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With Sunday Morning Edition. x WASHINGTON, D. C. Published by Tilt Evening Star Newspoptr Com pony. FRANK B. NOYES, President. B. M. McKELWAY, Editor. MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE: tlO East 42d St. CHICAGO pFFICE: 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. Daily and Sunday Daily Only Sunday Only Monthly_1.20* Monthly _90c 10c per copy Weekly 30c Weekly .. 20c 10c per copy *10c additional when 5 Sundays are in a month. Also 10c additional for Night Final Edition In those sections where delivery is made. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in Unitt-d States. Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday 1 month — 1.50 1 month .. 90c 1 month 60c 6 months.. 7.50 6 months 5.00 6 months 3.00 1 year —15.00 1 year ... 10.00 1 year 6.00 Telephone NAtional 5000. Entered at the Post Office, Washington, D. C„ * as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use for republication of all the local news printed in this newspaper, as well as all A. P. news dispatches. A—12 * THURSDAYTo^tober 16, 1947 Blunder at the Armory The District's enormous National Guard Armory looks more like an expensive white elephant every day. The building in spector’s verdict that the number and size of the exits limit its capacity to 4,800 people reveals an additional blunder that will cost more money to remedy. uuiuig an me time mis ouuaing was being talked about it was pictured as a temporary substitute for the auditorium the District should have. It was going to be utilized for great indoor gatherings, as well as for the National Guard. The Municipal Architect, the Engineer Com missioner, the Park and Planning Com mission authorities were talking about accommodating as many as 10,000 people at a time. But nobody, apparently, thought about the design of exits which District regulations would require. Even the building inspector's office never got around to inspecting the building and fixing the capacity until nearly six years aft$r it was completed. The Cominissioners want to turn the thing over to the Department of Defense and let the Federal Government assume the maintenance cost of $200,000 a year. That might be one alternative. But the sensible thing to do now is to utilize the building in the interests of the people who furnished the money to build it—the taxpaying public of Washington. The absurd snarl between the Commissioners and the National Guard over who owns it should be ended. The people own the building and the Commissioners should run it for their benefit. In addition to serving the National Guard, it should be available for indoor athletic events, con ventions and mass gatherings. Rental should be applied to the cost of upkeep. Structural changes, if needed, should be made to meet the building inspector’s objections. Legislation to effect proper use and con trol of the building will be necessary. The Commissioners have already prepared their version of it. The Guard authorities have something else in mind. Congress must deeirie the future nf the hnilHincr anH in the course of deciding, find out how and why a building designed for as many as 10,000 people can accommodate only 4,800 under the District’s own regulations. __ A Principal Retires Doubtless Frank C. Daniel might have achieved success simply by following his father into a strictly musical vocation. His decision to teach mathematics, how ever, was a wise choice—at least from the angle of the inherent advantage to Wash ington. It led to his appointment as principal of McKinley High in 1911—a position in which he has functioned with profit to thousands of students and scores of instructors. No man ever loved the educational pro fession more profoundly. Caring for knowl edge for its own sake and for people as people, Mr. Daniel has been an influence for harmony and progress throughout the community. Particularly as chairman of 1he Board of Principals, he has shown tact fulness, persuasiveness and skill. His con tribution to the school system of the whole District of Columbia, not merely to Tech, has been acknowledged repeatedly in the past and now is commended again as he passes his seventieth birthday anniver sary. In well-earned retirement, he will not be forgotten by his former pupils and colleagues nor by their neighbors at large. _ ___ Mr. Newell on Race Relations President Clifford H. Newell of the Fed eration of Citizens’ Associations has done one commendable thing in his address on race relations to the Brookland Citi zens’ Association. That was in saying what he had to say publicly, temperately and with a restraint imposed by the nature or the subject, m doing tms ne nas set j an example which might well be followed 1 with benefit to all concerned. There are many who will be quick to take issue with some of the things that Mr. Newell said. In the matter of the “agitators,” for example, we should re member that some of the agitation springs from earnest men and women of both races who feel that a question of principle is involved that requires agitation. The fact that such agitation may be seized upon by those anxious to create racial discord should not be construed as lend ing a sinister color to all rational dis cussion of the subject. And regardless of other motives sometimes attributed to them, it is only natural to believe that Negroes, as well as their white fellow citizens are motivated by the commend able desire to improve themselves and their families by moving to what they regard as better neighborhoods. In other words, we have a question here which requires the intelligent approach of looking at it from the opposing point of view as well as from one’s own. There is a very sound theory behind the right of property owners to agree individually or among themselves as to the type of neigh borhood they prefer. When citizens lose the right of choosing their associates, they have lost a very valuable right indeed. Yet this should not prevent acknowledge ment of a djjidltion in Washington which has severely restricted the Negro’s own choice of a place to live, nor of his rights as a citizen to work for removal of such restrictions. The covenants issue will receive a hear ing in the Supreme Court this term, in the form of test cases from a number of com munities throughout the country. It will be subject to much discussion here in coming months and Mr. Newell has done well to make the presentation of his own point of view with dignity and with regard for the sensibilities of others who may disagree with him. If the debate can pro ceed on this level, with frank but courteous exchange of viewpoints, the question loses the “explosive” qualities which are sup plied by bitterness and secrecy. Taking Another Walk? The most rational voice to be heard in the storm of purple language which en gulfed the American Federation of Labor at San Francisco on Tuesday was that of George Meany, secretary-treasurer of the organization. After John L. Lewis had heaped verbal abuse with indiscriminate disdain on the heads of the industrialists, Congress, NLRB Counsel Robert Denham and his fellow AFL officers, Mr. Meany sounded an appeal to reason. / There are 292,000 AFL members who belong to Federal unions. Because of their peculiar organizational relationship to the the facilities of the Labor Board would have been closed to them had Mr. Lewis remained as a vice president of the AFL and persisted in his refusal to sign the non-Communist affidavit required by thp Tflff-HQrtlaxr Aof i _ _.i_ * , —v -- ***»» nuav inc verbal shooting was all about, for the other AFL officers felt that the protection of the rights of these members was of more importance than Mr. Lewis’ personal war on the Taft-Hartley law. Mr. Meany began by saying that the AFL could best serve its membership by complying with the law of the land, re gardless of personal disbelief in the merits of the law. Furthermore, he said, the question of protecting the AFL Federal members raises a practical issue which “cannot be solved by impugning the in tegrity of men who feel they can best represent their membership by complying with the law.” That is a wise and valid statement of the case. Mr. Lewis, of course, was deaf to it. But the overwhelming majority of the delegates agreed with Mr. Meany, and the convention voted to eliminate the AFL’s thirteen vice presidential posts, in cluding the one held by Mr. Lewis. One effect of this is to enable the AFL to comply with the law. Another effect, apparently, is to relegate Mr. Lewis once again to a lone-wolf status, for he has said that he will not be a candidate for the AFL Executive Council. Peace overtures designed to persuade Mr. Lewis to remain, with his mine workers, within the AFL were indicated yesterday. Whether he will take another walk and pull them out remains to be seen. No one should be surprised if this comes to pass, Jor Mr. Lewis repeatedly has demonstrated over the past ten years that he cannot or will not work on a give oasis wnn omer union leaders. Ten years ago he left the AFL and set up the CIO in a fight over organization of the mass industries. He left the CIO after failing to carry its member unions with him in his fight against a third term for Franklin D. Roosevelt. Recently he returned to the AFL and now it appears he may be on his way out again. On the whole record, a fair estimate seems to be that the AFL’s loss is also the AFL's gain. Physicists now know everything except the answer to the one propounded by the late Voliva: If the world is round why doesn’t water run out of both ends of Suez? A Loss to the Public Service Many officials at home and abroad will share President Truman’s deep regret over Will L. Clayton’s resignation as Undersec retary of State for Economic Affairs. Mr. Clayton has served with great force and distinction in that post—a fact that will be strongly confirmed by both our own and foreign representatives who have taken part in such projects as the historic Geneva Trade Conference or who have been associated in any way with the Marshall proposal for European recovery. Congenital skeptics may be inclined to read some hidden meaning into- Mr. Clayton’s departure at this stage, but it would be presumptuous in the extreme not to accept his own explanation at face value—namely, that he finds it necessary to go back to his Texas home for the sake of his wife’s health. There is no reason to suppose that his retirement signifies anything deeper than that. Before he left for Geneva last January, he had discussed the matter with the President and Secre tary Marshall, and it was agreed then that ne would De iree to resign on his return to this country. Wholly apart from Mrs. Clayton’s well-being, moreover, he him self can make good use of a vacation. Ever since he entered the Government in 1940, he has worked hard and continu ously in discharging the heavy responsi bilities that have been his. Starting as Co-ordinator of Inter-American affairs, he has rendered the highest type of service in several posts of topmost economic im portance, nationally and internationally. Mr. Clayton has been described as the architect of our foreign economic policy. Certainly, although he has not been alone in hammering out that policy, he has been primarily responsible for it during his undersecretaryship. It is a policy of sanity and freedom—a policy designed to bulwark the peace and promote international re covery and prosperity by reducing the bar riers to the flow of trade. Russia’s bitter resistance to tha projected Marshall pro gram has placed immense obstacles in the way of this objective, but it is not any the less sound for that reason. On the con trary, if the co-operating nations stead fastly pursue it, it can play a vital role in serving the liberty and security of the non Communist world until the day comes, if ever, that the Soviet Union decides on a new and better coui'se. In returning to private life, Mr. Clayton has expressed the hope that he will be available later on for “any special jobs” the President may wish to give him. Meanwhile, he leaves behind iwfci in the State Department a job he hs^handled so well that whoever assumes it now should have little difficulty with it. As far as our economic foreign policy is concerned, he has made, as Mr. Truman says, “a con tribution of incalculable value” meriting the thanks of the whole Nation. Orchestra Endowment On no other occasion has the National Symphony Orchestra proved its artistic competence more notably than it did last night. The opening of the ensemble’s seventeenth season was an occasion long to be remembered by the music lovers in attendance. Dr. Hans Kindler and his company of skilled musicians have become a single instrument of power and beauty. In this achievement Washington has reason to be proud. The community has made the orchestra economically feasible. Contributors have been generous from the start, in 1931. But too small a group has carried the main burden. The orchestra needs and deserves a broader popular base of support. If only to protect its ranks from being “raided” by competing man agers seeking trained and experienced talent of the highest order, it requires greater security than it ever has had. Practically all other symphonic organiza tions are financed in large part by mu nicipalities or wealthy friends who have joined to provide permanent foundations for their enterprises. To meet the obvious demand an endowment fund for the Na tional Symphony has been established and now is ready to receive gifts and bequests. Through the vears this fund should grow a worthy recipient of benefactions which can go far to bring rich enjoyment to others. No worthier philanthropy exists in the cultural field. Noble music has magnetic appeal to all classes of people and it is a privilege to take part in such an endeavor. The good will of the public can be expressed effectively by aiding the orchestra in the furtherance of its high purpose of distin guished musical service to the Nation’s Capital through contributions to the endowment fund. Saddest of sights in the world scene is the small bystander torn between the claims of the mighty ideologists and their cries of “Get your winning colors!” / One little disadvantage in building on the last vacant lot in the block is having to disinter everything of the neighbors’ but their dead. “Do something!” bawls the haggard citi zen, caught in the spiral of rising prices. “Do something else!” he adds, when he sees what Washington has done. Keeping pace with inflation, the taxi driver who used to have no change for a buck now has none for the twenty-dollar bill. When he tells his countrymen to work V,_I_A Ail__i. __ . . xtuiuvi, gcto ilU V11CC1. nc tuuiu uu better than that in the Bronx. This and That By Charles E. Tracewell “LANHAM PARK, Md. “Dear Sir: “I have a small request to make of you. We have a gum tree directly in front of our front porch where a certain bird finds his food. “He is there most of the year around, digging for bugs or worms in the trunk of this tree. He looks so much like a penguin and maneu vers up and down with the assistance of his tail, as a sort of third leg, or prop. "His markings are black and white, and he is 5 or 6 inches, more or less, in length. “He is such a constant little creature, I really must know who he is. "We moved out here in the country two years ago. We have a wide variety of birds. I am just beginning to find the time to take a real interest in them. Yesterday I walked ; down through a stretch of woods I’d never canvassed before. "It was wonderful to view the changing leaves, the fallen acorns from the oaks, the squirrels chattering and munching nuts, and goldenrqd striving to reach a little sun through small spaces between trees and undergrowth. “Sincerely yours, M. V. M.” * * * * If our correspondent sees this bird use its tail as a prop, it must be the downy wood pecker. The white-breasted nuthatch probably re sembles a penguin more, but does not use its tail in this manner. The nuthatch is a better tree climber, be- I cause it is not dependent upon the use of its tail in this way. The woodpeckers prop the body with the tail, and thus can strike a harder blow with the bill. The nuthatch gets only small insects not too far in the bark, whereas the downy wood pecker can strike deeper. Between them, these birds do a great service to our trees. The brown creeper is another good one to have around trees. He is often seen with the downy woodpecker. Bluejays, too, class as tree savers, because they often hide bits of food in the crevices of bark. This attracts the other small birds, who, in nnamg mis iooa, also dig out tne countless eggs laid in bark, and also take hundreds of small insects, all of which would harm the tree. Nature is a great whole, with all its part interdependent. Mankind often forgets that it, too, as a group of living creatures, belongs to this chain, and by its insistence on its own determined will, at times tends to overthrow the balance. ' It seems difficult for most men to realize that what we may do, as a group of living things, may be dictated by circumstances be yond out control. But just as the lemmings, at certain times, all band together and throw themselves into the sea, in response to un known urges, so mankind may invent atom bombs and other instruments of horror, in re-, sponse to urges that come from outside dnd are beyond our knowing. i The little downy woodpecker, in responding to the instinct of hunger, does good in the world. He not only is good to look at, but his ways do no one any harm, and his habits in the end do much good by keeping other forms of lif|e, notably the trees, from being devoured by insects. The birds, as a group, are extremely valuable to all other forms of life, including man. They seldom transmit diseases, and on the other hand do much to keep down forms of life that migjit spread disease. Their consumption of weed seeds is a service to mankind which it is difficult to estimate, despite the fact that statistics have been made to show just how many millions of tons are consumed each year. In this work the little downy woodpecker plays an Important part. He may be attracted to a yard, first, by trees, and second, by suet. He belongs to the group of smaller species, including the wrens, chickadees, nuthatches, creepers and titmice. All of these are insect eaters, and some of them scour the trees for this food winter and summer. All of them except the house wrens stay here the year around. These are what may be termed standard winter birds in these parts. Every one who establishes a feemhg station in the fall and keeps it going JR winter will learn in time to know and lovityJese loyal aids of mankind. % ’ I Letters to The Star Saving Food by Saving Beverages To the Editor of The gt*r: President Truman asks the citizens to eat one slice of bread less each day than the customary supply. How about one glass of beer’ v Why put the whole burden of food conserva tion upon the drys and the children^ and let the wets who eat one slice of bread less a day drink one more bottle of “liquid bread”1? As for whisky, we are informed that the food grain in one bottle of whisky represents three loaves of bread. Three loaves in one bottle! DR. WALTER LEAS. 0 ” Cats as Grain Protectors To the Editor of The Star: No wonder the person who wrote the letter objecting to the feeding of pets was ashamed to sign the letter. He should have been. I wonder if he realizes that if it weren't for the cats on the , farms there lV w o u 1 d n’t be any grain crop as these ani mals keep the V rodents down. **■ No doubt he does not know that these ani mals keep down the rats in the cities and therefore keep' us from having epi demics of all sorts.' They also destroy other rodents and do a good job of it. When they grace our homes they are lovely creatures. This person is so concerned about the chil dren who are starving in Europe. I wonder how much he is giving up to. save these children. I’ll bet not a crumb, but gobbling down everything he can get, and then be grudging a few morsels that are fed to some auiumi. Perhaps it is all right to feed Europe so they can get fat and fight us again, but believe you me, I would rather feed the creatures which show their thanks with affection and joy. P. M. FRAZIER. -- » White Brothers a Bad Lot To the Editor of The Star: There is a tradition of one of our Indian nations—I have forgotten which—that runs as follows: The Divine Father had a number of sons. All these brothers had different colored skins: one white, one red, one yellow, one brown, one black. Their Father put them in different parts of the world, giving them each a separate country to live in. He hoped by this means 'to satisfy them and their progeny and that there would be peace. But the white son was different in every way from his brothers and his progeny unfortunately inherited his quarrelsome and greedy disposition. Though they proved clever In getting what they wanted and in devising means of killing each other and saving them selves from work, they developed very poor memories. They did not keep their promises. They would not distinguish between right and wrong. So the Divine Father taught them how to write, In order that they could put their thoughts on paper and they would not escape them. Then he showed them how to print and their promises were put into treaties, by which they vowed to end wars. But this did no good. They quarreled about what their treaties and their printed books meant, they quarreled about religion, they quarreled about trade. They could not agree about anything. They had many wars among themselves. Not satisfied with the way their Father had made the part of the earth he had given them, they proceeded to tear it up and make it over again. After which, being discontented with their own country, they, went forth to take the countries which were their brothers’ birthright. After this had gone on for some time, the Divine Father sent them across the Big Sea Water to see the fresh unspoiled condition of. tha nftiinfrir urhara tha raH nprvnla livaH Thp first white people who came over had been so busy cheating each other that they could not live In a simple, natural manner and the red people had to teach them to raise corn or they would have starved. They repaid this kindness by killing their benefactors and taking their land. They seemed always intent upon destruc tion. When the red people were out of their way, they still continued destroying themselves. Even now, because they are constantly wasting the earth's precious stores, they are always in need. The Divine Father has made many dispensa tions for the past sins of hi wayward white children. When will His patience be exhausted? TEKARIHOKEN. Landlords* Side of the Case 1*0 the Editor of The Star: I read with pleasure your editorial on Octo ber 3 in regard to rent increases for single family dwellings and buildings with more than eight units, etc. I am a widow and several years ago went to a great deal of' expense to remodel my home in order that I might receive an income from it. I have two apartments for which I receive a modest rent. Owing to the rapid upsurge of prices, it has worked a decided hardship on me to meet my monthly obligations on these repairs. Everything, as we all know, has increased in price. ■ Yet some folks seem to think that prop erty owners can wield a magic wand to meet their obligations. I will admit that there are unreasonable and inconsiderate landlords, and there are also tenants in the same class. * Real estate taxes, water rent, repairs, in fact, services of every type have increased substantially. It is only fair then that these increased expenses be divided between land lords and tenants. E JACKSON. Communist Doctrines Outline^ In this our period of history there are many ideologies (or isms); and startling evidence is proof that all of them are not in the best interest of the people and countries. Con sequently, confusion reigns and the horror of war Is known. One ideology claiming many active adherents is communism, which originally meant any form of social organization in which all pro duction was for common and equal distri bution. In a modern sense, it is the philosophy held by Karl Marx, who lived during the middle of the last century. His theory was originally parcticed in Soviet Russia; the policy which all Communists are supposed to follow. Communists are instructed to co-operate with all left-wing or reform governments every where and they believe a world war is inevit able,*, with the result a triumph of communism. The dogmas of communism are, first, the class struggle and, second, the dictatorship of the proletariat, which means, dictatorship of the party. All industry, banking and commerce are nationalized and run by the party through the government which it controls. No private property is tolerated except personal effects and such money as is invested hi government savings, banks, or government loans. In effect “communism is the organization of a nation into one big corporation of interlocking trusts with the control vested in the hands of self appointed politicians under a dictator and they can .^feermine wages and hours of labor and distribute or invest the profits as they Aee fit. Some proportion of the profit (no onqfLfciows Letters for publication must bear the signature and address of the writer, although it is permissible for a writer known to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be brief. how much) is used to spread propaganda in other countries.” The so-called Comintern, which exists to further this gospel throughout the world, is dominated by the political leaders of Soviet Russia. The ultimate Communist aim is a Communist world empire. WALTER I. PRIEST. Food Before Freedom Td the editor of The Star: Those seeking world rule by moral law know the public resurrection of the Comintern at Warsaw is an act of deviltry in ideological war fare. We know this radical change of high strategy has two ideological objectives: First, to con tinue making a suicide pact of the U. N.’s aspirations for peace; second, to destroy the effectiveness and support of the Marshall plan for economic health. Like Goebbels, the evil conspirators of com munism are master strategists in destructive psychology. They use the chain reaction of empty threats, broken promises and futile hopes with devastating malice. We must stop supplying these saboteurs with fissionable gratuities. In the ideological test tube the Marshall plan is a method of releasing the powerful intrinsic energies of the Truman, doctrine. Though one substance, it is fissionable into two ideological purposes: The first is the purely humani tarian purpose of economic healing whose ideological symbol is food: the second is po litical containment of the aggressive con spiracies of predatory communism, logical symbol is freedom. The atheist dictators perceive the food freedom ideological molecule as one simply to split for their devilish purposes. We refuse to take a calculated risk and concentrate upon liberating and utilizing the psychological ener gies of the humanitarian objective alone. In fact, it is the only one that is assured unani mous support by those who must effectuate it. xTBt tnere is nigh-level policy making in slstence that the psychological energy releases of food and freedom must be concurrent or not at all. Sight is lost of the fact that food has a much higher ideological energy releasing po tential than freedom. Men die without food but, if they survive starvation, they eventually will achieve freedom against any odds. THOMAS E. MATTINGLY, M. D. A Problem in Logic To IheTrtitor «.f The 8t*r: Our Government, in its efforts to save grain, definitely has the cart before the horse. If we do not eat meat, then the cattle and hog raisers cannot sell. C o nsequently, they will be forced to hold the stock and to feed them. If this is sav ing grain, then I am crazy. W. T. SMITH. Social Service Salaries To the Editor of The Star: Local 27, United Office and Professional Workers of America, CIO, was shocked to learn of the low goal set by the Community Chest Federation—a goal more than $1,000,000 below the estimated needs for the various social service agencies. The federation set this goal in the face of Increased demands for social service and the pitifully inadequate salaries for its own employes because they felt that Wash ington citizens would not subscribe to a higher goal. Our union Is convinced that if the Commu nity Chest Federation made known to the citizens of Washington the present inadequate state of social services and the substandard *'-0 cuit;iuvca, a all -llllliueu WRSI1 ingtonians would more than meet the minimum need. The newspapers have done a splendid job in bringing into the open the plight erf school teachers, which ultimately led to the improve ment of their condition. But nothing has been said and done about the social service worker who in another field performs an equally important job. Here are some facts: 1. Professional workers (4 years college, inas ter’s degree, and experience) are earning $1,950 $3,410; yet positions in the Federal Govern ment requiring similar training begin at $3,400, and we all know that even Federal salaries have not kept pace with soaring living costs, i 2. Some maintenance workers have been found to earn less than the amount their agency gives to families who come to them for financial assistance. 3. Clerical employes earn on the average $300-$400 less than similar persons in Federal service and private industry. * These facts were recognized last year by the Community Chest Federation, which recom mended substantial salary increases. However, these have never been granted and employes have in the past year actually received a salary cut, because annual increments normally due them have not been paid and all reclassifica tions for qualified workers have been prevented. Further cuts are now imminent. In answer to a letter written bv our union, Mr. Bell. presi- \ dent of the Community Chest Federation, stated j that unless the goal of $3,900,000 is oversub- ! scribed, “agencies in varying degrees will find it necessary to limit the scope of their programs: some by accepting fewer applications for serv ice by selecting only the more pressing, others by curtailing their plans to extend their serv ices to more individuals, others by postponing activities that are desirable, that many will not be able to complete their stall of necessary workers and that merit and tenure increases to staff workers will need to be postponed. ’ If the community could be acquainted with the serious inadequacy of the services offered mis city nere wouia De. not oniy an over subscription to the present goal, but the full budget of (5,000,000 asked by the agencies would be met. SYLVIA SOLO President, Local 27, UOPWA, O. - I Another ^liddie-Age Complaint To th« Editor ot The Star: I certainly can sympathize with the middle aged victim of the "18-35” restrictions that are being enforced In this Nation's Capital. I, too, am a victim of this terrible boycott. After serving in the Government during the trying days of the war as a war service employe, I suddenly found myself let out and told to look for something on.the outside. Por months I have walked from place to place only to be told: "We don’t employ people over 35.” And this the city where I was born and raised. A DISGUSTED TAXPAYER. Bread-Saving Suggestions To the Editor of The Star: During this grain conservation period I wonder if it would be feasible for bakers to issue half-loa.ves, priced accordingly, for small families. This would be money-saving as well as a grain saver. Also, restaurants might offer more open sandwiches on menus and thereby save the top slices. Many people refer less bread, yet M. M. BACHE. a The Political Mill G. 0. P. Campaign to Stress Personal Qualifications Stassen and Taft Seek to ‘Smoke Out’ Both Dewey and Eisenhower By Gould Lincoln Former Gov. Harold E. Stassen of Minnesota takes the position that the Republicans should select a presidential candidate next year on the basis of the "program'’ presented by the candidate. In other words, they should not "buy a pig in a poke.” This raises an interesting and also a perti nent question: Do the Republicans care where a man stands on the vital domestic and international Issues of the day—or do they just want a man who can win? Also—an other question—is the candidate to stand on hi% own personal platform or program, or on the platform or program of the Republican Party written in convention? The two men most frequently mentioned as the probable presidential nominee of the Republican Party in 1948 are Gov. Thomas E. Dewey of New York and Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower: Gov. Dewey because of his poten tial delegate strength and Gen. Eisenhower because he is a glamorous figure with an imposing war record. Neither has presented a program or personal platform. Gov. Dewey has not yet announced himself a candidate. Gen. Eisenhower has denied he is a candidate, but is regarded as ‘‘receptive.” However, of the two, Gov. Dewey’s views on public ques tions are much more available. He has twice been elected Governor of New York—with a very definite program each time—and he cam paigned in 1944 for President. Gen. Eisen howef has been an Army man all his life and has kept out of politics. Not’ Shooting at Taft. Presumably Mr. Stassen was referring to a personal program or platform when he said that no man should be selected by the Republi can National Convention who failed to present his program. Inferential^ he was shooting at both Gov. Dewey and Gen. Eisenhower when he made his statement (at a press conference here). Certainly he was not hitting at Senator Taft of Ohio, who on his recent swing through the far West not only gave his own personal program but also a program for the Republican Party in great detail. As for himself, Mr. Stassen has been discussing public questions ever since he announced himself a candidate for the- presidential nomination many months ago. Any he may have overlooked he will doubtless discuss on his coining tour into the Middle West, West and South. Also, he is publishing a book on November 11 entitled "Where I Stand.” How many men who have been nominated for President In the recent past have had personal platforms in advance of their nomina tion? And how many have stuck to those plat forms after they were elected President? Take the case of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. In 1932 he was Governor of New York—the white hope of the Democrats who feared to renomi nate Alfred E. Smith. Mr. Roosevelt, before he was nominated, had little to say beyond the general democratic exooriation of Herbert Hoover and hard times. It was in his accept ance speech that Mr. Roosevelt declared him self for a "new deal.” And even in that declaration he did not reveal the extent of the deal he was to give the country. An&after he entered the White House he tossed into the discard many of the platform pledges con tained in the Democratic national platform on which he ran. A1 Smith, when he was nominated for President by the Democrats in 1928, was a recognized opponent of national prohibition—but he never had a chance to trv *■» tu.i._ .< . . _ . — j— p^iaui uuvugii. me iasi inrrfi Republican Presidents, Hoover, Coolidge and Harding, none of them had any particular personal platforms or programs in advance of their nominations. Attempts Squeeze Play. The attempted squeeze play today—In which Mr. Stassen and Senator Taft both have part is to smoke out Messrs. Dewey and Eisenhower. They wish to prevent Gov. Dewey from con tinuing a silence on important issues, while waiting for the delegates and the nomination to come his way. They point to a vulnerable chink In the Elsenhower armor—no one knows his views on such questions as labor-manage ment-relations, taxes, ~ Government spending, the tariff, public welfare legislation, or, indeed, foreign policy. Other Republicans who have been frequently mentioned for the presidential nomination are Gov. Warren of California and Senator Vandenberg of Michigan. Gov. Warren has no personal program—as a candi date for President, which he insists he Is not. Senator Vandenberg, on the other hand, while not laying down a personal program, has certainly discussed in the Senate and out many of the issues of the day—and every one knows where he stands on foreign policy. Beyond a doubt, Gov. Dewey may be expected to speak out on many Issues if and when he becomes an announced candidate. This nee dling on the part of Mr. Stassen and Senator Taft may force his hand. As for Gen. Eisen hower, it is difficult to see how he can discuss issues while he remains in the Army. Latest reports are that he may have to forgo retire ment from the Army and entry on his presi dency of Columbia University until March. After that he may have time to unfold hts Ideas, in speeches or In magazine articles, before the June 22 Republican National Convention. It is perfectly evident, however, that irre spective of personal programs, the Republicans are going to lay great stress on personal quali fications for victory In the coming presidential campaign. Questions and Answers A reader can set the answer to any Question of fact by writing The Evening Star Information BureRU. .Ilfi I street N.E. Washington 2. D. C. Please inclose 3 cents for return postage. By THE HASKIN SERVICE. Q. How many persons in the United States are receiving public charity?—A. H. C. A. Approximately 11,000,000 persons are re MeUllw. _-Ji..__i-1_A_-I can Public Welfare Association. • Q. What is the waiver price in the major leagues at present?—C. R. S A. The waiver price in the major leagues is now $10,000. It was raised to this figure from $7,500 prior to the 1946 season. Q. Can a newborn baby cry tears?—B. W. A. A newborn baby does not produce tear* when it cries. The first tears appear when, the infant is about 3 months old. _ i Q. Have scientists been able to explain th* cause of the ice-free "oases” in the Antarctic that were sighted by flyers of the Navy expe dition last winter?—R. E. T. A. The "oases” discovered by members of this expedition are merely salt water creeks, extensions of the Antarctic Ocean. Corn Shocks The countryside is lonely now. It musses The singing birds, the insect wings, the stirring Of new-born petals, and the fragrant kisses Of sunbeams when the locust bards are purring. Just one faint echo of that necromancy' Rises above the autumn’s dreary clatter, When gossip rides the wings of summer x fancy In barren fields where cornstalk ladi chatter. ALICE HARTICH.