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WAIHINOTON, D. C. Publixhad by / Tbo Evening Star Nawipogo' Company. PRANK B. NOYES, Chairman of tbo Board. FLEMING NEWIOLP, President. B. M. McKILWAY, Editor. * -——— MAIN OFFICE: 11th »t. ond Fonntylvonio A»a. NEW VOFK OFFICE: 110 East 42d St. CHICAGO OFFICE: 43S North Michigan Avo. DoKvarod by Carr tor—Metropolitan Area. Pally and Sunday Dally Onty Sunday Only Monthly -.1.20* Monthly -_..*0c 10c per copy Weakly ...30c Weekly ....20c 10c per copy •10c additional when 5 Sundays are In a month. Alta 10* additional far Night Final Edition In those sections whore delivery ie made. Ratee by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United Stoles. Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday I month .. 1 JO 1 month .. *0c I month 40c 4 months— 7.30 4 months . 3.00 4 months 3.00 1 yaar __13.00 I year_10.00 1 year - 4 00 Telephone NAtienol 3000. Entered at the Fast Office, Washington, D. C, at secand-dats mall matter. , Member of the Asseciated Preet. The Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use Itr ropublicetian af all th# iocol n»wi printed in thU nRwip«|Mt, os wrII as ail A. P. naws dispatch—._ 1 FRIDAY, April It, 1048 Spare the Rod There may be ample room—in places other than the House of Representatives— for honest difference of opinion as to the merits or otherwise of the 70-group Air Force program. But there ought not to be any doubt as to the correctness of Secretary of Air Force Symington's posi tion in this matter. The issue, stated in oversimplified terms, is whether we should have the •'balanced" armed force program advo cated by the President and Secretary of Defense Forrestal or the “big air force" program for which the House has voted. The vote, incidentally, was 343 to 3, the dissents coming from those conspicuous left-wingers, Representatives Marcantonio, Isacson and Powell. In his recent appearance before the House Armed Services Committee, Mr. Sy mington, in response to questions, de parted from the Truman-Forrestal “line.” An Air Force of 70 groups, he said, is more important to the country’s security than Is universal military training. President Truman, speaking emphat ically, told his press conference yesterday that he is supporting to the limit the For restal program for a balanced military team, including only 55 air groups. He did not know, he said, why Mr. Symington had differed with the administration's recom mendations as to the size of the Air Force, and when he was asked whether he planned to spank Mr. Symington, the President said he would answer that Question later. This obviously Implies that Mr. Syming ton is in the presidential dog house. But there can be no excuse whatsoever for "spanking” him. When a member of the cabinet is called before a committee of Congress and asked for an opinion on a matter within his official sphere, it is his clear duty to answer candidly and fully. It is Congress which must make the final decision, and to do that intelligently it must have all of the information and opinion it can get. The President has no right to prevent Congress from getting this information, and he would have even less justification for spanking any member of his admin istration for stating his opinion to Congress when called upon to do so. Russian Veto on Trieste The Soviet government's emphatic re jection of the proposal by the Western Powers for a "Big Four” conference on the return of Trieste to Italy may be con aidered from two aspects. In the first place, it is the latest move in the "cold war” being waged between the Soviet bloc and the Western democracies. In the larger frame of reference, it typifies the Increasing subordination of constructive statesmanship to “power politics.” The Moscow foreign office must have penned its rejection with angry reluctance, because Western diplomacy had put it very much "on the spot.” The joint Amer ican, British and French proposal for Trieste's return to Italy neatly impaled Moscow on the horns of a dilemma. To acquiesce meant letting down its "fair haired boy,” Marshal Tito. Red boss of Yugoslavia and its faithful henchman, to- j gether with a general loss of Soviet "face.-’ To reject the proposal, on the eve of the Italian elections, meant another blow to Communist hopes in that country—which, of course, was what the Western proposal was intended to do. Soviet pique is shown In the tone of the rejection, which brands the plan as uncalled for, unacceptable and a violation of “the elementary principles of democracy.” What Moscow did not mention is the fact that its own conduct and that of Its Yugoslav satellite had rendered impossible the getting up of the Trieste "Free State” provided for in the Italian peace treaty. Furthermore, Moscow did not mention the fact that this provision was a compromise agreed to reluctantly by the Western Powers in face of Yugoslav demands for the annexation of Trieste, backed by Mos cow. Another omission was a reference to the continued provocation and bad faith shown by Tito in the interim administra tion of the Trieste area. It is this entire background which fully justifies the West ern Powers in their diplomatic counter offensive that promises to bear such good fruit. Yet, in the larger sense, the failure of the Trieste "Free State" plan is a mel ancholy commentary on the entire Euro pean situation. For such an International regime, if genuinely Implemented, would best accord with economic realities. Tri este is really International in character. It owed its rise from an obscure fishing Tillage to a thriving port-city because its harbor rendered it the logical outlet for the trade of Central Europe with the Mediterranean. This was made possible by the building of a trunk railway across the mountains to the northward by the government of Austria-Hungary, whereof Trieste formed a part. The destruction of that empire during World War I left Trieste economically “in the air.” Under the then-prevalent doc trine of national self-determination, Tri este was logically awarded to Italy, because the population of the city Is overwhelm ingly Italian In speech, culture and blood. But Trieste as a port is not needed by Italy. Neither is It more than a local convenience to the adjacent part of Yugo slavia, which has other,nearby port out lets. And the tariff barriers set up by both Yugoslavia and Italy gravely handi capped the overland traffic with the Central European hinterland, which in cludes Austria, Czechoslovakia and even Germany. So Trieste, despite Italy’s best efforts, has never recovered its prosperity of before World War I. The logical solution of this problem would be the creation of a free port in Trieste, with bonded transit rights for Its rail communications, coupled with local autonomy for the resident population. The ‘‘Free State” plan was theoretically a beginning of such a solution. But the "cold war” between East and West fore doomed it to failure. Atomic Ashes' Our nuclear-fission authorities now are beginning to talk openly about one aspect of the atom that has received very little publicity to date. This is the problem of how to get rid of the refuse or waste material accumulated in the process of atomic production. It is not a simple prob lem. On the contrary, as time goes on, it is likely to become so big and difficult that extraordinary international meas ures will have to be taken to cope with it. As outlined the other day to the Greater New York Safety Council, the problem is this: Like a coal-burning furnace, an atomic plant leaves a residue of “ashes,” but they are “ashes” much too hot merely to be carted away and dumped somewhere. They are endowed with a dangerous radio activity that may last for thousands of years, and they will be accumulated in ever-increasing quantities as our own and other nations expand operations in the field of the atom. Right now, however, the experts are by no means certain that they can figure out just how and where to dis pose of this waste in such a way as to guarantee that it will do no harm. The idea of digging deep holes and bury i ing the refuse has been looked into, but it appears to be no good. A more promising proposal is for an international agreement under which the radioactive waste of all countries would be systematically gathered together at regular intervals to be diluted and mixed with concrete. Then, being thus imprisoned in solid blocks, it would be dumped into the sea far away from land and human beings. But even this plan is open to doubt, and some experts have half seriously suggested that the only solution may be to put the stuff in rockets ! and shoot it to the moon or ship it out into space in missiles that would take their place in the firmament as man made satellites far removed from us. This is all very typical of the atom. Despite the enormous good implicit in it, its fantastic side is so fearsomely real that it makes peace of mind extremely diffi cult to achieve. That states the case mildly. As long as there is no international agreement to control it for beneficent j ends, poor modern man will have reason : to wonder why he ever unloosed this thing upon himself. The nations have a chain reacting bear by the tail. Unless they work together for a way out of their predica ment, they are going to move separately toward wrecked nerves, panic and a com mon disaster that could conceivably'seduce the whole world to radioactive ashes. * Dr. Koussevitsky s Retirement If the retirement of Dr. Serge Kousse vitzky from the regular leadership of the Boston Symphony were to mean the close of his active career as one of the truly great musicians of his time, the event would be an occasion for profound regret among thousands of his admirers. But relief from the “strenuous obligations” of ' the eighteen weeks of the annual winter season does not signify an arbitrary end to the master’s work. He will preside over thirteen concerts in the 1948-1949 schedule and then appear as a guest at intervals with the organization he has brought to artistic perfection during a quarter cen tury of tireless service. Also he has an nounced his intention to continue to direct the enterprises of the Berkshire Center at Stockbridge, Massachusetts, where musical history systematically is made. After he retires Dr. Koussevitsky will have leisure for composition if he wishes to write, or he may lecture if he desires to exchange the podium for the lyceum platform. His interest in the democratization of genius already has prompted, him to set up a foundation in memory of his wife “for the further development of musical culture.” That philanthropy might be expanded by his own spoken Interpretation of the recordings for which he is famous. It would be an experience worth having to hear him discourse on hLs conceptions of Tschaikowsky’s Pathetique or Haydn’s Surprise Symphony. Much good could be accomplished in this respect if Dr. Koussevitzky were to do what Robert Schumann did in his Journal between 1834 and 1844. Many people stand in need of instruction in the values of classic music, and if an accredited author ity would undertake to teach them they surely would respond with enthusiasm. Let Them In The House Judiciary Committee ought to move as promptly as possible to get action on the displaced persons bill introduced by' Representative Fellows of Maine. The bill —which differs substantially from the one now being debated in the Senate—is a kind of compromise designed to do two things: (D To meet numerous objections to other measures on the same subject, and 12) to help solve a problem that Congress has dallied with too long already. Under Mr. Fellows’ bill, 200,000 DPs could be admitted into the United States over a two-year period. These emergency entries would be charged up against future regu lar immigration quotas to the extent of 50 per cent. In other words, in the long run, there would be no actual increase in the number of immigrants allowed in under our present laws. Moreover, the bill would give priority consideration to aliens whose skills are needed in this country or who are blood relatives of American citi zens. It also would set up a number of special safeguards to reassure anybody re luctant to let in displaced persons on social, economic or other grounds. '. It njay be said of this measurV that it contains too many restrictions. As a prac tical matter, however, it seems to steer a sound middle course between the extreme of not doing anything or of doing too little, and the extreme of proposing more than Congress actually will grant. Cer tainly, if something lllte it were adopted, the tragic plight of Europe’s DPs would ! be greatly eased, and the United States would be living up to its responsibilities by doing £^t least as much as other nations in a joint effort to solve the problem. It is a problem that demands affirmative American action; there is no excuse for any further congressional delay. After all. wholly apart from the compul sions of humanitarianism, common sense argues strongly for some such program as the one advocated by Mr. Fellows. By do ing nothing, by letting the DPs languish in their bleak camps abroad, we are not merely being un-Christian toward them but are also continuing to burden our selves with the costs of supporting them in Europe. There is plenty of room for them here. We need their skills, and they have qualities that will make them excel lent citizens. We ought to open our doors to them right now. The Moa, Yesterday and Today It is a good idea to go slow in apprais ing the plausibility of recent reports from the South about a gigantic bird that is alleged to have been cutting capers in the Dixie skies. This particular bird was de scribed as being larger than any ever be fore seen by man. This statement should have been qualified. For only a few days later the newspapers told about the dis covery in New Zealand of the bones of a monstrous bird that was ten feet tall and that weighed at least a quarter of a ton. The New Zealand bird, known as a moa, lived in comparatively modern times, ac cording to Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy of the American Museum of Natural His tory. He found bones of an older speci men in a swamp. He is bringing them to the museum for study and exhibition. Although the last of the moas presumably was eaten by New Zealand natives some six hundred years ago, who can prove that some of them did not escape destruction? Might they not have taken refuge in some hitherto unexplored part of the world (there are still a few of these places in Jungle, desert and polar regions)? At least, the big bird tales have more of a scientific basis than those flying saucers which were getting news head lines last year, or the sea serpents which will begin to appear again this summer. The Museum of Natural History has yet to find fragments of a flying saucer or the. skeleton of a sea serpent. It’S only long habit that makes the candidate promise aid to farmers now so wealthy they pay in money for subscrip tions to weekly newspapers. What's the first-aid procedure for one trampled on in a rush—as in the case of the winner of a house in an Eastern con test, who already owns a house? For faster action, on such powder kegs as Berlin, Joe Stalin could of course switch from the traditional pipe to the exploding cigar. _ As between words, John L. Lewis leans always to the longer, and when the court pointed,- he is supposed to have blurted "Whom? Me?” This and That By Charles E. Tracewcll "FARRAGUT MEDICAL BUILDING. "Dear Sir: “On a recent trip through the Isle of Jamaica, where the climate permits practically all of the meals to be served out of doors, I was much impressed with the friendly conduct of a large black bird which I assumed to be our common grackle. The yellow eye, black iridescent col oring and curved beak seemed to me to be typical. I did note, however, that some of the birds seemed to have a more or less bronze spot on the throat and upper chest. Isn’t this prob ably the boat-tailed grackle so commonly seen in Florida and on the Gulf Coast? These birds did seem to be somewhat larger than the coni mon grackle we see here. "At several places on the Island whenever the gong announced a meal was served, these birds would immediately be in evidence, flying down and alighting on the porch rail or chair backs and even occasionally landing squarely on the table at which people were eating to steal bread from the bread trays. "The mongoose which was imported into the Island in the 1870s to eradicate the snakes is seen scurrying across the roads in front of the cars very much as our squirrels do here, although the drivers say that they are very seldom run over. So successfully have they exterminated the snakes that the last live snake was reported to have been seen about 20 years ago. "Lizards of all sizes and hues still, however, are very abundant and probably have been saved from extermination by their more aboreal habits. It is difficult to see why the mongoose should enjoy eating snakes and refuse to make a meal off a lizard. Local bird lovers seemed to be apprehensive, however, about the Inroads the mongooses are making on nesting birds and poultry. To keep them under control, the natives have developed by careful breeding a small dog with a very'long pointed muzzle which is trained to stick his nose into the burrow. The mongoose promptly fastens his teeth in the dog’s lipe, and when the latter naturally Jumps back to get away from this punishment, the mongoose is dragged out with him where he can be effectively dealt with. “Sincerely yours, P. W., M.D." * * * * The sly way* of the mongoose have endeared it to .the natives of Jamaica and of some of the other nearby islands. "Sly Mongoose,” in fact, is the name of the most popular folksong of the Island. That this viverrine animal has become a nuisance is not to be wondered at; such is the usual fate of imported creatures. The common sparrow and the starling are other instances. Mongooses are doing damage to poultry in Jamaica, but probably other creatures do even more. The viverrine animals include the civet cat. as well as the famous "fishing cat,” often called the viverrine cat. * * * * The boat-tailed grackle is sometimes called jackdaw in the South, but it is no jackdaw, of course but a totally different bird. It is 16 inches long, in contrast to the 12 inches of the purple grackle. The beat-tail has two distinguishing traits. | One is that the female precedes the male in the trip North. Another is that the male deserts the female, once Incubation starts, and gathers with other males who have been equally untrue. The mother birds protect, feed and train the young, and with them finally join the males again. The nests are placed in colonies in reeds among swamps, but not in the water, of course; some nests are individualistic, put in trees, sometimes as high as 40 feet. The nest is large, coated with mud. and holds three to five brown eggs, tinted with green, and irregularly Wbtehed _with brown and black. Letters to The Star Farmer’s Economic Plight To th* Mltor of Th* Star: I read with a great deal of interest an article appearing in The Star for April 10 in which M. V. Davison, manager.of National Dairy Products Corp.’s Washington branch, dealt very carelessly with the farmer’s money in suggesting a reduction of one cent a quart in milk prices, and I could not help but wonder why he did not make his liberal offer from the funds of his corporation whose earnings have reached staggering proportions and from which could be extracted one cent a quart with tar less hardship than if taken from the farmer. Incidentally, I wonder why a great institution like The Star will play up such underhanded tactics as that proposed by the National Dairy Products Corp. without a rather thorough in vestigation of where reductions or increases should be allowed or tolerated. Is it an effort to maintain the highest possible average income to city people at the expense of farmers without stopping to realize that the adequate purchas ing power of fanners is all Important to a healthy economy? According- to the 1945 census, the average farmer in Montgomery County had a total income of $3,900 including proper allowance for what they got from the farm in the way of living costs. The same census report said Montgomery County farmers enjoyed the highest standard of living in the Nation. Com pare this figure with the income of milk truck drivers and see if their income is not higher than this figure. The driver had no operating costs, but the farmer had to finance his holdings, hire at least one laborer, buy feed, fertilizer, lime, grass seed, machinery and pay taxes and maintain properties out of $3,900 Income. I ask you: How much was left for the family, after the cost of operating a farm was taken out? Why should the farmer’s family get up at 3 o’clock in the morning and work until late at night producing the world’s most needed food, if their only reward is poverty? W. LAWSON KING. Mr. Lawrence Criticized To the Editor of Th* St»r: Again and again I’ve wanted to squawk about your columnist, David Lawrence, only, until now, I’ve been too lazy. I am disgusted with his bad reporting. Hardly a week passes without his coming to a phony conclusion based on half-information. Today’s (April 12) column takes the cake. Brother Lawrence talks about the wicked Army spread ing union propaganda ("Is the Army trying to cuddle up to the big labor unions • • •?”). It so happens that my nephew sends me his copy of "Army Talk” each week. And a very fine Job it Is. The Army tries to get men to discuss current Issues and think. That's the difference between the United States and a totalitarian power. We have an Army of men who know what is happening in their country and who will argue the pros and cons among themselves. They know what they may some day have to fight for. E. P. D. Communist Doctrine Stated To tht Editor of The Star: There are some basic principles of Soviet Russia's doctrine with which every American should became familiar. The Communist Party is the sol# ruling party and no organized resistance is allowed. Stalin stated in Pravda that in the Soviet Union there is a basis only for the Communist Party. Stalin often is addressed in words of servile flattery, and he may not be publicly criticized in any manner. ‘‘Every Soviet family, school or political or ganization is in duty bound to instill in the Soviet youth from the earliest age those qualities necessary to the Red soldier: Mili tary spirit, a love of war, endurance, self-re liance, and boundless loyalty."’ This is a di rect quotation from Komsomolskaya Pravda, which is the official organ of the Soviet Union of Communist Youth. The governments the Soviet^ Union con trols all means of production and labor, and also all banks and stores. Every Soviet citizen is taught only the ideas indorsed by the Communist Party. The govern ment completely controls the press, schools, radio, movies, and the theater. The military police have the power to arrest, hold any one indefinitely, and banish without public trial. There is no protection against false arrest. Political opponents have been sent to con centration camps since the early years of the Soviet regime. At the present time, these camps contain about 10,000,000 people, includ ing civilian deportees, non-Russians and war prisoners. The Communist Party tries to create suspi cion against foreign countries. Very few for eigners are allowed to enter Soviet Russia and newspapermen who are admitted are liable to strict censorship. The peopl! are not per mitted to read any foreign newspapers, maga zines or political books; and they are com pletely Isolated from the rest of the world. Stalin wrote the following doctrine of Social ist, i.e. Communist, internationalism in "Prob lems of Leninism": “The victory of social ism in one country is not an end In itself; it must be looked upon as a support to hasten the* revolution in every other land.” One of the most Important duties of Com-' munists in every country is to work to over throw their governments by lawful or unlawful means. This has been stressed by the Com munist International; and Communists throughout the world have worked as a fifth column for Soviet expansion. By studying every phase of communism and exposing the evils of this doctrine, the Ameri can people can help to save our democracy. Syracuse, N. Y. ALICE HANCHETT. Trouble Caused by Poverty, Ignorance To the Editor of The Star: I almost fear to look at the calendar. Our civilization is aging rapidly, and each one of us along with it. This current week (April 11 18) seems destined to settle the destiny of our democratic way of life. At the beginning of the Week Colombia gave us a demonstration of un bridled human passions. What will Italy do at the end of the week, when her voters go to the polls next Sunday? It Is disconcerting that the Inter-American Conference of Bogota, headed by Secretary of State Marshall, should be so rudely interrupted. This only Increases the tension developing throughout the world. But what is especially shocking is that Colombian mobs, according to press dispatches, paid no respect to churches or religious prop erties. Having lived in Latin countries of Europe, and In Central and South America, I from time to time have experienced the effects of revolutionary upheavals. But the pattern of this Colombian revolt, as reported, was entirely different—it had all the earmarks of a far more excitable character. A little background about Colombia might be enlightening to the readers' of The Star. Colombia broke from Catholic Spain in 1819 when Liberator Bolivar created the Republic of Colombia. In 1903 the state of Panama seceded from Colombia, and the United States constructed the Panama Canal through the Isthmus. It is no secret that the state religion of most Latin American countries 1# Roman Catholic, but in 11 countries, out of 30, there is separa tion church and state, and for the ifain part mere Is civil liberty and freedom of rail Letters for publication must bear the signature and address of the' writer, although it is permissible for a writer known to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be brief. (ion. But, strangely enough, the Catholic j religion is not professed in Colombia, or the other lands, as it is here in America, where the Holy Scriptures are more widely known. The common people are left in ignorance of the real issue of moral and spiritual life; in fact, the extent of this condition is so great that the director of the Bogota Public Library recently said to a friend: “It is- time that the breeses of the Ref ormation which have delayed so many centuries In crossing the Atlantic, should blow this way. Some sections of our countries still struggle along lines of the 16th century.” Other serious problems also confront the rest of Latin America today. Here is the viewpoint of Gabriels Mistral, famous Chilean author: “Supposing that Protestant missions and their social service activities could be sup pressed, either rapidly or gradually, I fear that, little by little, an atmosphere of resentment and finally of hatred for Catholicism would be engendered. It is outstandingly true that liberty alone conciliates, placates and calms.” Based on this and similar opinions of Latin American leaders, and on our personal knowl edge of conditions in South America, we, safely can say that conditions are favorable to the spread of atheism (an acquired revulson toward religion through centuries of Spanish oppres sion) or, more specifically, of communism. Communism finds a fertile field among the working classes. There is hardly any middle Class. CHARLES ALLEN RENTFRO. Inquiries About Intelligence Service To the Editor of The Star: A few years ago the people of the United States were told that the Government would develop and maintain the finest and most elaborate intelligence service In the world. We were assured that we would not have to fear another “Pearl Harbor” or be Infested with a spy ring such as was uncovered in Canada. With such assurances, the people looked forward to the Pan American Conference, which was to plan the future safety and prosperity of this part of the world. Our top officials planned for months so as to assure the success of the conference. Many of our most important officials, headed by Sec retary of State George C. Marshall, attended the conference. The conference was afforded the greatest publicity possible. But where, oh where, was our Intelligence service? One commentator, on last Sunday evening, stated that the investigation had been taken out of the hands of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, but did not say to what unit It had been delegated. When our President visits foreign countries, our services co-operate with the proper parties In those countries to afford him protection. The people are entitled to know why another “Pearl Harbor” occurred at Bogota. What can we expect In the future? Are our intelligence units crippled by dual control or have they just decayed, like our air forces? JOHN F. HILLYARD. Progressive Party Protest To t.h» editor of Ttao 8t*r: While welcoming the appearance of your reporter, John V. Homer, at our meeting on April 2, we wish to call your attention to two inaccuracies published in his story in The Star of April 3. First, it was not a “widely publicized meet ing" as Mr. Horner stated. To include that statement in his report is to infer that the turnout was negligible. If it is your practice to Include attendance figures in accounts of meetings, will you kindly do so in reports of civic federation groups, alongside of their resolutions condemning civil rights and up holding restrictive covenants and segregation? Finally, Mr. Horner, closing his article, quotes a Mr. “Yalski” as a “fighting Yugoslav." What Mr. Homer did was to take two separate re marks of this particular speaker (over an hour and several points on the order of busi ness occurred between the first and second parts of Mr. Homer’s quotation) and combine them so as to Imply some sort of anti-Ameri can influence. Had your reporter checked his information with that particular member or the officers present, he would not have mis spelled that person’s name, and would have found him to be a native-born American citi zen. ^ Between now and the elections The Star will undoubtedly cover a good share of the Progressive Party’s forums and meetings. You will find our officers and membership frifendly and co-operative, but at the same time in sistent that press coverage be objective and fair. 8. A. ABBOTT, Press Committee, Progressive Party of Mary land. Editor’* Note: In view of the publicity given the meeting to which Mr. Abbott refers, The Star felt that it waa pertinent to report that, it waa attended by 21 persons. The misspell ing of Mr. ValsUc's name is regretted. Another Member of AAUW To tho Editor of The Ster: I accuse Ruth Voris Lyons of misrepresenting facts in her letter regarding the controversy at the University Women’s Club. She claims that there are 200 women who have worked steadily in support of the policy of the National Board. Later she claims that 30 to 40 per cent of the membership have supported every crucial vote in favor of the parent organization. There are 1,050 members of the Washington branch. I* 200, 30 or 40 per cent of the membership of 1,050? I think not! I object to her term "parent organization." I didn't know, that the central body was a par ent organization or that it stood in loco parentis to the branches. I always thought that ,in a democracy the central body existed to do the will of the branches, not to be served by them. This group of 200 evidently believes in the tail wagging the dog. , Mrs. Lyons elaims that the majority wish to operate the club as a social club. I am acquainted with her and with her 200, and I can truthfully say that I have never seen any (people enjoy the dining-room service more than this group does. Yet I see them sitting (bound night after night in our spacious par lors hatching up the Lord only knows what, against the branch. Mrs. Lyons speaks of the noble aspirations and accomplishments of this crowd. If they have accomplished anything other than assidu ously stirring up minority groups, I certainly would like to know; whit it is. All I have ever heard from them is talk. LAURA K. POLLOCK, Eighteen years a member of the AAUW. Family Housing Dilemma To the Alitor of The SUr: Does any'one have a solution to the housing problem? I’m referring now to bousing for children. Many, like myself, have been asked to pay outrageous rents in order to give our children homes. Tell me, though, what veteran on-the-job trainee can pay $100 a month and Ctill feed a family of four adequately? We’re willing to live in a cabin as long as there’s elec trieitv in it and it is with}® commuting distance of my job. ROBERT ENGLAND. Stan, Man and Atom Soviet Atomic Development Is Widely Debated inil.S. Little Known Except that Russia Started Late, Facea Problems By Thomas R. Hsnry Has Russia an atomic bomb? Any answer to this question, asked en every hand, een only be purely speculative—uni—. of course, tfce armed services have specific confidential information. Production of an atomic bomb depends en two major factors: Knowledge of the beats scientific principles involved and industrial capacity. Respecting the first, R is the con sensus of Washington scientists, including several who were involved in production ef the first atomic bomb, that there is a possible chance that the Ruasians have gotten ever the hurdles. Opinions very widely, largely over the ability of Russian scientists. Ons eminent physicist has been quoted as saying that if he had the job of making such a bomb, starting from scratch, he would prefer to have a teem ef Russian scientists and American engineers. Others, however, have quits a low opinion of Russian capacities in this particular line—ths relatively new science of nuclear'physics. First, it is pointed put, at least 85 per rent of the "secret” was revealed when the first bomb was dropped. The celebrated Smyth# report did little more than amplify details which any one even superficially familiar with the subject would have suspected. To a nuclear physicist anywhere, it was immediately appar ent that some one of a quite limited number of ways must have been taken. It would not have been too difficult to have eliminated the less feasible techniques. Wartime Work le Known. The outstanding physicists of Russia and their work up to the end of the war are fairly well known here. First among them stands Dr. Peter Kapitza. English trained, he Is unquestionably one of the world’s great physicists, but all his major work had been in the fields of extremely low temperatures and magnetism. There is no evidence from any of his publications that Dr. Kapitza had given any particular attention to the physics of the atomic nucleus. It is not something which can be followed as a sideline. Dr. Kapitza doubtless had a general familiarity with the subject equal to that of an average physics professor In an American college. The same is true of Russia’s next best known physicist, Prof. Joffe. He had no special training, and had done no notable work in nuclear reactions. In fact, Russia is not known to have had any particularly eminent man specializing in this field. Russia has many brilliant young physicists. But if there were no older men to train them, together with apparent almost complete lack of essential laboratory equipment, it is highly doubtful If any of them were well versed a* the end of the war in probably the most difficult specialized fitld in all science. This is not denying that some of them may have made rapid progress once they were started in the right direction. Russia, it is known, took over some of Ger many’s best-known scientists after the war. These men were given attractive offers to insure their enthusiastic co-operation. But not one of them was among the prominent known nuclear physicists of Germany. They had specialized in other lines. Their knowledge of the atomic nucleus was general and it would take them some time to become experts. Results Were Published. Russia, of course, became interested in atomle fission as soon as the first news of it cam# from Washington in January, 1939. But neither here nor there was the possibility of an atomla bomb seen clearly. For sopie time there was no bar on complete publication of results In the United States and It Is unlikely that there was any secrecy In Russia. The Russian work—so far as Is known from anything published—dealt entirely with de veloping means of separating the supposedly essential Isotope of uranium, U 235, from or dinary uranium by means of the thermal dif fusion process. This required getting uranium in the form of a gas, uranium fluoride, one of the most corrosive substances in existence. In this line their work was quite good, although they actually piade no better progress than was being made in the United States. This is the picture previous to August 6. 1945. Thst the Russians were keeping something back Is quite improbable. There is every reason to believe that news of the atomic bomb was as much of a surprise to the Russians as to the rest of the world. There also can be little doubt that they started work Immediately to learn the approximately 15 per cent of the necessary Information. Much time must have been spent In pure organization, In getting the right people to work on the right Jobe. This Is especially true in light of the known paucity of nuclear physicists. At least up to 1942 there was only one cyclotron in Russia, This was so poorly built and Inefficient that even some Russians said It probably had been built as a Joke. Problem* Take Time. Now, this last 15 per cent of the road, ac cording to Washington physicists, had a lot of hurdles. There were none which could not be crossed by teams of competent nuclear physicists. But, unless there were s series of unbelievably fortunate accidents, all this would take time and several of the bombs were al most certain to turn out "duds.” In view of the techniques which probably would be fol lowed, however, there Is little probability of a serious accident, a premature explosion which would fill the atmosphere with radio active particles which could be detected on Geiger counters and create shock waves In the earth which would be recorded by seismo graphs. Admittedly a great deal might be accom plished in almost three years and the Russian scientific mind Is quite brilliant. Perhaps they have something even better. This Is seriously doubted by Washington phys icists, however. The picture thus stands that Russians were late in starting, they began with an inade quate number of competent nuclear physicists, and were bound to make many mistakes be fore they got on the right road. The second phase is thst of engineering— actually producing bombs In quantity after the scientific principles were clear. Tb'j would have been a difficult, but far from Impossible, Job for Russian engineers. It largely depends on how free a hand they have been given and how much money they have been allowed. It generally la agreed that If Russla.has the scientific data necessary for building a bomb, its attainment la relatively recent. Nobody will say, however, thst Its possession Is impossible, or even highly improbable.