Newspaper Page Text
I - —
» m With Sunday Morning Edition. i V^A S H I N 0 T 0 N, D. C Published by ;i7ht Evening Star Newspaper Company. FRANK B. NOYES, President. ' * B. M. McKEL,WAY, Editor._ ?' MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE: 110 East 42d St. CHICAGO OFFICE: 435 North Mlchlgon Ave. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. Dolly and Sunday Dally Only Sunday Only Monthly —1.20* Monthly -90c 10c per copy Weekly 30c Weekly 20c 0c per copy •10c additional when 5 Sunday* are In a month. Alto 10c additional for Night Final Edition In those sections where delivery it made. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United States. Evening ond Sunday Evening *“,nJ*aV 1 month — 1.50 1 month — 90c 1 mon!u 6 months- 7.50 6 months . 5.00 6 months 3.00 1 year ...15.00 1 year — 10.00 1 year -6.00 Telephone NAtionol 5000. Entered at the Post Office, Washington, D. C., qi second-class man manw. Member of the Associated Press. the Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use for republication of all the local news printed In this newspaper, as well os all A. P. news dispatches. A^_10 ^ONDAY, December 29, 1947 Waiting for Wallace ,*The address which Henry A. Wallace is *4heduled to make tonight is being awaited with considerable interest, especially by the strategists of the Democratic high command. For Mr. Wallace, If he commits himself to a third party candidacy, may be able to do a measure of damage to the Democratic Party that Is far out of pro portion to his real strength. In recent weeks there has been a sub stantial falling away of Wallace strength. An increasing number of those to the political left, who thought they had found lij Mr. Wallace an instrument for bringing pressure to bear on the relative conserva tism of the two major parties, have come td see that the evil consequences of a third party ticket under the Wallace banner would far outweigh any gains In the domestic field. This Is so because the main thrust of the Wallace drive has been against our foreign policy. He has made a consider able attack, of course, on the domestic policies of both the administration and the Republicans. But the fact remains that ttie overriding issue which has been raised by Mr. Wallace is that of our foreign policy, apd It has become clear that there can be no compromise on this Issue; that a vote for Wallace is a vote for reversal of the whole basic policy of resistance to o crcrrP sntnn which has been agreed upon by an overwhelming majority of our people. And in consequence former Wallace adherents have been renouncing their allegiance in more or less embittered terms. If Mr. Wallace has secretly hoped that he could bring enough pressure to bear against the President to force a retreat on the foreign policy issue without actually taking the field himself, he has failed. For the administration, through Democratic National Chairman McGrath, has an nounced that while it would welcome sup port from Wallace next year, it wifi not change its policies to get that support. This is a courageous and thoroughly com mendable stand. It now remains to be seen whether Mr. Wallace will actually take the third-party nlunge, and, if so, how much damage he Ian do. The record of third-party movements in this country is not especially revealing. In 1924 the elder La Follette broke with the Republicans and ran as the third-party candidate of certain trade unions, the Socialists and a number of liberal groups. He ran ahead of the Democratic candidate in eleven States, but the Republican ticket won easily. Twelve years earlier, however, when Theodore Roosevelt split with the Republicans and formed a third party, he ran ahead of President Taft in popular vbte and threw the election to Woodrow Wilson. ' „ In 1860 there were two “third parties In the field and Lincoln won the presidency with only 40 per cent of the popular vote. In 1872 Horace Greeley had had enough of the administration of General Grant. He formed a third party and also got the Democratic nomination, but he was snowed under by Grant's second term bid. A Republican split in 1884, however, had more significant consequences. The nom ination of James G. Blaine, who had been accused of corruption while Speaker of the House, was offensive to some of his party. Unwilling to support Cleveland, these dissidents split their votes between candidates of the Greenback and Prohibi tion parties. These tickets polled a total of 42,000 votes in New York State, which Blaine lost by 1,149 votes. If he had /■arripri New York he *would have won the election. Whether Wallace can duplicate this per , formance remains to be seen. His greatest .strength probably is in New York, how ever, and if, as a third party candidate, he can throw that State to the Republicans there would be little chance of the re election of President Truman. To Be Part of the Record All of what the President said in his an nouncement that he would reluctantly sign the Republican anti-inflation bill is no doubt true. It is highly improbable that any or all of the voluntary control devices outlined in this measure will do very much to stem the high cost of living. As the high cost of living is certain to be a vital issue in this coming year of politi cizing, the President is building a record of “I told you so” to counterbalance the Republican claims of “I told you so.” . What the President does not say, of course, is that while he outlined a ten point anti-inflation bill—of which the Re publican leadership availed itself of only three points—it is unlikely that had all ten of his points been applied any sub stantial effect would have been noted on " the inflationary spirals now in progress. Under the President’s program we might have experienced a more dramatic substi tution of evils—the evils of more Gov ernment controls, more black markets, etc., for the evils of runaway prices, gray markets, etc. As a matter of fact, we are not apt to find any legislative cure, nor the means of applying it, for what ails us now. The President’s statement, which Repub lican leaders will be answering in detail, Is merely a foretaste of things to come within the year about to begin. We axe going to be paying high prices for every thing and the President and his political opponents are going to be busily at work trying to convince the victims of these high prices that it is the other fellow’s fault. Sound Loyality Principles Chairman Seth W. Richardson of the Loyalty Review Board shares the anxiety of many persons in and out of the Govern ment service over some phases of the new loyalty program. He and his colleagues on the board particularly regret that it will not always be possible to confront accused employes with the witnesses against them. But most reasonable citizens will agree wholeheartedly with the board that to abandon the whole security program on this account—a suggestion which the board says has been “vigorously presented” to it—would be unjustified and contrary to the public interest. The Star believes that fully as much peril lies in becoming hysterical over employes’ “rights” as in succumbing to the type of hysteria which leads to' witch-hunting. There is a sound middle ground between both extremes and it is toward this ground that the board is seeking to chart its ad mittedly difficult course. The sincerity and objectivity of the board’s policies are evi dent to any fair-minded person who reads carefully Mr. Richardson’s thoughtfully prepared statement of yesterday. The board quite properly has laid em _1_2-___1 _ 4. 1U.4 ^uaoio a vwnu wu u* i/v** *w» v i v» looked or submerged by critics of the loyalty program: This is that rights of citizens under the Constitution are not analogous to those of a civil servant. Jus tice Holmes once pointed out that while a citizen has a right to do many things under freedoms granted by the Constitu tion, he has no constitutional right to a Government Job. Federal employment is a privilege which entails grave obligations and which of necessity imposes certain limitations on individual "rights.” As the board stresses in its announce ment, the Government’s rights must be considered, too. The Government’s rights must be protected for the sake of all the people. There can be no doubt as to the right of the Government to adopt safe guards against the sort of fifth column infiltration and disloyalty that threatened the security of Canada prior to the Russian spy ring expose. The Government has full legal authority to discharge an employe without telling him why or affording him a hearing. It does not propose to exercise this right finder the President’s loyalty order, how ever. Suspected employes will be furnished with the charges against them and will have an opportunity to answer them in hearings before departmental boards and, under appellate procedure, before the Civil Service Commission’s Loyalty Review Board. Employes may be represented by counsel of their own choosing. Whenever permissible, the source of the information against an employe will be disclosed. But this is not likely to happen very often for the reason that in most instances the Federal Bureau of Investiga tion will insist on protection of its confi dential informants. The FBI is not to be criticized for* maintaining this position. Some of its most valuable and reliable tips have come from persons who would not talk if their Identities were to be made known outside the bureau. Data bearing on the credibility of anonymous informants will be supplied by the FBI whenever pos sible, however. The FBI will nresent. nnlv the fonts as revealed by its investigation, not any con clusions its agents may have arrived at in their own minds. The evaluation of the evidence will be the responsibility of the various loyalty boards. The boards will be free to give any weight they may deem desirable to the FBI findings. The report will be considered in relation to all other facts known about the employe in ques tion. Consideration will also be given to the fact that the accused was not permitted to cross-examine accuser. The em ploye will have the right of appeal to the head of his department and to the Loyalty Review Board. Thus it is apparent that the Government is taking pains to provide every reasonable safeguard for individual rights, consistent with a due regard for its own security. The statement of principles issued by Mr. Richardson shows that the Loyalty Review Board is conscious of the great responsibili ties devolving upon it and is determined to discharge them fairly and forthrightly. The Star sees no threat to the liberties guaranteed by the Constitution if the board adheres to its* stated principles. The real threat of the program will be felt by those who regard lightly or not at all the oath of loyalty required of every civil servant. Victor Emmanuel III Dead in exile in Egypt at seventy-eight, Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy from 1900 until 1946, was a pathetic figure. Most of his life he was a prisoner of dif ferent' political groups. He submitted to Mussolini in 1922 in order to prevent civil conflict in Rome. For his recognition of the Fascists he finally paid with his crown. Meanwhile, his good points were ob scured, if not entirely forgotten. Even his own generation of Italians ceased to remember that he once had been boasted about for his “intellectual accomplish ments”—his knowledge of mathematics, chemistry, military science and history. He was not a “moronic little King,” though he was a weak little King. Speaking Eng lish, French, German and Latin, as well as his native tongue, hq personified the i cultural renaissance of the early portion of the century—the resurgence of art and literature which produced Sacconi’s me morial to Victor Emmanuel’s grandfather, dedicated in 1911. The late King also was popular for “his works for the good of the people.” He stood by them during earthquakes, fam ines, plagues and other troubles, attempt ing to ease their suffering by his presence and their poverty by his charity. His own diminutive size—traceable to rickets in infancy—may have been responsible for the degree of sympathy which he mani fested toward individuals in distress. He. spent his childhiod in a steel-braced jacket —an experience which taught him a lesson of charity and tolerance which influenced his whole career. Perhaps Victor Emmanuel might have been a more successful leader H he had ' i been made of sterner stuff. There were moments when he should have been "tough,” and he failed the demands of those occasions to the hurt of himself and of the Italian nation. Now he passes from the world scene forever. It Is a sardonic fact that his major claim on enduring fame Is that of his genius as a collector of coins and as the writer of ten scholarly volumes relating to them. He was the outstanding numismatist of the vanished age to which he belonged. By the same fateful logic he was not a truly great sov ereign of that era. < The Press and the U. N. The State Department is on reasonable ground In moving for an early conference with the United Nations on the subject of accrediting alien newspaper correspond ents. The move follows Secretary General Trygve Lie’s implied criticism of action taken by the United States to deport two men—one a Greek and the other an Indian—rated as press representatives by somebody in the U. N. In rather sharp language, the State De partment has defended the deportation proceedings as being fully In accord with the letter and spirit of the United States United Nations agreement on such matters. The Greek Involved, according to the department, ceased being a bona nde Journalist last October 18, when the Athens government closed the two Com munist papers he represented, and his dis qualification was not removed when he was accredited later by a clerk in the U. N. accreditation office, this time as a reporter for an obscure weekly in Cyprus, too poor to pay him a living wage. As for the Indian—who has arranged to leave voluntarily rather than be deported —the department has observed that he entered this country on a student visa and that the U.N. took surprising action in accepting him as a correspondent. Further, the State Department has pointed out that in both these cases the accreditation office failed to consult with it before reaching a decision, even though the United States-United Nations agree ment requires such consultation. Actually, in the department’s opinion, neither the Indian student nor the Greek Communist could rightly claim to be a genuine corre spondent, and the evidence seems more than ample to support that view, together with the view that our Immigration laws made them subject to deportation. The fact that some clerk in the U. N. took it upon himself to accredit them, without consulting anybody, has not cloaked them with immunity; on the contrary, about the only thing it has done is to Indicate that the U. N. needs to tighten up its system of passing upon the qualifications of applicants for press credentials. In the circumstances, the State Depart ment’s suggestion for "a drastic revision” of accreditation procedures adds up to plain good sense. The press covering the United Nations—like the press covering any event or organization of consequence —should be made up of bona fide, full time newspapermen. Phonies or worse ought not to be allowed in. The U.N. should make a special point of guarding against them. Never before, according to a census finding, were there so many preschool tots in the American population. Posterity, it seems, is just around the comer. This and That By Charles E. Tracewell “EVARTS STREET N.E. "Dear Sir: "We have a winter feeding stand for the birds and many kinds come. "But the starlings flop down and drive away all the other birds. "Can you suggest what to do? “With great appreciation for your advice in The Star. “Sincerely yours, J. C.” * * * * Do nothing. That is good advice in many situations. Sometimes a waiting policy works. A sort of modified nonresistance. Americans, as a group, are too inclined to get hot and bothered about everything. Some times, if they simply waited, the thing would solve itself. One famous columnist had a policy as to answering mail. He found that if he waited long enough, many letters needed no answer. While such a policy cannot be unreservedly recommended in such a case, in regard to starlings, squirrels, English sparrows and even grackles, it has its good points. What is the use of growing red in the face because something wants some of the food you have put out? . Starlings, too, are hungry in the cold. They see no reason for not trying to eat what the other birds are eating. How can they know that mankind has set up two—or more—classes of wlldbirds, one called “desirable,” and the other “not desir able.” All they know is that they are hungry, and there before them is something to eat. They perhaps have a better excuse than most birds, since their temperature is slightly higher, and they are larger. Big birds need plenty of food. What starling wants to wake up in the morn ing to find his feet frozen to the perch? If our correspondent will not be impatient, he yill find that in most instances the starlings fly away shortly. They never harm the othe'r and smaller birds, in fact, they cannot be said to drive them away, really, for that is done by their mere bulk. Such is the law, in nature: The larger drives away tne smaller. The latter are fortunate when the larger does not kill, as part of his driving away. One good point to the feeding station on a stake or pole is that squirrels or starlings may seem to hog the roost, but actually much food is knocked off by them to the ground, where the smaller birds get it. The jbstlings and pushings going on at tha feeding tray are not fighting, in the human sense. When humans fight, they fight to kill, but when hungry birds jostle one another, there is alwavs an “inning” for each creature. This is easily seen if some time is given to observation. The cheerful chickadee and the pert tit mouse fly in when the sparrows are away, but when the common little birds arrive, the more desirable ones go elsewhere. This is the way nature does it. Careful watch, through the day, if one has the time, will reveal that the chickadees, tit mice and others fly in every now and then, when there happens to be a lull at the station. One good way to keep starlings away is to fail to put out bread. This is a favorite of these vigorous birds. ■ A sure way to attract them, is to put slices of moistened bread in the yard. If the bread is left dry, often the starlings will carry it to a bird bath and “dunk” it. Observation of starlings is as good, in a sense, as watching the more "desirable” songsters. Few birds, as a matter of fact, have better brains, t£nd perhaps none is a better flyer. Ability to think, ability to fly—these are so valued today by man that he must not despise any other living creature that enjoys these powers, .. • - -• . "'it.--' A # Letters to The Star speculation Up to Congress To the Editor of The Star: • With all the talk about speculation In grains and demands for information as to the names of the Individual speculators, the real issue involved has been lost. Prom the tenor of the press it would appear that speculation in grains is some sort of crime, when as a mat ter of fact trading in commodity futures is done on many different exchanges throughout this country. Each of these exchanges is open to any person who has the necessary resources and the desire to enter the market. No broker legally could refuse to handle his account. There is no secret manipulation required in order to gain access to these markets. There is no undercover operation. There are no laws prohibiting speculation. The identity of every trader is available to the Agriculture Department. * The real issue is this: Is it consonant with the national Interest for the grain markets to operate freely during these times when it is obvious that the tremendous need for grains far exceeds the supply? If the answer is "No,” then it is of supreme importance for Congress to pass legislation required to keep prices in check. Let us stop talking about things in terms of ethics. Our economic system is based upon the principle of profit, and money and people almost automatically move to the places where it is possible to make the largest profits in the shortest possible time. Wherever it is not de clared specifically illegal to engage in a specific type of operation, we can expect to find some persons attempting to secure economic advan tage for themselves. This, of course, applies to current speculation in grains as well as to speculation in other commodities in short sup ply. The only method to curb unhealthy spec ulation is for Congress to take the necessary legislative action speedily. BONA FIDE. Appreciation for Dr. Harris To the Editor of The Star: It has been a pleasure to read the two ex cellent articles contributed by Rev. Dr. Fred erick B. Harris and I wish to thank you and Dr. Harris for the enrichment thus offered me. “The Spires” and “Again the Bells” are wel come views In a world bewildered and per plexed. They are indeed refreshing words and such as give timely encouragement. I was deeply impressed by the claim made upon peoples who have liberty and well-being to share their benefactions with our fellow humans who today are dispossessed. NORMAN MAKIN. Case /or Religious Instruction To the Editor of The Star: As I read about Mrs. Vashti McCollum’s attempt to bar religious education from Illinois schools 1n a case now before the Supreme Court, It seemed to me that during the hearing statements and questions of cer tain judges prostituted reason. Justice Jackson, for example, said that the question before the court was as follow’s: “Under the Constitution, can the State compel citizens to give up part of their time—by making them go to school—and then give some of it back, on condition they go to religious classes?” That obviously is not the question. The question is this: Under the First Amendment to the Constitution can religion be taught in a public school, if all children have an equal right to be instructed in their particular religion? Or stated in another way, does the Cham paign plan establish a religion or especially favor one already established? Clearly it does neither. Whether a particular religion has a thousand pupils or only one in a school, it has the right to teach its faith under the plan. In the case of atheism, since atheism is merely the negatioh of all belief in God, there is nothing to be taught and atheistic pupils can study their arithmetic, or what have you, in what for them is merely another study period. * At the same hearing Justice Frankfurter asked whether it was wise to bring such a divisive factor as religion into the schools. That religion can be a,divisive factor is admitted, and the solution to Mr. Frank furter’s question is» simple, let us just forget about God and we will not nght admit God. Ethics Identified With Religion. But when we forget about God, we forget about the Ten Commandments, we forget about the Golden Rule, and we live in a society in which the only law restraining men from rape, murder, and violating and killing little children, is the law of other men. Isn’t it possible that by keeping the fear of God, or more importantly the love of God from which flows love of fellow men, in our children’s hearts we may obtain a more law abiding Nation? Furthermore,, it is not necessary to grant that religion is any more divisive in schools than it is anywhere else. After all, the facts of the case reveal that the different religions do not hold classes in the same room at the same time. The great danger of our time and of future times is not that one religion will override another, but that forgetfulness of God will bverride all religions. I happen to be a Catholic, but I am happy to see a Protestant child or a Jewish child learning the principles of his faith because I know that no matter through what medium the Will of God may come, when applied to life in the United States, it will make our Nation better because of its application. Our descendants will have a happier and more secure future if they come in contact in future 'centuries with men and women who are religious even if the religions themselves still are different. In the pkst, differences in religion have caused troubles but the religions themselves have accomplished good. Even Mrs. Vashti McCollum hardly can say that the teachings of Gautama Buddha, Christ and the Jewish lawgivers do not help the world. She cannot say that they have no immediate and prac* tical value. Even a cursory glance at history reveals that the actions of men since the be ginning of recorded time have been motivated oy LIlC bCHlsIllllgd LUC fciCttb iciigivuo lecbcxcio, qnd no student can have a well-rounded view of the world if religion is left out of his schooling. Benefits of Religious Teaching. Even Voltaire, the greatest atheist, admitted the value of religion when he said, “If there were no idea of God, I would invent oner’ But beneficial as the teaching of religion may be, still if the First Amendment forbids it, it is forbidden. Ye*1 it is clearly not for bidden in the wording of the First Amendment. But, perhaps, 'as Justice Jackson et al. evident ly believe, the First Amendment may mean, more than it says. The only way such a stand could possibly be Justified is by trying to find out what the framers of the Constitution In tended when they wrote the First Amendment. If they were men who wished to minimize the influence of religion and prevent its spread there is, of cdurse, reason to imply that re ligion should be kept out of our schools. But what do we find? We find men with a strong belief in God, many of whose families left the countries of their origin for a raw, new land where they could worship God as freely and as fully as they please. Is it logical to believe that men with such a strong belief In God would legislate against the teaching of God? Is It not more logical to assume that they would legislate against having the particular view of God taken ^ by » j-V Letters for publication must bear the signature and address of the writer, although it is permissible for a writer known to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be brief. one religion jammed down the throats of men belonging to another religion? It is self-evidently true to any one ac quainted with the facts .of the Champaign plan, that this plan not only does not force any one to listen to ideas about God repug nant to them, but does not force any one to listen to the idea that there is a God. JOHN F. REILLY. Criticizes Educational Committee To the Editor of Th; Star: The South evidently is a subject of study by rigged commissions. President Truman’s Com mittee on Civil Rights contained only two mem bers from the South, and his Committee on Higher Education has only four, though the committee consists of 28 members. The South erners on the latter committee—Fred D. Pat terson, president of Tuskegee Institute; Good rich C. White, president of Emory University; Lewis D. Jones, president of Arkansas Univer sity, and'Douglas S. Freeman, editor of the News-Leader, Richmond, Va.—three educators and one editor. The report on education inveighs against un equaled opportunities, yet its composition does equal violence to an equally vital principle— equal representation of those concerned. The South contains one-third of the school popula tion of the Nation, but it gets only one-seventh representation, and one-fourth of the one- j seventh is a representative of a colored institu- j tion. And this is Just one of the many logical lapses and incongruities Incident to the com mission and its report. One of the pet aversions of the Educational Committee, as with the Civil Rights Committee, is segregation in the schools of the South. The following is an illustration of the havoc preju dice plays with logic and straight thinking: “Segregation lessens the quality of education. IP maintain two school systems side by side— Duplicating even inadequately the buildings, equipment and teaching personnel—means that neither can be of the quality that would be pos sible if all of the available resources were de voted to one system. Especially not when the States least able financially to support an ade quate program for their youth are the very ones that are trying to carry a double load.” Analyze the foregoing quotation and see for yourself just how little sense the same contains. Is the committee prepared to double the teach er load? To cut the expense in half would require just that. Is the committee prepared to place children in tiers in the classroom? To cut the expense in half would require tfiat to be done. Of course, the South is trying to carry no double load, except in the sense ^hat the white man is carrying many times the tax load of the colored man, which is his duty, and, to my way of thinking, a great privilege. , Certainly, segregation does not lessen the quality of education. The colored man has his schools manned by teachers of his race. Initia- j tive and self-reliance are the resultants. Abolish segregation and the white teachers will take over, to the injury 6f the colored man himself. I believe the colored man wants some institutions of his own. He should, if he doesn’t. And what could give him more satisfaction than | the knowledge that his civilization is largely j the product of his own schools? Furthermore, I find the logic of the com mittee exceedingly bad in other respects. The stability of democratic institutions depends upon diffusion of power and diversity of views, not upon a unified and standardized educational system directed and controlled from Wash ington. Think of it: One hundred and forty millions of people over a continental area all under one and the same educational system, fed the same thought material—a ready-made and an Ideal opportunity for a Hitlerized society 1 Federal aid is a hypnotic term, and many crimes are committed under its spell; but let's not Jeopardize what democratic institutions we have left by adopting a master system oi uniform and standardized education of the Washington variety. This country deserves a better fate than that. JOHN M. HESTER. Veteran Speaks His Mind To the Editor of The Star: I am an ex-serviceman of World War I, and I would like to express my opinion of an editorial in your paper headed "Period.” I think it is about time our Government offi cials came down to earth and started repre senting the people who voted them into office. The American soldier goes through the hell of war and the American taxpayers are paying for it. Now President Truman is asking for a 10-point inflation program and emergency power which would bring this country back to wartime control. I don’t think the people want any part of it. We have had enough regimenta tion in the past. The best program to fight inflation is to return the Government to the people and let them decide a few things for themselves. Our foreign^id program, I think, should be voted on by the paeple to see just how far they are willing to go. It doesn't make sense to me to try to wreck a nation one year, then take American taxpayers’ money and build it up the next. ROBERT G. SCHELL. Shepherdstown, W. Va. Confusion Compounded To the Editor of The Star: It seems to me that the editorial which accuses Wilbur La Roe, jr„ of “Confusion of Thought” in his recent speech before a New York audience is more confused than Mr. La Roe. As I see it, the moderator believes that we should be firm in our stand against total itarianism, yet not aggressive ourselves; and that Russia should be made aware that she is putting peace in jeopardy. This much does not confuse me. ml_i. 1_ T « D/vn "has not the faintest idea how it can be done.” I suspect that the editorial does not. I know that I do not, and I cannot see how Mr. La Roe can be expected to burst forth, at this point, with a neatly tied' up package of rules and regulations solving the Russian dilemma—all in one little speech. It seems to be taking many minds, much experi ence and agonizing confusion to evolve a plan for peace. MRS. WARREN H. GILBERTSON. Christmas Editorials Approved To the Editor of The Star: The writer wholeheartedly commends and compliments The Star on its two editorials "Christmas All the Year” and “Definitely Mis named” in its issue of December 25. He sub scribes 100 per cent to the sentiments embodied therein. The former is the best editorial on Christmas the writer has read and he has read most of those published by the press oh the East Coast. Each editorial the writer regards as con structive reading. They stand out conspicuously and pre-eminently in the field of journalism and remind one of the old adage, "Conscience is so constituted that it puts nothing above itself.” AUGUSTUS LEE. Meaning Clear Enough To the Editor of The Star: A Communist wants the right to veto our right to anything. IL Y. DEFINITION. Stars] Men and Atoms Scientists Hunt Something Entirely Lacking Weight ‘Neutrino’ Must Exist, They Declare, Or Natural Laws Are Contradicted By Thomas R. Henry CHICAGO, Dec 29.—A quest for something that weighs nothing was described to the Amer ican Association for the Advancement of Stienoe meeting here today. It apparently exists crnly tor an Infinitesi mally minute instant when It Is born and hitherto nobody has found any actual evidence of Its reality. But If It does not exist, nuclear physicists are in a quandary, for the situation would contradict the law of the conservation of matter and energy. This mysterious particle Is the “neutrino.” When a beta particle—that Is, an electron—Is shot out from a radioactive atom, the atom re coils like a gun when It is fired. The energy of the electron is not quite sufficient to account for the recoil. This has led to the assumption that another particle Is emitted at the same time. It must be many-fold smaller than the electron which in itself Is the smallest thing In existence. Its mass, in fact, would be Im perceptibly above zero. Precise Recoil Tests Made. The nearest approach to detection of the neutrino was described by Dr. Chalmers W. Sherwln of the University of Illinois. He made me most precise possiDie measurements ox tne recoils of atoms of radioactive phosphorus ob tained from the Oak Ridge atomic pile. All the results of these measurements, he said, support the existence of the neutrino, al though they could not be exact enough to be conclusive. It was, he said, "very similar to finding some Information about the shells fired from a battleship by studying the recoil of the ship.” “There Is an interesting philosophical point involved,” he continued. “Can a particle which is detected only at the moment of Its birth and Is never seen or heard of again take on the reality of the well-known particles of physics? These can, In general, be detected at more than one point in their path.” Can’t Account for Recoils. Still, he said, the recoils cannot be accounted for by the electron “shells” alone, and If the existence of something like the hypothetical neutrino Is denied It is tantamount to denying the conservation of energy. Presumably an infinitesimally tiny mass of matter disappears as energy in approximately no time at all. Questions and Answers By THE HASKIN SERVICE, A reader can get tne answer to any Question of fact by writing The Evening Star Information Buieau. .lie I street N.E.. Washington 2. D. C. Please Inclose 3 cents for return postage. By THE HASKIN SERVICE. Q. Please describe the flag of the United Nations.—E. V. E. A. The General Assembly on October 20, 1847, adopted the flag recommended by the Legal Committee. It consists of a white United Na tions emblem—a global map projected from the North Pole and embraced In twin olive branches—centered on a rectangular light blue banner. Q. How many persons were killed In trafflo accidents during the past 10 years?—L. E. V. A. From 1937 to 1946 nearly 320,000 people in the United States were killed in traffic acci dents and about 11,000,000 others were Injured. Q. What historic events occurred on De cember 25?—B. H. E. A. A few such events are: Washington's crossing of the Delaware in 1776; the birth of Clara Barton in 1821; the birth of Tchaikovsky in 1840. Q. Is there much fertile soil In Alaska?— V. I. L. A. Experts have estimated that about 65,000 square miles of Alaska are tillable, an area slightly larger than that of the State of Georgia. Q. Are there two towns of the same name in any State?—K. B. A. The Past Office Department says that at the present time there are no two post offices with the same name in any State. Q. When and where w'as the last world Sunday school convention held before World War II?—D. U. R. A. It was held at Oslo. Norway, from July 6-12, 1936. Altogether 369.510 Sunday schools of 129 countries participated, representing 3, 145,895 teachers and 34,139,624 scholars. Q. Has a naturalized citizen the same rights and privileges as one wrho is a citizen by birth? —M. R. R. A. Once naturalized, a person stands on the same footing as a citizen by birth except in two respects: He is not eligible to the offices of President or Vice President; and in the event his native land has any just claim on him, as for military’ service, he will not be protected. This is not so important as formerly because in recent years numerous treaties have been concluded freeing such persons from claims. Q. What other nations besides the United States eat large quantities of peanuts?—W. R. E. A. The Chinese are fond of peanuts and eat considerable quantities, but consumption is far greater in the United States than in any other country. East year Americans ate 7.17 pounds per capita. Two-thirds of a pound was the roasted variety, 5.8 pounds salted, in peanut butter, candy or baked products, and another two-thirds of a pound, approximately, was in the form of peanut oil. Q. Did George Washington ever surrender?— C. F. A. At Great Meadows, near the present Uniontown, Pa., Washington and his Virginians fought the first battle of the French and Indian Wars. Here he erected Fort Necessity, which he was obliged to yield to the French. This was the only battle in w’hich Washington sur rendered. Q. Who was the little girl who wrote to the editor of a New York newspaper to ask if there really was a Santa Claus?—G. L. G. A. In 1897, Virginia O’Hanlon, then 8 years old. wrote to the New York Sun: “Please tell me the truth, is there a Santa Claus?” The editorial reply has become a Christmas classic. In 1945 the newspapers carried pictures of Virginia (Mrs. Edward Douglas) telling the story of Santa Claus to a group of children at a Christmas party. At that time she was assistant principal in a New York City school. Hamlet Nay, not his father’s ghost returns to haunt The lonely moors within the skeptic mind, But Hamlet. He comes down the years, to taunt The questing heart . . . still answerless, to find The meaning that eluded. Has the sleep Been filled with dreams, or dreamless? Can he tell How dust resolves the riddle? Must earth jcccp Her secrets locked within the root-dark cell? Nay, Hamlet. Sleep in peace. Poor lonely spirit, Ghost-haunted by the ghost in your own soul, The echo of your cry still falls; we hear it, Tormented, empty as a tongueless bell. Is there no midnight when a dream must CCCLS€? Rest, rest perturbed spirit. Sleep in peace. MAE WINKLER GOODMAN.