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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, October 29, 1947, Image 1

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Four Are Cited
For Contempt
At Probe Today
Film Inquiry Accuses
Biberman, Ornitz,
Dmytrykand Scott
The House Committee on
Un-American Activities this
afternoon voted to recom
mend contempt of Congress
citations against two more
filmland figures — Edward
Dmytryk and Adrian Scott,
director and producer, respec
tively, of the film “Crossfire,”
after each had spent less than
10 minutes on the witness
Screen Writer Samuel Ornitz
and Writer-director Herbert J.
Biberman today were added to
the growing list of Hollywood
personalities facing contempt
citations after they avoided
questions as to their Communist
Party affiliations asked at the
hearing of the House Committee
on Un-American Activities.
Another witness, Emmet Lavery,
president of the Screen Writers’
Guild, declared firmly, however:
"I’m not a Communist. I never have
been, and I don't intend to be.”
Unlike Mr. Ornitz and Mr. Biber
man, who were ordered from the
witness stand, Mr. Lavery was
commended by Chairman Thomas
for his “very refreshing” frankness,
and remained to give his opinion
that the influence of Communist
members of his guild was “not half
as much as they make out.”
ueny iteiusai 10 Answer.
The two against whom Mr.
Thomas said contempt action would
be sought, were the fifth and sixth
of the so-called “hostile witnesses”
to leave the stand amid bitter pro
tests against the questioning of
Chief Investigator Robert E. Strip
ling and the vigorous gavel pound
ing of the chairman.
As had ‘their banished predeces
sors, they insisted they were not
refusing to answer questions about
Communist Party and Screen Writ
ers' Guild membership but merely
wanted to answer at length, and
in their own fashion.
Mr. Lavery, on the other hand,
answered the party query even be
fore Mr. Stripling had a chance to
ask it, and said he was “delighted
and proud” to be a member of the
guild he heads.
Mr. Lavery, a member of the New
York Bar, prefaced his declarations
with the Statement that “as a stu
dent of constitutional law,” he was
not sure the committee had a right
to inquire into union or political
party affiliation. He added, how
ever, he wanted to “end the sus
pense" at once.
, Before resuming the committee's
Investigation today Chairman Thom
as said the committee was aware
that “powerful influences” had tried
to divert the inquiry.
Not Intimidated, Thomas Says.
X am jjiuuu tu i>a,v uuo w«mmi-itt
has not been swayed, intimidated,
or influenced by either Hollywood
glamour, pressure groups, threatened
ridicule or high-pressure tactics on
the part of high-paid puppets and
apologists for certain elements of
the moving picture industry," he
Mr. Thomas charged that the wit
nesses who have been attacked “have
come as Communists always do, and
scream ‘Bill of Rights. Constitution'
and vilify those who would seek to
expose them."
Mr. Ornitz duplicated the per
formance already given by John
Howard Lawson, Dalton Trumbo,
Alvah Bessie and Albert Maltz.
He asked to read a statement
which Mr. Thomas ruled was “out
of order and another case of vilifica
“I accuse-” Mr. Ornitz began
to shout.
"You will not accuse anybody,”
retorted Mr. Thomas, pounding his
gavel while Mr. Ornitz continued to
The chairman ordered the witness
to “step aside,” but Mr. Stripling in
terrupted to begin his questioning.
Question of ‘Conscience.*
When he reached the question of
Mr. Ornitz’s membership in the
Screen Writer's Guild the witness
said a reply to this “involves a seri
ous question of conscience.”
“Conscience?” asked Mr. Thomas.
“Conscience, sir, conscience,” the
witness repeated firmly.
Between interruptions, the witness
got as far as saying that a question
of conscience was raised “when you
ask me to act in concert with this
committee in violating the Consti
t.iitinn M
Asked if he is or even had been
a Communist. Mr. Ornitz- replied
that his political, like his religious
beliefs, were fully guaranteed by the
Constitution, and he had the right
to join any party?
"Even if that party is the agent
of a foreign power?" Mr. Stripling
“That is a loaded question and I
will not reply to it.” the witness
That was the end of Mr. Ornitz’s
Disruption Effort Charged.
Mr. Biberman, whp followed, as
serted he was willing to answer the
committee's questions whether he
belonged to the Screen Writer's
Guild, and the Communist Party,
but that he wanted “to answer those
questions at full length.”
When Thomas and Mr. Stripling
told him that the questions "were
very simple ones and could be
answered by yes or no answers,”j
Mr. Biberman cried:
“It has become very clear to me
that the real purpose of this inves- j
tlgation is to drive a wedge be- j
(See UN-AMERICAN, Page A-2T j
Maniu, Romania Peasant Chief,
On Trial for Dealing With U. S.
Acheson Letter Presented by Prosecution;
18 Aides of Leader Also Before Army Court
By the Associated Press
BUCHAREST, Romania, Oct.
29.—A military tribunal indict
ment today accused Dr. Juiiu
Maniu, 75-year-old leader of the
opposition National Peasant
Party, of conniving with Amer
ican representatives and striving
to bring about foreign interven
tion in Romania. t
Eighteen of Dr. Maniu’s associates
also were on trial. They had been
under arrest since summer, but
charges were not specified until to
day. (The United States has pro
tested twice to Romania about the
The lengthy indictment asserted
that a letter from Dean Acheson,
former American Undersecretary of
State, had been found in Dr. Man
iu’s secret files, and that the letter
dissuaded Dr. Maniu from using vio
lence “at this moment.”
The letter tias alleged to have
been in reference to a meeting in
April of Dr. Maniu and Burton Y.
Berry, American Minister to Ro
The indictment alleged that Dr.
Maniu asked Mr. Berry whether the
party should use violence and that
the American representative replied
that this was an “essential ques
tion” which he would refer to Wash
The indictment asserted that Dr.
Maniu misinformed Mr. Berry of
the political situation in Romania
and demanded that the United
States should send diplomatic notes,
which later came.
The 30.000-word indictment as
serted' that Vasile Serbice, press
chief of the Peasant Party, which
has opposed the leftwing govern
ment, acted as go-between for Dr.
Maniu with American and British
Mr. Serbice was alleged to have
confessed that he handed over in
April a description of the organi
zation of the Romanian Army in
behalf of Dr. Maniu to Roy Mel
bourne. first counselor of the Amer
ican political representative in Ro
The indictment said also that
Dr. Maniu's archives contained a
letter addressed to Mr. Berry thank
(See MANIU. Page A-5.)
U.5., Britain Conclude
Trade Pact at Geneva
For Tariff Reductions
Agreement With America
One of 15 Signed by
United Kingdom Group
By the Associated Press
LONDON, Oct. 29. —Harold
Wilson, president of the Board of
trade, announced today that
Britain has negotiated tariff
agreements with 15 nations, in
cluding the United States.
Details of the new trade pacts,
he told the Commons, will be pub
lished simultaneously in the various
countries in about three weeks.
“We have been particularly con
cerned to secure reductions in the
tariffs of other countries, including
the United States, which would
provide an immediate opportunity
of Increasing our dollar exports,”
Mr. Wilson said.
Mutual Concessions Made.
He declared the United States
had made concessions in return for
reductions in British tariffs' and
for reduction or elimination of im
perial preferences.
He said Britain had agreed to the
reductions “only in return for con
cessions which we consider equiva
lent in terms of the trade thereby
opened up to us.”
The new trade pacts will be in
cluded in a final act of agreement
at the Geneva trade conference to
morrow, Mr. Wilson disclosed,
“We have given special attention
to the need for easier access of
colonial products to the United
States market.
"Where concessions have been
made in margins of preference af
fecting our trade with the colonies,
it has only been in return for equiv
alent, corresponding and immediate
advantages for the benefit of colo
nial fi'flrip
General Preference Cut Denied.
Mr. Wilson denied rumors that
Britain had agreed to a systematic
scaling down of all preferences.
"The suggestion is quite inaccu
rate that we have agreed to an
overall reduction by some general
formula of all imperial preferences,
including preferential margins
which we enjoy in our colonial or
dominion markets,” he declared.
“I hope our exporters will do all
they can to supply the markets in
the Western States of the United
“After all these States are the
areas in which during wartime
there has been a great increase in
population and in prosperity and
they are areas in which we could
hope to sell a much greater amount
of exports."
Mr. Wilson said there was a
“large unsatisfied demand” in the
(See TRADE, Page A-5.1
Truman Calls on Nation
To Mark Armistice Day
President Truman today called on
the people of America to observe!
Armistice Day on November 11 by!
working for peace.
In the annual proclamation call
ing for the commemoration of the!
ending of World War I, the Presi
dent said “it is a wise and whole
some custom to rededicate our
selves” to the prevention of war.
Chandler Suspends
O'Connor, White Sox
General Manager
Ban Follows Failure to
Pay Fine for Signing
High School Player
By the Associated Press
CINCINNATI, Oct. 29.—Walter
Mulbry, secretary of baseball,
said today that Leslie M. O’Con
nor. general manager of the Chi
cago White Sox, had been sus
pended from baseball by Com
missioner A. B. “Happy” Chand
ler for failure to pay a fine for
violating the rules in connection
with the signing of a high school
“O'Connor has been denied the
privileges of the rules,” Mulbry said
in a telephone conversation.
The White Sox general manager
was fined $500 recently for signing
George Zoetteman, a high school
player in Chicago, Mulbry added.
O'Connor Denies Violation.
O'Connor, in refusing to pay the
fine, maintained that he did not
violate the rule, which prohibits the
signing of hoys to professional con
tracts as long as they are in high
school, Mulbry said.
Announcement of the suspension
was first made in Chicago by O'Con
nnr hlmcplf
O’Connor refused to say why he
had been suspended, saying that
any further announcement would
have to come from Chandler.
"I won’t do any talking on the
subject,” he told a reporter. “I
will issue a written statement later.
Until I issue the statement I have
nothing further to say.”
O'Connor, 59, joined the White
Sox after a long career as “right
arm’’ and secretary for baseball’s
original commissioner, Kenesaw
Mountain Landis.
For 24 years O'Connor was the
man behind the scenes in Landis’
office. After Landis' death he was
mentioned as "logical successor” to
the famed “Sauire” he had served,
but he rejected the position, saying
“there was only one Landis and for
that reason there should never be
another commissioner.”
However, he did serve with Will
Harridge, president of the Amer
ican League, and Ford Frick, pres
ident of the National League, as a
three-man regency which governed
baseball during the interim between
Landis’ death and the selection of
O'Connor is the second major fig
ure in baseball to be suspended by
Chandler. The first was Leo “Lippy”
Durocher, manager of the Brooklyn
Dodgers, who was suspended for
the 1947 season.
Gov. Lane Reveals Plans
For Baltimore-York Road
By th* Associated Press
HARRISBURG. Pa„ Oct. 29.—
Plans for construction of a new
Baltimore-York <Pa.> road w-ere an
nounced last night by Gov. W. Pres
ton Lane of Maryland.
The Maryland executive, address
ing a joint meeting, of representa
tives of the Baltimore Association of
Commerce and the Harrisburg
Chamber of Commerce, said the
new road is among high priority
routes in a $169,000,000 highway
program authorized by the Mary
land General Assembly.
Kechel, Zoo's Indian Elephant,
Found Dead in Cage by Keeper
(Picture on Page A-z.)
Kechel, the Zoo’s huge Indian
elephant, died today.
She had been ailing for six months
or more. Saturday she went down
on her side in her cage in the ele
phant house for the last time. She
was found dead there this morning
by her keeper.
Cause of death is unknown, but
an attempt will be made to deter
mine it by Smithsonian Institution
experts who are going to dissect the
head. Veterinarians from Agricul
ture's Bureau of Animal Industry
will assist.
Kechel was 31 years old. She was
brought to the Zoo when a tiny
thing (for an elephant) less than
3 feet high. She was 2)4 years old!
She was a favorite of two genera
tions of children. Some of her
newer admirers were present today
when Kechels huge body, weighing
more.than 3 tons, was remoyed.
It was necessary to build a ramp
over the moat and drag the body
with a cable and winch up on rollers
to a truck.
Kechel came to the Zoo In 1018,
tne gut oi a group oi cu citizens
who contributed to a fund for her
purchase. The money was raised by
the late Mrs. Charles D. Wolcott,
whose husband was a secretary of
the Smithsonian.
Jumbina, the big-eared African
elephant at the Zoo, was kept in
the elephant house when Kechel’s
body was being removed so she
would not be disturbed by the sight.
While .Jumbina's appearance was
more striking. Kechel was the fa
vorite with the crowds. For one
thing Kechel would throw back her
trunk and open her mouth so spec
tators could throw peanuts into it—
just like a circus elephant.
She loved the new elephant build
ing, constructed 10 years ago, for
its pool. Kechel W'ould throw sand
on her back with her trunk, then
waddle in, roll about and wash It off.
She had been losing weight of late j
and her ribs were becoming notice-:
able. On Saturday canvas was hung
over her cage. She was silent in her
final illness.
By noon two grave diggers had
gouged a pit in the ground behind
the camel house large enough to
receive Kechel. She was to be bur
led this afternoon.
Union Is Barred
From NLRB Poll
On Pledge Rule
Board Says Failure
To Meet Law Makes
Seafarers Ineligible
By James Y. Newton
The National Labor Relations
Board today ruled unanimously
that a union which has not com
plied with the Taft-Hartley Act
in the filing of registration
statements and non-Commu
nist affidavits cannot appear on
the ballot in a bargaining elec
tion sought by a complying
The decision is important and one
that is likely to hit hard the large
number of CIO unions and some
AFL affiliates which have announced
they intend to boycott the new labor
relations law and the NLRB. Oppo
sition has centered around the pro
vision of the act which requires affi
davits from union officers disavowing
Federal labor officials immediately
pointed out that the long-awaited
decision will open noncomplying
unions to possible widespread raid
ing from organizations which have
met the requirements of the new
law for recognition. Some earlier
reports had indicated the NLRB
would allow noncomplying unions a
place on ballots in elections to de
termine bargaining representatives.
Case Involves Seafarer Union.
The unanimous decision of the
five-man board came in a case in
volving the Kinsman Transit Co.,
operator of cargo ships on the Great
Unions involved are the AFL Sea
farers' International Union and the
Lake Sailors’ Union, an independent.
The Seafarers, in compliance with
the registration and affidavit re
quirements of the Taft-Hartley Act.
petitioned for the collective bar
gaining election. The independent
intervened at a hearing for a place
on the ballot. It was not in com
pliance with filing provisions of the
act. Neither union has a contract
with the company.
In ordering the NLRB regional
director in Cleveland to conduct an
election within 30 days to determine
the representative of Kinsman em
ployes, the board gave the independ
ent union until November 1 to be
in compliance with the law.
Choice May Be Limited.
If the independent fails to comply
the election ballot will afford the
Kinsman sailors only the choice of
voting “yes” or "no" on the ques
tion whether they wish to be rep
resented by the AFL union.
The Seafarers petitioned for an
election last spring after the com
pany refused to recognize it as bar
gaining agent until it had been
certified by the NLRB.
A report last week indicated that
a minority of the estimated 60,000
local and international unions of
the country had complied with reg
istration and affidavit requirements.
However, a majority of the unions
have indicated they intend to
Besides the possibilities afforded
for raiding non-complying unions,
the board decision probably will re
sult in the employes of many com
panies voting “no union.”
Governor of Oregon
Missing on Plane
By the Associated Press
KLAMATH FALLS, Oreg., Oct. 29.
—Comdr, Hugh Tolley of the Kla
math Air Search and Rescue Unit
reported this morning that an air
search has been started for a private
plane which left here last night
carrying Gov. Earl Snell. Secretary
of State Robert Farrell, State Senate
President Marshall Cornett and
Cliff Hogue, Klamath Falls, pilot.
Comdr. Tolley said the plane was
scheduled to arrive late last night
at Adel, in Lake County, where the
party was going on a hunting trip
at the Kittridge Ranch, but failed
to arrive.
The rescue unit dispatched seven
planes early this morning and others
were scheduled to leave immediately.
Cloud conditions in the lake country
area were said to be very unfavor
able for an air search.
The possibility the party may
have gone to some other destina
tion was considered, but it was un
derstood Oscar Kittridge, joint
owner of the plane with Mr. Cor
nett, drove from his ranch to the
Coleman Lake landing area a few
miles away and waited for the party
last, niffht,.
Are Saying of Us:
The Moscow radio, broadcasting tn
Russian to the Soviet Union, said:
"America is rapidly retrogress
ing toward the middle ages.
People can be hounded there for
holding the theory of Darwin
and a humane attitude toward
the Negroes, and they can be
deprived of their work for their
political convictions. A whirl
wind of reactionary forces has
started in the United States? and
has at once spread to South
America, which once more con
firms the complete dependence
of the latter on Yankee capi
“According to the plans of the
United States reactionaries, the
so-called ‘democratic’ liberties
must not apply to Communists.
Although there was no special
police conference of the West- _
ern Hemisphere, apparently an
unofficial agreement has been
reached among the police authori
ties of all the countries of North
and South America. In any case,
brutal police provocations toward
American Communists and diplo
matic representatives of foreign
countries are very much alike

High U. S. Officer to Advise
Greek Army in Coming Drive
American Also Expected to Be Attached to
Government Units in Anti-Guerrilla Campaign
U. S. PLANS INCREASE in military
mission to Greece. Page A-9
By Paul Ghali
Fortign Correspondent of The Star and
the Chicago Dally News
ATHENS, Oct. 29.—When the
government begins its planned
offensive against the guerrillas
soon, to end the disastrous
3-year-old civil war in Greece, a
high-ranking American officer
will serve as adviser on military
Furthermore, it is very likely that
a team of American liaison officers
will be attached to the various gov
ernment army units.
Greece's 87-year-old Premier.
Themlstocles Sophoulis, made this
disclosure today in an interview. It
was the first intimation to be given
in the Greek capital that American
aid to Greece will not be strictly
limited to war material and food
When, six weeks ago, the Premier
proclaimed government amnesty for
all guerrillas laying down their arms,
he set an October 15 deadline, later
extending it to November 15. So
far only 3,451 rebels have taken ad
vantage of the offer. And of that
number 200 were formerly members
of Rightist bands, sticking with the
guerrillas because they feared pun
ishment for various crimes, and 1,451
were from towns.
Instead of surrendering, the au
dacity of the fanatical Andartes
fSee ATHENS, Page A-5.)
Security Board Drops
Protection for Hiding
Embarrassing Papers
Classification Draft
Retains Safeguards on
National Welfare
The Security Board drafting
secrecy classifications for Gov-:
ernment documents has modi-1
fled those that would have al
lowed Federal officials to hide
papers causing “administrative
embarrassment of difficulty,” it
was learned today.
If the plan goes Into effect, how
ever, it still will allow Government
departments to keep from the pub
lic any papers that fall into the
general category of being protected
“for the national welfare.”
President Truman last March or
dered the Security Advisory Board
of the State-Army-Navy-Air Force
Do-ordinating Committee to draw up
the set of standard security rules
for departments.
Four Classifications.
The board has rated documents
important to the national welfare
into four classifications—top secret,
secret, confidential and restricted—
similar to those that have been
observed for years by such depart
ments as State, War and Navy.
But if the President approves the
new- rules presumably they will ap-j
ply to all agencies of the Govern
Definitions revealed by the board
last week drew heavy protest that
they would permit officials to keep
even ordinary functions of civilian
agencies away from the public.
Under heaviest fire was this defini
tion of "confidential” information:
That which, "although not endan
gering the national security, would
be prejudicial to the interests or
prestige of the Nation, any govern
mental activity, or an individual, or
would cause serious administrative
embarrassment or difficulty.”
In a revised recommendation to
the Co-ordinating Committee yes
terday, the board deleted the section
referring to governmental activity
and admihistrative embarrassment.
New Phrase Added.
lb auueu, iiuwcvn, tuc piun.BC tunt
information should be withheld if it
"would cause unwarranted injury to
an individual, or would be of ad
vantage to a foreign nation.”
A spokesman for the committee
said the phrase barring "unwar
ranted injury to an individual” was
not aimed at protecting Federal
officials, but at protecting individual
citizens, in such cases as passport
records and loyalty findings.
Also deleted from the earlier draft
was a clause in the “top secret”
definition that would have put top
withholding priority on information
that would cause exceptionally grave
damage “to any governmental ac
The new changes were revealed
yesterday by State Department
Press Officer Michael J. McDermott, j
Hamilton Robinson, a State Depart-'
ment official, is head of the Security
Advisory Board.
Mr. McDermott said later that, if
the President approves the plan, it
will not mean all Government docu
ments will be classified. It would
Instruct officials, however, to classify
(See SECURITY^Page A-4.)
Hijackers Are Foiled
After Slugging Guard,
Seizing Whisky Load
Truck Carrying Liquor
Valued at $4,600 Is
Halted in Arlington
An attempt by two or more
hijackers to make away with a
truckload of whisky valued at
$4,600 early today was foiled by
Arlington police.
The hijackers slugged a man
guarding the truck at a gas station
at 1943 New York avenue N.E., I
transferred the 125 cases of whisky,
to another truck, and kidnaped the
guard, police stated.
The truck to which the liquor
was transferred was stopped by Ar
lington police at Twenty-eighth
and South Fox streets, Arlington,
shortly afterward, but the occu
pants escaped, leaving the dazed
The truck and whisky were turned
over to District police. The guard
was identified as Robert Powers,
20, of St. Paul, N. C. The whisky
was from Baltimore, consigned to
G. B. Curran, Fayetteville, N. C.
Details of Highjacking. *
Detective Sergt. Francis Gaver, j
of the Metropolitan police, said the
story of the attempted hijacking1
appeared to be as follows:
The truck stopped at the New
York avenue gas station about 3:30!
a.m. Mr. Powers was following the'
truck in an automobile which also'
was occupied by Roscoe Brice, iden
tified as a business agent of the
owner of the whisky.
The detective said Mr. Powers1
(See HIJACKERS. Page A-4.)
Tokyo Mail 'Strike' Ends
TOKYO, Oct. 29 (JP).—Mass absen
teeism to enforce wage increases
endedjtoday in the Tokyo post office,
but officials figured it would take
eight days to dig out from the moun
tain of mail. The wage issue still
is unsettled.
McGrath Is Elected
Democratic Chairman
By Unanimous Vote
National Committeemen
Hear Praise of Truman
As Session Opens Here
By Gould Lincoln
The Democratic National Com
mittee today unanimously elect
ed Senator McGrath of Rhode
Island as its new chairman and
immediately began laying other
plans for the active opening of
the 1948 presidential campaign.
Senator McGrath, 43-year-old
former solicitor general and Rhode
Island Governor, succeeds Post
master General Hannegan, whose
resignation as chairman, announced
weeks ago, was accepted with re
Senator McGrath expressed his
appreciation when he took the chair.
Both Mr. Hannegan and his succes
sor paid tribute to President Tru
man, virtually called on him to
run for re-election, and promised
him victory.
Called World Leader.
“With much of the world living in
fear and discouragement," Senator
McQrath said, “Harry S. Truman
has become a great inspiration of
confidence. He has grasped the reins
of world leadership, he has spread
the spirit of neighborliness and good
will among the nations that are
composed of men of good will. He
is the beacon light to which demo
cratic countries look for guidance
into the harbors of peace and se
curity. Humble yet firm in his man
ners and decisions, he has appealed
to the hearts of .American citizens
as a true product of all that has
gone into the makeup of American
culture. l
“In the workings of our demo
cratic process, there is little that
he can do to safeguard his own
political future. That task is ours."
Mr. Hannegan, in submitting his
resignation, expressed his gratitude
to Gael Sullivan, executive director
of the Democratic National Com
mittee. He said that Mr. Sullivan
for nine months has worked night
and day to advance the interests
of the Democratic Party on demo
oroH/* rvrinoinloc
Sullivan Stays On.
Mr. Sullivan is staying on, for the
time at least, in his present post.
He and Senator McGrath were
classmates at Providence College.
In his speech. Mr. Hannegan said:
‘‘Americans, millions of them, are
with our President heart and soul,
and their voices are calling evermore
clearly for him to stay at the helm.
We shall keep him there.”
The committee is expected to vote
to hold the 1948 Democratic National
Convention in Philadelphia before
its sessions close today. However,
Mrs. Edward Heller, California na
tional committeewoman, promised
that San Francisco will meet any
bid put forward by Philadelphia,
dollar for dollar. No other invita
tions were before the committee.
June or July Date Expected.
The selection of a date for the
Convention Committee will be left
(See DEMOCRATS, Page A-4.>
Report Asks End
Of Abuses to
Civil Rights
President's Committee
Urges Federal Action,
Cites D.C. Segregation
COMPLETE TEXT of the section on
“Civil Rights in the Nation’s
Capital.’’ Page A-6
HIGH LIGHTS from the Civil
Rights report. Page A-6
committee members. Page A-6
on Civil Rights report on Page A-3
The President’s Committee on
Civil Rights today recommended
immediate, direct Federal action
to correct “serious flaws’’ in the
country-wide civil rights picture
by outlawing racial discrimina
tions and other threats to “hu
man freedom and equality.’’
In a 178-page report to President
Truman, who appointed^ the 15
member group last December, the
committee singled out the District
of Columbia as a dramatic illustra
tion of ‘‘shortcomings in our record
and the need for change” in segre
gation systems and political as well
as racial discrimination practices.
Describing the situation in Wash
ington as “intolerable,” the commit
tee called for prompt congressional
enactment of legislation for the Dis
trict which would:
Wipe out restrictive covenants
aimed at preventing colored people
from owning or occupying property
in white neighborhoods.
Would End School Segregation.
Outlaw segregation in the school
Ban segregation and discrimina
tion of other kinds in recreation
centers, hospitals, theaters, hotels,
restaurants and similar places or
institutions, and in the opportunity
for employment.
The committee also urged Con
gress to give local self government
to the District. It advocated a
Constitutional amendment allowing
District residents to vote in presi
dential elections and to be repre
sented in Congress.
President Truman told the com
mittee at the White House this
morning that he would take the de
sirability and feasibility of imple
menting the report under consid
In a prepared statement to the
committee the President said, “I
hope this committee has given us
as broad a document as the Decla
ration of Independence—an Amer
ican charter of human freedom in
..._LI_ — (I
Need “Never Graver.”
Explaining that he had created
the committee "with a feeling of
urgency” because racial and reli
gious intolerance began to appear
in the .United States after the war.
President Truman declared:
"The need for such a charter was
never greater than at this time.
Men of good-will everywhere are
striving under great difficulties to
create a world-wide moral order,
firmly established in the life of na
tions. For us here in America a
new charter of human freedom will
be a guide for action, and in the
eyes of the world it will be a decla
ration of our renewed faith in the
American goal—the integrity of the
individual human being, sustained
by the moral consensus of the whole
Nation, protected by a Government
based on equal freedom under just
In its attacks on practices which,
in its opinion, violate or interfere
with the civil rights of many groups
of citizens throughout the Nation,
the committee touched on numerous
issues that hav» caused bitter con
troversy in Congress. It recom
mended, for instance, the enact
ment of anti-lynching, anti-poll tax
and fair employment practice laws,
enforced by the Federal Govern
Sees “Near Hysteria” on Reds.
On the issue of subversive activ
ities, it warned that public ex
citement about communists in the
United States has reached a “state
of near hysteria.” It cautioned
against hysteria or repression as
weapons in the fight against total
itarian influences or individuals. It
declared, nevertheless, the Govern
ment should do everything demo
cratically possible to bring enemies
of democracy out into the open.
"This committee unqualifiedly op
poses any attempt to impose special
limitation on the rights of those
people to speak and assemble,” the
report stated. “The principle of
disclosure is, we believe, the appro
priate way to deal with those who
would subvert our democracy by
revolution or by encouraging'dis
unity and destroying the civil rights
of some groups.
“We have considered and rejected
proposals for censoring or prohibit
ing material which defames re
ligious or racial minority groups.
Our purpose is not to constrict any
one's freedom to speak; it is rather
to enable the people better to
judge the true motives of those
who try to sway them."
Four Essential Rights.
The committee based its recom
mendations on the strengthening
of four essential rights—safety and
security of person, citizenship and
its privileges, freedom of conscience
and expression, and equality of op
The United States has progressed
in civil rights practices and, com
pared with many other countries,
has an outstanding record, the com
mittee found. But for the preserva
tion of liberties here and the spread
of democratic ideals abroad, this
Nation must act immediately to im
prove civil rights practices, it de
The committee therefore recom
mended that Congress and State
Legislature outlaw racial segrega
tion and discrimination in schools,
hospitals, theaters, hotels, transpor- •
tation facilities and similar places,
(See CIVIL RIGHTS, Page A-6.) ~
Civil Rights Committee Avoids
Direct Comment on Red Probe
Members of the President’s Civil
Rights Committee today refused to
be drawn into a direct discussion of
precedures of the House Committee
on Un-American Activities hearings
on Communist influence in the mo
tion picture industry. But Chair
man Charles E. Wilson declared he
would not consider his civil rights
invaded if a congressional commit
tee asked him if he were a Com
The chairman, however, parried a
question whether he would answer
a congressional committee if asked
whether he were a Democrat or a
Republican. He said he never an
swered that question when asked by;
acquaintances but, when asked if|
he would reply to such a question j
by a congressional committee, Mr.1
Wilson countered: “Well, aren’t you
getting off on a tangent?"
Many of the queries at the news
conference touched on the commit
tee’s report dealing with-methods
of exposing subversion influences
and at the same time preserving
basic civil rights. Mr. Wilson ex
plained that the committee "doesn’t
claim to have found a complete
formula on exposure of Commu
Rabbi Roland B. Gittlesohn re
marked: "We are likely to becloud
the issue when we try to say who
is or is not a Communist in a par
ticular instance or whether a Con
gressional committee has a right
to ask that question. The great
danger is that a person accused of
being a Communist may not have
ample opportunity to defend him
Other members apparently agreed;
with his comment that fundamental
consideration should be given to
strengthening procedures so that
congressional committee witnesses
would have adequate, opportunity
to defend themselves against un
favorable testimony by other wit
Chairman Wilson said the com
mittee has not taken up the report
with any members of Congress. He
added that he hopes “to have some
thing. from the Attorney General.”
Pandora's Dilemma
; •—o
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