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Civic Problems, Civic Bodies
“Home Rule” Hearing Starts Tomorrow; No Bogus Sale of Bogus Birthright By Jesse C. Suter Auchincloss-Ball Hearing Limited to Ten Days The Subcommittees on District Home Rule of the Senate and House of Representatives will begin hearings at 10 o'clock tomorrow morning in the caucus room of the old House Office Building. The hearing is scheduled to run for ten days excluding Saturday and indicates com pletion on Friday, February 13. As this is written, 50 individuals and group spokesmen have asked to be heard. The first 15 witnesses sched uled include some officials, both Federal and local. Adverse action by various groups and expressions of opposition by j individual citizens indicate serious objections to the many controversial provisions carried by the bill. Objections of Board of Education. The Board of Education has raised a number of important admin istrative questions in its objections to this measure and such objections! are believed to coincide to a large extent with the views of many citizens! who have been taking a keen interest in the District’s public school system. The present setup of the school system, it is said, has been largely satisfactory and could be made more so through increasing, rather I than decreasing, the control of the Board of Education over the schools.! Recently a member of the House Committee on the District of Columbia! has advocated amending the law so as to restrict members of the Board! of Education to not exceeding two consecutive terms of office. This idea j has been suggested from time to time by advocates of an elective board: and by others. The Board of Education objects to providing a monetary compensa tion for service on the Board of Education. Under an earlier setup of the District public school system, there was such a compensation provided, to which serious objection was raised. The idea was abandoned when the new law providing for the appointment of the Board of Education by the judges of the United States District Court tor the District of Colum bia was substituted for the appointment by the Commissioners of thei District of Columbia. The Board of Education and the Superintendent | a 4 CaVvaaIo hcliorn tViot thn nrnnncod onlat'PPH TVtUJPrc fnr thp 51 lnPTl n — tendent should be continued under the Board of Education as at present. | Another provision to which the Board of Education objects is the i changing over of the teachers retirement fund. This system has operated with entire success for a long period antedating the retirement system of the Federal and District Governments. It has evolved from an earlier voluntary retirement plan operated by the teachers and school officials themselves. The board also objects to the plan to place the control of the Public Library system under the Board of Education. There appears to be large public support for the stand taken by the Board of Education, representing a general desire to have the principal citizen boards continue as at present without being entangled in the complications of the District: government. Public Library Should Not Be Changed. The Library Association, with large citizen support, opposes thej proposed change in the management of the Public Libraries. The library j system of the District of Columbia has grown to its present proportions j from a small institution under the patronage of a group of public-j spirited citizens. Its affairs have from its official beginning been admin istered by a Board of Library Trustees who have patriotically and freely given of their time, talents and devoted service to the efficient operation and expansion to the fine organization of today. Opponents of a change in the Public Library system can see no reason whatever for disturbing an independent branch of the District government which has been so ably administered by an efficient board of civic-minded citizens of high ability. Keep Present Recreation Control. Serious objections are being raised against curtailing the powers of the Board of Recreation and carrying it into the general hopper of District of Columbia business. The setting up of a satisfactory recreation system was the subject of long and controversial debate. For many years the playgrounds of the city were operated by the Commissioners of the District of Columbia through a director and the result was far from satisfactory. Another branch of recreation was operated as a part of the public school system known as the Community Center Department of the schools. Existing law has consolidated the playgrounds, leisure-time activities, etc., under a Board of Recreation. This board is efficiently tied in with the Board of Education so as to avoid any clash of authority in the use of recreation facilities of the schools. This system has been in operation only a few years, and its success has exceeded the expecta tions of its advocates and it has failed to sustain objections predicted by opponents. , Hearing Held Too Soon. The time between the introduction of the bill and the beginning of | the hearing, it is complained by some, has been too short to permit ample study of the bill as submitted. Some claim they have purposely withheld! expressing an opinion on provisions of the bill until it was in a definite; form so that they could get a clear idea of what specific changes are proposed affecting particular branches of the local government and activities in which they are particularly interested. Considerable objec tion is heard to coupling of the proposal for elective local offices the so-called home rule, with a very complicated reorganization plan which carries many controversial provisions. Not a few features of the bill will surely be challenged in the courts to determine whether or not they are in conflict with the Constitution, j Endless litigation and confusion, it is feared, would follow so complete an overturn in the operation of the local government. The pending proposed legislation was probably inspired by a recom mendation of the Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress <La Follette-Monronev Act*. However, the pending Auchincloss-Ball mu omits to follow the recommendation that “Congress * * * provide for a referendum on adoption of self-government by city charter.’ * * * * Alleged Sale of ‘Bogus Birthright’ for Mess of Pottage A local adaptation of the biblical story of Esau's sale of his birth right for a mess of pottage has recently had its periodic revival. Theodore W Noves. in an article in The Star, May 14, 1914, showed ; clearly the ineptitude of this story, as illustrative of the political and fiscal status of this voteiess and unrepresented community. He pointed j out that enemies at that time in Congress and some of the “most radical and strongest of the local suffragists, construe the act of 1878 as in essence such a transaction. The privilege of voting in municipal elec tions for all or part of the city officials is viewed by them as an Amen can birthright. The price of the birthright, a mess of pottage, for which it was sold is, in their opinion, the national payment toward capital up building under the half-and-half provision of the organic act. “Congressman Ben Johnson has expressed on the floor of the House his righteous indignation over this transaction and has vented his i withering scorn upon Washington as a greedy, shameless, modern Esau, and upon the Washingtonians who prefer 'gold’ to ‘liberty’ and who 'put the dollar above the man’ by defending the half-and-half provision against his assaults. "But the voting privilege in municipal elections is, as we have seen In the preceding letter, not an American birthright at all, but a privilege to the municipality by grace of the State. * * * “The real American birthright surrendered by the community is that of representation as Americans in Congress and the electoral college. This surrender, either temporary or permanent, was made at the birth of the city, and the mess of pottage was the pledge by the Nation of capital maintenance and development and the peculiar privileges sup posed to be enjoyed by the capital community against which protest in the early days was made by many, including Patrick Henry. * * * No Sale, No Birthright, No 1878 Pottage. “Summarizing.” Mr. Noyes said, “the legislation of 1878 was not the sale by Washington of its birthright for a mess of pottage: (1) The transaction involved no sale of anything by the District. The latter had no part whatsoever in the deal. It was not consulted at any stage. It was not asked if it assented or objected; its assent was neither requested , nor given. v2) The half-and-half provision was not pottage paid for the surrender of any right as consideration in 1878. It was the long delayed and only partial fulfillment of a national obligation of capital maintenance and upbuilding; Incurred for a valuable consideration three-fourths of a century earlier at the very foundation of the city. (3) The privilege of which Congress deprived Washington in 1878 was j nt miinr for some narts of a local government of extremely limited power. “This privilege, as we have seen, is not an American right or birth right; the real American birthright of which Washington had been deprived being representation on equal terms with other Americans in Congress, and this deprivation was enforced from the moment of the j birth of the city more than a hundred (now nearly 150) years ago. ‘Thus Washington did not in 1878 sell its birthright for a mess of pottage; since there was no sale, no 1878 pottage and no birthright in volved in the transaction If then the United States treats the limited,;, inadequate and unsatisfactory municipal voting privilege of which Wash- j ington -was deprived in 1874 as its real American birthright, and as the; price of the restoration of this sham and counterfeit birthright de-1 prices Washington of the 1878 provision ror a fixed and definite national j participation in canital upbuilding, it will practice a swindling game upon the helpless Capital and will cheat it out of both birthright and , pottage. • * * No Political Slaves Freed. “If Washingtonians are political slaves now they will still be political ; slaves after they have the power to elect a voteless delegate, or even District Commissioners or any other municipal officials if the exclusive power of legislation under the constitutional provision still remains in a ; Congress not elected by them and in which they are not represented.j1 Their chains may be made a little lighter and may not clank so loudly; ij they may be granted by kind masters a little greater freedom of move merit, but they are not free. The power to take away their property, their freedom and life itself is in others not chosen by them, and to ; whose rule they have not assented. ‘‘There is no self-government, when the power to tax one, to im prison one ana to send one to war is not in one s self or in those to w’hom one has voluntarily confided it as one's representatives. “Clearly the American birthright of which the Washingtonian has: been deprived, or which, as alleged, he has sold for a mess of pottage.; is not municipal self-government, or participation in the municipal government. Such government existed with unsatisfactory results, so far as Capital upbuilding and popular contentment were concerned, dur ing the first 70 years of the city's life, in which period the com munity was bemoaning, and Congressmen and Presidents were com- 1 menting upon the un-American conditions of Washington: and George town, though enjoying municipal ‘self-government.’ sought, and Alex andria, though enjoying municipal ‘self-government,’ secured retroces sion ou account of their 'galling disfranchisement.’ ” • • * 5! Buyers Favor Milk Delivery Consolidation Virginia milk consumers arc will ing to continue wartime economy measures if It means lower prices For milk, according to a survey by Russell Childress, a graduate stu lent in argicultural economics at Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Only 7 per cent of the families receiving retail delivery said they were not willing to continue every other-day delivery—one of the more important economics initiated dur ing the war, and only 12 per cent were willing to pay 1 cent more per luart of milk to receive every-day service.\ None of the homemakers inter viewed asked that special deliveries snd callbacks for collecting bills be resumed. The study also Indicated that the square milk bottle has been over whelmingly approved. The most Frequent suggestion made for the improvement pf delivery service wss tor hoods in addition to caps to be put on all grades of milk. Almost all the homemakers ijrere conscious of the duplication of de livery service—a practice that has seen cited as keeping the price of milk about 2 cents per quart higher :han necessary. To illustrate the ;xtent of duplication, the survey -eported that over one-half of the' lomemakers noticed four trucks making deliveries along the street, sne-thlrd noticed three, and only 11 per cent noticed two. About 85 per cent of the home makers said they would accept con solidated delivery for a saving of 1 cent or less per quart of milk. Over three-fourths of the white families in the high and middle in some groups were willing to give up ,heir choice of a milk dealer, while about 90 per cent of the low-income families were for the proposal if it meant as much as 1 cent pier quart reduction in price. Forty-seven per cent of the retail sustomers said they were willing to ouy milk exclusively from stores if it meant 2 cents or leas per quart reduction in price: and about 88 per cent of the colored and 70 per ;ent of the low-income white families reported they would favor this change. On the basis of the survey, Mr. Childress says serious consideration should be given to the consolidation pf milk delivery, and to exclusive store sales with a favorable differ sntial in price. Civic Calendar Auchincloss to Talk On Home Rule Plan Chairman Auchincloss of the House Home Rule Subcommittee will discuss his proposals for Dis trict self-government before a meet ing of the Connecticut Avenue Clti-1 sens’ Association at 8 p.m. Thurs day at the All Souls’ Memorial Church, Cathedral avenue and Woodley place N.W. Other groups meeting this week, which will consider the plan for an elected city government are the Minnesota Center Citizens’ Associ ation, at 8 p.m. tomorrow at 3904 Ames street N.E.; the MacArthur coulevard group at 8:15 p.m. Tues day in the Palisades Field House, Sherrier and Dana places N.W. nennetn r. Armstrong, trustee )f the Central Suffrage Confer-1 ;nce, will discuss the plan before i meeting of the Columbia Heights Citizens’ Association at 8 p.m. Tues iay at the Columbia Heights Chris tian Church Hall, 1435 Park road 'f.W. The Dupont Circle group at 1:30 p.m. tomorrow at the May flower Hotel will hear the report >f a special committee delegated ast month to study the Auchin- j .loss bill. District educational and welfare facilities will be outlined by Rep-! -esentative A. L. Miller, Repub-1 ican, of Nebraska, member of the House District Committeee, at a neeting of the Washington High ands Citizens’ Association at 8 ?.m. Wednesday in the Patterson; School, South Capitol and Dar lington streets. Traffic Director George E. ieneipp will present his suggestions; >n traffic safety to the Michigan1 3ark Citizens' Association at 8 p.m.! omorrow in the Bunker Hill School, Fourteenth street and Michigan ivenue N.E. The Bellevue group has postponed February's meeting to next week,! Monday, George R. Moody, presl-; lent, announced. Other meetings this week are: Tomorrow. Citizens’ Association of Takoma, }. C.—Trinity Episcopal Church,! !»iney Branch road and Dahlia street OV.. 6:30 p.m. Forest Hills — Murch School, Thirty-sixth and Ellicott street* si.W., 8 p.m. Kenilworth—Kenilworth Recrea ion Center, Kenilworth avenue and f>rd street N.E., 8 p.m. Manor Park — Whittier School, j •'ifth and Sheridan streets N.W., 8 j.m. Progressive Citizens’ Association >f Georgetown—Christ Church Par sh Hall, Thirty-first and O streets 'l.W., 8 p.m. Southwest — Southwest Branch, Public Library. Seventh and H! itreets S.W., 8 p.m. Stanton Park—Peabody School, ?ifth and C streets N.E., 8 p.m. Tuesday. Metropolitan View—Noyes School, Tenth and Franklin streets N.E., 8 J.u X. Southwest Council — Anacostia High School, Sixteenth and R streets 5.E., ft p.m. Progressive Citizens’ Association >f Congress Heights — Congress Heights School, Nichols avenue and ?ifth street S.E., 8 p.m. Wednesday. Crestwood—Roosevelt High School, rhirteenth and Upshur streets N.W., I p.m. Fairfax Village — Beers School. Uabama avenue and Thirty-sixth jlace S.E., 8 p.m. Thursday. Arkansas Avenue Community— 3urdick Vocational High School, rhirteenth and Allison streets N.W.,| 1 p.m. Northeast Council—No. 12 police jrecinct, Seventeenth street and j Ihode Island avenue N.E., 8 pm. Saturday. Federation — District Building x>ard room, 8 p.m. Parent-Teacher A ctivities The Langdon School association will meet at 8 pm. 'Diursday in he school auditorium. Mrs. James Varren Hastings will talk on “My Shild and Creative Living.” The McKinley Tech Boys’ Glee Club will render a program. Branches that have been pruned from, fruit trees will provide a source of early spring blos soms if brought into the house for fotcing. Prunings that are to be kept for forcing should be placed in damp peat moss and stored in a cool place. basic Mutts in rarming Uue Competition in Livestock and Dairying To Force Maximum Efficiency Feeds By Dr. W. B. Kemp Director, Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station me sous or me tastern parr or the United States are different from those farther West due to the geologic and climatic conditions un der which they arose. Also, as we move South to North we find gen erally increased organic matter sup plies in the soils. Supplies of nitro gen tend to follow those of organic matter. When Europeans settled the At lantic seaboard they found a wooded country. The plants which they brought with them were fairly well adapted to conditions from Mary land northward. They were not. well adapted to the South. Conse quently, European forage and pas ture plants served as a basis for livestock agriculture in the North east. The South was forced to re sort to the application of commer cial cultivated crops. Even these were not of European origin. The corn was native, the tobacco came from the West Indies, cotton from Asia, and peanuts from South America. It is only in relatively recent times that the conscious in troduction of African and Asiatic plants adapted to the South makes possible the development there of a profitable livestock industry. Nitrogen Decreases in Price. The second development contrib uting peculiarly to agriculture in the South is the increase in sup ply and decrease in price of com mercial nitrogen. The supply was increased particularly during the two World Wars because nitrogen compounds of great importance as explosives. Today in much of Southern and Eastern Maryland, a pound of nitrogen applied judicious ly on wheat in the spring produces about 22 pounds of wheat. In North Carolina, a pound of nitrogen as a side dressing on corn produces even more of that cereal. In Mary land, somewhat farther to the North, nitrogen side dressing on corn is not so consistently profitable as it is farther South. The third development, inducing cnange in soume&siem agriculture is the loss of much of the world’s cotton market. The high price of cotton in recent years has forced acreage reduction in our own coun try and induced acreage increase in other countries. At the same time such cotton prices have encouraged rapid expansion in the manufactur ing of rayon and other synthetic fibers. As a consequence of these three developments, it becomes nec essary for the Southeast to find sub istitutes for cotton farming at the I time when plant introduction and cheap nitrogen supplies make it easy for an expanded livestock industry to develop there. Keener Competition in Sight. How is this change likely to affect Maryland and other areas? First, j the biggest market for Maryland wheat is in hot breads of the South. We can expect that wide application for domestic use will increase in the Southern States. Secondly, the Southeast is an important market for condensed milk, butter and chqese from Wisconsin and the com belt States. We can expect that the Southern agriculture will tend to , supply its own needs for these com modities, particularly since recent improvement in refrigeration make it easier for products of this type to be produced in the South. Wiscon sin and the corn belt States, de prived in part of this market, will look elsewhere for outlets for their dairy products. Improved transportation and im proved refrigeration facilities permit these areas to put fluid milk on the Eastern market. However, Eastern dairymen can expect keen competi tion in their local cities. It becomes an agronomic necessity that better and more economical pastures, for ages, silages and, in some cases, even grain be produced locally. If the economy in dairy production is ef fected. it will prompt holding of the local markets in the face of this competition. This Week in the Carden It is a good plan to water potted evergreens whenever the soil has thawed. There Is little danger of their suffering injury if the soil is moist; there is considerable likeli hood of their being injured or killed when the soil is dry. * * * * The recent snowfall brings to mind the necessity of shaking the snow from evergreens before it freezes to them. Accumulations of snow on the branches may result in splitting or breaking of limbs. * * * * It is not too early to prepare for the dormant spray which should be applied to all deciduous trees and shrubs before new growth starts in the spring. Lime-sulphur is the material most commonly used for this spray to control scale insects such as the oyster-shell and tulip scale. It is also used to clean up Maryland Plans War Against Rats Plans for an all-out war on Mary land rats, to be waged the first seven days in V ’rch, are being laid by University t' Maryland entomolo gists in co-operation with specialists of the Pish and Wildlife Service. The campaign to decrease the Maryland rat population, estimated to cause $40,000,000 damages a year,' has been approved by the State Emergency Livestock Peed Commit-1 tee, headed by Dr. Roger B. Corbett, associate State Extension director. County agents will assist in the pro gram. Dr. Corbett said the latest tech niques, including use of recently de veloped poisons, will be used. Em phasis also will be placed on rat proofing measures to keep down future infestation. Business Groups Contractors Slate Talk on Lighting The Electrical Contractors’ As sociation, one of six business groups scheduled to meet this week, will hear H. A. Brandman, manager of Swivelier Co., Inc. New York, speak on "Today’s Lighting is Accent Lighting,” at * p.m. Tuesday at the Pythian Temple, 1012 Ninth street N.W. Other meetings this week are: Tomorrow. Park View Business Association —City Bank. 3608 Georgia avenue N.W., 8.30 pm. Wednesday. Federation Board of Directors— American Security A Trust Co., Fifteenth street and New York ave nue N. W., 8:15. Thursday. Master Plumbers’ Association— Washington Gas Light Co., Eleventh and H streets N.W., 8 pm. Friday. Central Business Association— | Burlington Hotel. Board of Direc-i tors at 6 pm., membership at 8 pm. Maryland and Virginia Milk Pro ducers’ Association Board of Direc tors—1756 K street N.W., I?JI0 pm. overwintering spores of plant di seases. The spray may be applied at any time that the temperature is above 40 degrees and likely to remain above freezing for at least 24 hours. * * * * It is wise not to attempt to prune vines and shrubs while the wood is frozen. There is a chance that the frozen (brittle) wood will break at the wrong place. Wait until early March to prune roses and the less hardy shrubs, such as crepe myrtle and abelia. Plan to prune all of the hardier shrubs and trees by the first of March, before the buds be gin to swell. It will soon be time to force branches of the early spring flower ing shrubs into bloom. Cut the branches and put into a container of water and keep in a cool moist cellar for a few days—until the buds begin to show signs of swelling. Then move to a warmer situation where the atmosphere is moist. As the buds begin to open they may be taken to the living room, provided the air is not too dry. A dry at mosphere is likely to cause the buds to remain closed or the flowers to fall prematurely. A few pans of water placed on top of the radi ators may supply enough moisture to overcome this difficulty. Change the water daily, and every day or two cut a half-inch off the ends of the branches. Peach, cherry, flow ering-quince, forsythia, etc., may be brought into early bloom. * * * * Experienced gardeners seldom buy flower seed mixtures unless they wish to become acquainted with a new kind or to note the variations between types and species. The purchase of named varieties is like ly ' to produce much more satisfac tory results, both as to color and uniformity of growth. The quality of the seed of named varieties is more likely to be better than that of the mixtures. —W. H. Y. LANDSCAPE SERVICE • Garden Designing • Tree Moving • Pruning & Spraying Old Enrli*h Bo* wood Complete line of Nirwry Stock and Garden Supplies. Joseph A. Cook & Associates SHepherd 1380 Eatil)1 prawn! Start then in* . deer*, Fekrvery er ™ Marfk, plant mi £ in May In rich, n okady toil. Bloom all Mmncri kip w double camellia, f like lowort. Sent « postpaid prompt' ™ ly. Order maw far 0 ---— eitaieeat bulb*. n • ?.pJ,?!LLr15 BJht 5100 • • D-XJr" 50 Bulbs $3.00 a 0 I different color* If ordered early ^ a ROCKNOU “SJ* Morrow, fhio a Current Activities Of Garden Clubs Secretary of State Marshall and Secretary of Agriculture Anderson will be among the speakers at the National Garden Conference to be gin at 9:30 a.m. tomorrow at the Hotel Statler. Plans will be laid for 20,000,000 freedom gardens throughout the Nation this year. Secretary Marshall will address a luncheon. Other speakers will in clude Paul C. Stark, director of the natiohal garden program; H. W. Hochbaum, vice chairman; Dr. A. M. Fitzgerald, secretary general of the International Emergency Food Com mittee; Rodney H. Brandon, presi dent of the National Garden Insti tute; James A. Stillwell, executive director of the Cabinet Food Com mittee, and M. L. Wilson, director of the Agriculture Department Ex tension Service. Co-operating in the conference, called by the National Garden In stitute, are the Agriculture Depart ment, the National Council of State Garden Clubs, the Garden Club of America, the Men's Garden Clubs of j American and Boy and Girl Scout organizations. Conference officials urged all gar den clubs in the Washington area to send representatives to the meeting. On the following day a regional garden conference, to be attended by State extension workers and those who attend the national con ference, will be held at the South Building, Agriculture Department. ; The Washington Branch, National Association of Gardeners will meet at 7:30 p.m. Friday at the F. W. Bolgiano Seed Co., 411 New York1 avenue N.E. Membership in the1 association is composed of more than 50 professional gardeners in the Washington area. Officers in clude Geary Fisher, branch chair man: Ray Gustin, jr., vice chair man: Robert Fisher, branch direc tor, and H. C. Bangham, secretary treasurer. * * * * The Men's Garden Club of Mont gomery County will hold an open house meeting at 8 p.m. Thursday at the Battery Park Club House, 107 Glenbrook road, Bethesda. Moving pictures of the Charleston azalea gardens and of the Jackson and Perkins rose gardens at Newark, N. Y., will be shown. Maryland Cropping Changes Outlined Changes in cropping systems that will produce higher yields without causing excessive loss of soil fertil ity, are being outlined for Mary land farmers by John Magruder, extension agronomist at the Univer sity of Maryland. Heading the list of recommended practices is the substitution of corn for other feed crops whenever prac ticable. “Corn will give the fanner more total feed per acre than any other grain crop," he explained, “and manv farmers can make good use of stover as bedding or supplement feed." Ladino clover-orchard grass pas ture is another of the newer prac tices that some farmers are using as a means of getting more feed for livestock. The increased use of lime in the State should allow many farmers to substitute alfalfa for part of the red clover in hay seedings on well drained fertile soils. This is an especially important practice if the hay is to be harvested more than nno voar SHADE TREE CARE PHONE CH. 3141 FORMAN & BILLER TREE EXPERT CO. ■ E«t. 1919 .j "gladioli bulbs $f SO SMAU to MIDSUM II LAMM J§ 31.00 31.00 31.00 IB uMMmts aHuO* It'Mllt ••rtniM eae* os | fWud) • mr»mo. Rn> liUa.U Imiw k>"3 !'•' I Oi.aaniwo etr My Bhi* RIMww .fTe. 100 + Km 1 km/bo M I* iMm mi Pm> Fm4 >*#«**•• J O'*** DanM-tW v YOUNGS NUMSMJtS • t*» N IS* f MCHMONT M *A GUY LOT FRUIT COLLECTION Consisting of 6 trees furnishing fresh fruit from eorly summer until late fall, as well os serving os shade and being ornamental 1 EARLY TRANSPARENT—Fovorite Yel low opple. I DOUBLE RED DELICIOUS—Late fall and winter apple. 1 GOLDEN JUBILEE PEACH—July Yel low Freestone. 1 ELBERTA PEACH—Late August Yellow Freestone. 1 KIEFFER PEAR—Lote September. Good Conner. 1 IMPROVED DAMSON — September Popular for butters and preserves. All six trees in eorly-bearing, special 5 to 6 ft. size—Collection No. 37-D—$9.95, express collect. Salespeople wanted. Check below for full or part-time sales plan. Check below for free 48-page Plonting Guide in full color. j Waynesboro Nurseries I Virginia's I | Lorgest Growers of Fruit Trees*, I i Waynesboro, Virginia. I 1 n I enclose SM.H5. Please send City | | Lot Collection No. 37-D • |~l Please send me free 48 -page Plant- | lng guide I | n Please send sales Dlan. | Name - Jj [ Address -J Methods of Planting Seeds Vary Hardy Varieties May Be Sown on Snow While Others Need Special Treatment By. W. H. Youngman It is not uncommon to see a farmer sowing grass seed on the mow in February and March on his pasture lands. This is one method Df reseeding thin stands. Some seeds are hardy and germinate best if they are given this apparently rugged treatment. The seeds, being lark, absorb the heat of the sun's rays and melt the snow, thus work ing their way through the snow and iown to the soil where they lodge ready to germinate as soon as con iitions are favorable. Many gardeners treat all kinds if seeds as though they are tender ind cannot withstand any but the nost favorable treatment. This is irue for some kinds. Seeds are dor nant plants surrounded by a str-e if plant food and various protect ng coats. Those kinds having lough, almost impervious coats may need freezing and thawing, or the penetration of snow water to get ihem ready to grow. They are com nonly referred to as hardy seeds— ire not inqured by cold weather ind freezing, and are the kinds farmers and gardeners sow on snow. Besides the grass seeds referred to ibove, the gardener may sow the innual poppies—Iceland and Shir ey, the Ragged Robin (bachelor's jutton.i, larkspur, etc. Normally we scatter the seeds of these where he soil has been prepared. It is lot reasonable to expect seeds sown in poorly prepared soil to nake strong vigorous growth. If ;he seed had been available at the lime of soil preparation that is lia canrnn fnr c/iuri n or Kilt TTl/lSt. gardeners do not buy their supplies )t seed until the catalogues come jarly In January, and they are the gardeners who can sow on the snow. The planting of less hardy seeds nay await milder weather in March ar early April, but many gardeners will prefer to start them indoors to insure having them bloom as early as possible. The tender seeds, such as the petunias and bedding dahlies, cannot be sown out-of-doors with' safety until late April or early May. llae Medium Pots. Starting seed indoors is best done in medium-size flower pots or flats. The pots art more desirable if 25 plants or less are wanted. Pots are easier to handle than the heavier flats. If only one or two similar kinds are in a pot. the plants are ready to transplant at the same time. A flat with several kinds ger minating at different times is some what of a nuisance because it can not be finished until the last kind is ready for transplanting. A few years ago the home gar dener often found the starting of seeds a chore, the “damping-off” fungus killing the seedlings. To avoid such losses the gardener fol lowed one or more methods of soil sterilization, such as baking the soil, mixing one of the organic mer cury compounds in the planting mixture, or treating the soil surface with red copper oxide. Even with these practices, careless watering or poor ventilation sometimes resulted in severe plant losses. Today we may use one of several planting materials and be relatively free from the “damping-off” dis ease. Granulated sphagnum moss, fly ash, vermiculite, are examples of these materials that may be used in pots, flats or seed beds. A layer an inch or two may be spread over coarse soil or other porous material in the container. Sow the seed thinly so that the seedlings may be 1 milUirU w 1Lll gicntci caot miu moo injury. Thickly sown seedlings must be transplanted without delay as soon as the first pair of true leaves develop, otherwise they become spin dling whereas we should have stur dy. stocky plants. Tiny seeds may be pressed into the soil, or they may be covered with a thin coating of fine sand, sphagnum or other noncrusting ma terial. In a seed bed they may be covered with a piece of burlap which should be removed as soon as ger mination begins. Larger seeds are jovered with a layer of sand, equal to four times the diameter of the seed. Use Plant Covers. With the seeds sown and the soil well watered, a paper or glass cover should be used to reduce evaporation uid surface drying. Some say seeds germinate best in a dark place. This may be risky, for the seedlings need ,o be brought into sunlight as quickly is they poke their heads through he surface. Most gardeners place the pots or flats in a sunny situa tion and keep them there. The watering of the seed pots and lats, as mentioned above, is much ess of a chore than formerly. The materials hold moisture to the seeds PRUNING SEASON Fruit tree*, grapevine* and many other plants should be trimmed at this time of year, al*o a good time to remove dead tree* or any objec tionable tree* on your ground*. A salesman will call at j I your convenience HYATTSVILLE NURSERY j 5601 40th Ave., Hyattsvllle, Md. j F. H. Willi* WA. 2274 L. H. Willi* II1UUA1 IIAUAC CAACttAVCAJ »A1U UACl V 19 very little likelihood of the surface crusting. When moisture is needed the pots may be placed in a pan of water for a few minutes and then allowed to drain. Flats are not so easily handled, but may be placed in a tub or sink. However, some gardeners successfully water by syringing the surface of the seed containers, using care not to wash the tinier seeds deep into the plant ing material. As soon as the seedlings develop the first pair of true leaves, they should be transplanted (pricked-off) into flats or boxes, spacing the plants at least 2 inches apart. By doing this, both the tops and the roots have space in which to develop. If the seeds have been sown a bit early the seedlings may be spaced fur ther apart to avoid a second trans planting before going out-of-doors. Some prefer to start their seeds early and to transplant Into pots or bands to insure having large plants by the time planting season arrives. The soil mixture of the flats and boxes into which we transplant ths seedlings need not be rich, but it should be a good fibrous loam. Such a mixture may be prepared using two parts garden loam, one part peat moss and one part sand. If the garden loam is deficient in humus more granulated peat moas or finely divided compost may be added to the mixture. Avotl fer tilizer or rich manure otherwise we may defeat our objective—to grow strong, sturdy plants. They are much more desirable than tall, leggy ones. Also, In a rich aoll. the seedlings may not develop a good bushy root system. Time Seed Planting*. Seed sowing is generally timed to have the plants ready for out of-doors planting at the proper sea son. Several of the hardiest vege table plants can be set out about March 20. These include broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, lettuce, oniona and beets. It takes six to eight weeks from seed to plants so they should be started in late January to early Fehruary. Tomato and pepper plants which may be pro duced in the same length of time should not be ready for planting until the first of May. so their seed is started early in March. Eggplant seed germinates mor* slowly and should be sown two or three weeks earlier. In about the same class as the eggplant, snapdragon and petunia seeds are started in January. Hardier strains of these two may be planted out-of-doors in March or April. Zinnias, marigolds, annual phlox, verbena, stock, salvia and bedding dahlias may be sown in February, although this may need to be varied a bit depending on the time the beds will be ready. The sowing of seeds and th* transplanting of seedlings aeema somewhat of a chore, but every gar dener looks forward to it, because he is starting the creation of a beautiful garden and because it takes away the dreariness of tha winter. jfiladiolus uSSoi^^^na^^^Rea^Mlehfcaa^^wa VS^OIHA GLADIOLUS B17LB8 at leas than ) It each! Assort ment of Asm In* reds, llffl v 1 ypllows. purples, blues, etc . now ready for first blooms and with many years of flowering ahead. Any bulb not developing first planting Imf! replaced free. 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