the deodorizing operation. They say that the animal will not use this power of his if he is thoroughly acquainted with his human and animal friends. Even the nousenoia nogs are saie, n me skuflk Knows them. That, at least, is what the experts say— but what happens when a strange deg happens to see the skunk? Skunks kill many ground-nesting birds and their young, and eat hundreds of their eggs. The raccoon, Procyon lotor, also is a flesh eater, with the exception named. He normally goes in for mice, birds, frogs, insects, etc. All his food must be washed, before it is pre sented to him. He washes his own food, in nature, never failing to dip it into water before eating. The coon makes a wonderful pet, somewhat resembling a house cat with thieving propen sities, if such a thing can be * imagined. The coon will eat almost anything. This writer had a pet coon years ago (when he was eight) and kept it on a long chain. The problem of keeping the raccoon is not a hard one, but in the end the animal is let go, or put into a zoo, because it proves too troublesome. It is a kindly creature to humans, but a worthy foe of dogs. Many a strong dog has has been licked in a fair fight with the coon. That is why several dogs are taken along on coon hunts. The skunk hibernates, in winter, but not deeply; that is, he wakes up when the weather becomes warmer for several days. Letters to The Star Too Many Trees at the Capitol? To the editor ef The Star: Shortly, the leaves will fall from the trees surrounding the Capitol Building and one will be able to see it again in full magnificence. During the long summers, the building is al most entirely obscured e x cept for the unhappy hodgepodge of planting over the spacious grounds. These Capi tol grounds have evidently been looked upon as an arboretum when various well-inten tioned persons or groups have been able to heel in any favorite tree. While there are strict laws, ,we are told, against mutilating trees, apparently there are none against planting what you please around the Capitol. Thus, scattered indiscrim inately, is almost anything from a puny crab apple to what seems to be a Canadian banana tree. There are a few trees of historical sig nificance, a few others of ancient age and beautiful growth. All trees, other than these, could well be up rooted forthwith and carted off. An entirely new planting scheme should then be inaugu rated which would make the Capitol grounds and building the appropriately predominant motif of the Mall. Old photographs indicate that the Mall, too, was once as unpleasantly planted. While the overgrowth of trees is being de OtlUJCU, UliC V11KUX1H* UCC^l, WlUWi CUVCiU^CB the terraces and hides some very attractive architectural details, should be similarly re duced. Then—with a nice bare Capitol, some archi tect especially skilled in landscape design such as that consummate artist and crafts man who produced Meridian Hill, should be turned loose upon it. Then would the Capitol Building and Capitol grounds come into right ful perspective. Then it would be properly viewed from North Capitol street, East Capi tol street and the Mall. Approximately planted in a formal and symmetrical manner, the architectural shortcomings would be submerged find the virtues enhanced. The Capitol would come into its own. Incidentally, signs might well be posted Suggesting that those who use the grounds for ' picnics and revelry should stay sober enough to pick up empty bottles and trash when they leave. LLEWELLYN PRICE. Says Lawrence Erred on NLRB Case To the Editor of The Star: • The August 19 article by David Lawrence, entitled “Labor Law Written by New Dealer, Once Aide of Roosevelt,” requires comment. Whether Gerald D. Reilly, credited in the article with being the real author of the Taft Hartley Act, is correctly described by Mr. Law rence as a "New Deal labor lawyer” or by the CIO in its 1947 Voting Guide as a “Washing ton corporation representative,” is a matter of opinion. What is pertinent, however, is that Mr. Lawrence misstates the position of the NLRB on an important labor case (at the same time implying that Mr. Reilly, then a board member, dissented), impugns the in tegrity of the Supreme Court by stating that it resorted to “a loophole” to sustain the board, and finally misrepresents the plain language of the Taft-Hartley Act. While Mr. Lawrence does not Identify the case he discusses, it is obvious that he refers to the Wallace Corporation decision. Stated shortly, that case held that the employer violated the law if he discharged employes pursuant to a closed-shop contract entered into with an independent union that had won an election conducted on terms requiring the employer to grant a closed shop to the victor, when he did so with the knowledge that the Tnripnpnripnt. 1nt.pndpH tn h«p t.h« nnntrarf effect the discharge of employes who had previously been active on behalf of the rival CIO union. Ordered Employes Reinstated. In its first decision, issued February 27, 1943 (47 NLRB 1169), the board (only Messrs. Millis and ReUly participating) invalidated the Independent’s contract and ordered the em ployer to reinstate the discharged employes with back pay. Chairman MUlis indicated he would have based the ruling in part on the grounds supplementing the finding that the employer had knowledge of the Independent’s objective. Mr. ReUly, however, wrote a concur ring opinion in which he relied exclusively on the employer’s knowledge as warranting upset ting the contract. He said that the election agreement did not bind the employer “to acquiesce in a scheme to penalize those em ployes whose choice was not that of the majority; nor can the proviso in Section 8(3) be thought to countenance such a result.” Two months later, after Mr. Houston had been appointed, the board vacated this de cision, heard reargument, and entered a new opinion on June 7,1943 (50 NLRB 138). In the revised ruling, Mr. ReiUy’s view was adopted as the board opinion. The Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals unani mously affirmed the board’s interpretation of the law. And the Supreme Court majority likewise said that the closed-shop clause could not be used by “a majority of workers and a company * ♦ * to penalize minority groups.” While four justices took the position that the majority’s construction of the law was "very unfair * * * to the employer and one not war ranted by anything Congress has directed or I authorized,” it is questionable whether Con gress had any express or discernible intent on this specific point when it enacted the Wagner Act in 1935. But if we accept Mr. Lawrence's interpretation of what Congress has done in the Taft-Hartley Act, albeit 12 years later, it may be doubted that the court minority cor rectly appraised the intent of Congress. At the most, the question was one about which reasonable men could differ, and it hardly is In the interest of a dispassionate weighing of the evidence to say that Justice Black "found a loophole” when he agreed with the board’s reading of the law. Let us now examine the accuracy of Mr. Lawrence’s contention that the Taft-Hartley Act requires unions "to open their membership all annlirant-R whn nav t.h* racnilar Hue* ” thereby remedying the board’s supposed usurpation of authority and the Wagner Act’s failure “to protect workers against arbitrary action by ‘closed shop’ unions working with employer help.” Unions’ Bights Defined. The law provides that a union's right “to prescribe its own rules with respect to the acquisition or retention of membership" shall not be impaired. Another clause states that if, but only if, the union has a valid union-shop contract must it refrain from charging mem bership fees “in an amount which the board finds excessive or discriminatory under all the circumstances.” And an employer cannot rely on a union shop contract to justify a discharge if he has "reasonable grounds” for believing (a) that membership in the union “was not available to the employe on the same terms and conditions generally applicable to other members’’ or (b) that membership “was denied or terminated for reasons other than the failure of the employe to tender the periodic dues and the initiation fees uniformly required as a condition of acquiring or retaining member ship.” Significantly, the Conference Report Inter Letters for publication must bear the signature and address of the writer, although it is permissible for a writer known to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be brief. prets these provisions as not disturbing “ar rangements in the nature of those approved by the board In Larus & Brother Co. (62 NLRB 1075; 1945).” The board (Mr. Reilly partici pating) in that case sanctioned the auxiliary membership and “Class B local” devices, which, It has frequently been asserted, are undemo cratic practices utilized by some unions to deprive Negroes or other minority groups of full representation and participation in union affairs. These facts should make it apparent that the Taft-Hartley Act falls far short of “re quiring unions to open their membership to all applicants who pay the regular dues.” All of which may be another piece of evidence sub stantiating Senator Taft's characterization of an earlier article by Mr. Lawrence as a “com pletely puerile analysis” of the Senate bill. IVAR H. PETERSON. On Gambling in Prince Georges To the Editor of The Star: Prince Georges County’s Civic Federation’ will no jew lucuiucio vie wo uu icgaiiAcu ^auiuiuig in the county. Such a law may be asked in the next legislature in view of the fact that all the Washington gamblers have moved over in Prince Georges County, where laws mean noth ing. Legalized gambling would create many new jobs for the politicians who cannot openly re ceive money from those who now run. We, near the Capital of the Nation,’ should set a good example at the gateway. Montgomery will not tolerate gambling and second-rate booze Joints. It draws a better class of people, who build better homes and want a cleaner county. Efforts have been made since the Declaration of Independence, when men were more honor able than they are today, to make lotteries pay the Government. But it was not a success in 1777 when they tried it again and failed. The Louisiana State lottery started off with a bang. But its dishonest officials and insane gambling by poor bread winners got it in ill repute. In 1883 a Pennsylvania society started a movement for the suppression of lotteries and soon after a law was passed prohibiting lotteries in the United States. It remains to be seen what the good people in prince Georges County want in the way of legalized gambling. JOHN HIGGLES. Landover, Md. Road Carnivals To the Bditor of The Star: •Die third and last large carnival to play Washington has gone to Staunton, Va., after a 10-day stand on the circus grounds here. Business was light. The carnival offered the usual kind of amusement and games of chance or skill, as yo please, th prizes for suc cess being cheap ones, such as plaster of parts orna ments and glassware, etc. Admission to the grounds was 25 cents. One of the stands had a confidence game and a boy about 22 years of age had his mind set to win one of those beautiful radios on display. At 50 cents a throw, he spent $16 and after an argument he was given a small, cheap electric razor. The matter was reported to the acting chief of park police, Jerome B. Lawler, and after a personal investigation he ordered Sergt. Sheedy to close this stand for the remainder of the engagement and the three men concerned were not permitted to work on the grounds. Thanks for this quick action. The park police will co-operate if they have the evidence and witnesses, but the majority of those that are "stung” are ashamed to admit it, thus per mitting the swindle to go on. Two of the largest 25-cent shows had large banners proclaiming 10 and 12 curiosities, re «n entering the tent there were only five stands working, with an additional 25 cents for a side attraction in the nude form. Next season a plain-clothes man should in vestigate the operations of every stand and the Better Business Bureau should check on their display banners. The District of Columbia amusement license has been increased and the ground is rented by the United States Govern ment. P. T. Bamum, the greatest showman of them all, was right^-a “sucker bom every minute.” Some Washingtonians like the games of chance. Instead of sending thousands of dollars to the sweepstakes in Ireland, why not have a national lottery in this country to help reduce the in come taxes? H.J.F. Our Growing Gold Hoard To the Editor ol The Ster: The British Poreign Secretary has pronounced that the United States should “redistribute” (whatever that may mean) its gold stores (an expression which appears to include all gold under the control of the United States Government). Mr. Bevin’s comment may be but a feeler to determine the reaction of this country- After all, if a seller can Induce a purchaser to give back the goods, in order that they may be sold to him again, there is no reason for not trying when the purchaser has been observed to indulge in domestic economic policies no less absurd. There is also no reason why Britain should not send us all the gold she can obtain if we are foolish enough to continue to buy it at $35 an ounce and in excess of our own needs for it. There is, however, good reason why we should not part with our goods for gold we do not need. Somewhere in an early school reader there is a story about a handmill which, when its possessor gave it a command and employed the magic words (which may have been "We planned it that way”), would fcrind out what ever product its possessor desired; and continue to do so until the pronouncement of other magic words and a command to stop. Having, by guile or otherwise, come into possession of one who greatly wanted salt, and being addressed by the magic words and the command “Grind salt, salt, nothing but salt,” the mill did as commanded. The possessor, however, having.gotten all the salt he wanted, commanded the mill to stop, but failed to pronounce the magic words and the mill ground on until the house was filled. The possessor, much alarmed, thjpw the mill into the ocean where it continues to grind nothing but salt. And, so ends the story, that’s why there is salt in the ocean. Perhaps the magic words left unsaid were: “Stop inflation.” To that end, repeal the Gold Purchase Act. A country, especially a creditor country, needs no more gold than is necessary to meet its obligations in gold, according to their tenor, and to redeem its currency as presented. A proper limitation on the gold hoard operates, or at least should operate, to limit the amount of outstanding paper, and this in turn oper ates to stabilize prices. Remember when the United States honored its obligations accord ing to their tenor and all currency was freely exchangeable for gold on demand? GARRISON TILGHMAN. 1 Stars, Men and Atoms 'Oases' in Antarctic Prove to Be Salt-Water Creeks Discovery Furnishes New Picture of Earth Emerging From Ice Age By Thomas R. Henry The fabled Antarctic oases, discovered by the Navy expedition last winter off the Knox snd Princess Ranghlld coasts of the Antarctic continent, are salt-water creeks—backwashes of the Antarctic Ocean. This somewhat prosaic anticlimax to what seemed the most colorful discovery of the expedition—described at the time as a 200 square-mile ice-free area of blue and green lakes at an elevation of 200 feet above sea level—has become apparent from a chemical analysis of the water just received at the Navy Hydrographic Office. It is salt water and, very definitely, tea water. There is an unmistakable difference between salt water from the ocean and from inland lakes, such as the Dead 6ea or Great Salt Lake. The 200-foot elevation reported must certainly have been In error. Such a mistake is easy to understand when the diffi culties of accurate altitude measurements are considered. The lakes must be at sea level just on the edge of the continental coast. Creeks Are Like Maryland's. At the same time the finding gives a new picture of one of the mechanisms by which the earth emerges from an ice age. These are shallow creeks, somewhat like those extending out of Chesapeake Bay into the Maryland coast near Annapolis. Their bottoms are black rocks. During the long Antarctic summer this rock absorbs a large amount of solar radia tion, even through the ice of early spring. This heat is slowly reradiated. All the ice melts over a considerable area. The red islands reported by Navy aviators who landed on the largest of the lakes are supposedly due to great rockfalls from nearby hills into the shallow, sluggish waters. Sea ward the water is deeper and the sunlight doer not penetrate to the bottom through the led.' Hence the ice sheet over them is perpetual and appears to separate them from the rim of, open water which surrounds most of the: Antarctic continent. Presumably much the same phenomenon oc. curred along the coasts of North America to ward the end of the last ice age. Lakes Contain Algae. The existence of life in these “lakes”—count less billions of blue,, red and green one-celled plants which give their characteristic colors to the waters—is considered the first step in the re-establishment of life in the rear of a re treating glacier. These algae are among the simplest and most primeval of living things. As the warming-up process continues they presumably will become food for higher or ganisms. On the other side of the Antarctic continent off the southern coast of the Weddell Sea, a German expedition in the winter of 1939 found several similar "oases”—undoubtedly due to the same phenomenon. None, however, ap proached the size of the ioe-free area found off the Knox coast by Lt. C. E. Bunger of the Navy expedition’s western group last winter. Bunger was able to land on the largest of the so-called "lakes” and found the water fairly warm so that he could drag his hand* through it without discomfort. This, it is ex nlained would be exnected due to the heat radiation from the black bottom. Both tha Knox and Ranghild coasts have low elevations, constituting breaks In the rim of mountains surrounding most of the Antarctic continent. Other large, lee-free areas aee considered highly probable. Questions and Answers A reader ean obtain the »n»w»r to any qtieatfon of fact by writing The Evening Star Information Bureau. 31 fl I street N.E., Washington 4. D. C. Please Inclose three (3) cents for return Postage. By THE HA SKIN SERVICE. Q. Are cantaloupes native to the United States?—T. T. F. A. Cantaloupes were first grown In Europe In Cantalupo, Italy, whence the name. The seed Is said to have come from Armenia. Q. What was the first musical publication In the United States—M. R. G. A. The “Bay Psalm Book,” published In 1940, was the first musical publication In America. Q. Is the pronunciation of Arkansas fixed by State law?—B. L. A. A. In March, 1881, the Arkansas Legislature fixed the pronunciation of the State name as that “received by the French from the native Indians,” that It should be pronounced In three syllables "with the final ‘s’ silent, the 'a‘ in each syllable with the Italian sound and the ac cent or. the first and last syllables.” Q. Are there any historic sites commemorat ing the lives of former Presidents of the United States other than Hyde Park. N. Y.?—D. C. J. A. Other areas commemorating the lives of former Presidents of the United States, known as historic sites and administered by the De partment of the Interior, include George Washington Birthplace National Monument In Virginia, Abraham Lincoln National Historical Park In Kentucky, Andrew Johnson National Monument in Tennessee, Mount Rushmore Na tional Memorial In South Dakota and Adams’. Mansion National Historic Site In Massa chusetts. Q. Who compared George Marshall with Stonewall Jackson?—H. F. A. In 1913. while a lieutenant in the Philip pines, Secretary Marshall was commended by Maj. Gen. J. Franklin Bell, chief of staff from 1906 to 1910, who said. “He is the greatest mili tary genius stince Stonewall Jackson.” Q. Where Is Gen. Denlken living?—L. N. T. A. Gen. Anton Denlken. who led the White n_i_A ___„<*,*,* TasNloViAvrilr.. «w> and 1919, died in Ann Arbor, Mich., on Au gust 8, 1947. u Q. How long has the tax on amusements been in effect?—N. W. J. A. The Federal Government has levied a tax on admissions since 1917. State amuse ment taxation began with the Connecticut tax in 1921. General admissions taxes are imposed In less than half the States. Some cities also impose amusement taxes. City Seen From Sea This is a port we shall not know; unreal as cinema set, With candy-colored plaster houses and palms like artificial trees, Bright as a newly painted toy in Mediter ranean sun, Brilliant and silent, washed by impos sibly blue seas. It is best seen thus, as are wax flowers under glass, And then but briefly, with merest passing look, So its magical illusion may be kept in memory, Untouched, unspoiled; a picture in a picture book. For closely seen the walls are cracked by time and sun, And in these streets are human lives and human hates; Terror will move by nightfall in the shadows there, Murder be done for bread beyond the ancient gates. FREDERICK EBRIGH.T. # '