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Sunny today with highest near 70. F6tr and l Amusements .—A-20 ] Obituary .A-12 ! warmer tonight, lowest about 55. Tomorrow Comics .B-14-15 j Radio ^....B-15 ! cloudy, windy and warmer. (Full report on • Editorial ..A-10 Society, Clubs..-B-3 Page A-2.) Editor’l Articles A-ll Sports -A-10-17 | Midnight—45 6 a.m_44 Soon ...58 ! Finance ..A-19 Where to Go... B-0 ■ 2 a.m_43 8 a.m_45 1 pm-63 | ( Lost and Found..A-3 Woman's Page..A-14 j 4 a m_43 10 am.. . 54 2 pm-64 ---— -^---—'1 i ____| An Associated Press Newspaper 96th Year. No. 110. Phone NA. 5000. ★★★ WASHINGTON, D. C., MONDAY, APRIL 19, 1948—THIRTY-SIX PAGES. 5 CENTS~~ _ _ ' -—--- ' —; _~ _ _ - — i _ Goldsborough Sets Tomorrow For Sentence Justice Hints Broadly At Jail Term for Mine Union Chief By James Y. Newton John L. Lewis and the United Mine Workers today were de clared guilty of contempt of court by Justice T. Alan Golds borough. who postponed sentence until 10 a.m. tomorrow. Justice Goldsborough found that Mr. Lewis and the UMW deliberately provoked the strike of 400,000 miners which began March 15 and then ignored a District Court order to call it off. The finding of guilt covered both civil and criminal contempt. Justice Goldsborough hinted broad ly at a possible jail sentence for Mr. Lewis, an action that industry feared would bring another Nation-wide strike of the miners. He said that use of the unlimited power's to fine the defendants under civil contempt provisions .could not "salvage” the damage caused the country by the strike. Mr. Lewis sat impassively among his attorneys as Justice Golds borough delivered a long oral opinion that at times assumed the aspect of a lecture on the responsi bility of unions and their leaders for the actions ot the union mem bers. New Rule of Law. “What this court does in this case is being watched by every law less element,” Justice Goldsborough said, “not only in this country, but of the world—all decent people, too— on the question of whether the courts have the power to pro tect the people of this country” in pursuit of their normal way of life. In making his findings. Justice Goldsborough said that he was enunciating a new rule of law, one that he thought clearly was right, although he did not know whether the high courts would sustain him. It was: “A union that is functioning as a union must be held responsible for the mass action of its members. • * * This rule of law is the only one which will preserve the unions. If the plan is adopted widely over the country for the use of a wink, a nod or a code instead of the word strike—and it is recognized by the courts—then we will have among unions lawlessness, chaos and ulti mate anarchy. Then unions would have to be socialized—in other words, they would be destroyed.” Motion for Delay Overruled. After pronouncing Mr. Lewis and the UMW guilty of both counts of contempt. Justice Goldsborough quickly overruled a motion by Welly K Hopkins, chief Lewis counsel, to arrest judgment. The court set ar gument for 10 a m. Wednesday on the Government's request for an 80-day, Taft-Hartley Act injunction against the mine strike. Mr. Hopkins argued that the UMW and Mr. Lewis had complied last Monday—a week after it was f served on them—with the order issued by Justice Matthew F. Me- | Guire to end the strike. He had called cn Attorney General Clark to ask the court to dissolve the re straining order. “It would be an interesting situa tion.” Justice Goldsborough com mented, “if the Attorney General • moved to dissolve the injunction and all of the miners, or the balance of them, would walk out tomorrow. The court doesn't think the matter of the injunction has been disposed of.” Beyond Bounds of Expedience.” In pronouncing judgment earlier and in reference to the action of Mr. Lewis in ignoring the court order to end the strike, Justice Goldsborough said: Finally, the court is firmly con-' vinced this situation has gotten be yond the bounds of expediency.! This issue must be met.” Justice Goldsborough brushed aside the Lewis argument that the miners were not on strike but had merely stopped work as individuals in protest of the failure of coal mine operators to give them a pension (See COAL, Page A-4.) ---.— Hog Prices Drop Sharply On Heavy Runs to Market By tVit Associated Press KANSAS CITY, April 19—The biggest hog run in almost two years jammed the Kansas City stockyards today. Receipts were estimated at 7,500. The last day that number w’as ex ceeded was July 2, 1946, when the run totaled 9.793. The previous high this year was 4,593 on April 5. Buyers saw in the heavy receipts a start on unloading the backlog of hogs which had been held on the theory the packing house strike w'as near an end. Prices opened $1 to $1.50 lower, with top of $20.50. the minimum since October 15, 1946, when OPA price ceilings went off. CHICAGO. April 19 (Ab.—Based on the largest fresh receipts since January, hog prices today sagged $1 to $1.25. There were 21.000 hogs on sale and 500 shipped direct to packers. Most good and choice butcher hogs sold between $16.50 and $21.50. RALEIGH, N. C., April 19 </Pu— Prices dropped from 75 cents to $1.25 per hundred pounds on North Carolina cash hog buying stations today. Top prices were $18.50 to $M. AFTER THE GUILTY VERDICT—John L. Lewis leaving District Court today after hearing Justice T. Alan Goldsborough find him guilty of contempt for flouting a court stop-strike order in the coal mine walkout. An unidentified woman offered a pat on the back as the mine leader marched stolidly out of the building. —Star Staff Photo* Surprised at Verdict, Miners May Refuse To Work Tomorrow Union Officials Cautious, But Disappointment of Workers Is Evident Coal miners who belong to John L. Lewis’ United Mine Workers apparently received with surprise today word of the union chief’s conviction of con tempt of court and some imme diately indicated they would leave the mines in protest. First indication of a new strike came from the Frostburg, Md.. area, where, the Associated Press re ported, miners working today de clared they will not report tomor row, the day Mr. Lewis will hear the penalty assessed against him and his union. Most of the miners in that area apparently expected a favorable de cision and there was no hiding their disappointment. Many declared: "We won't take it." But union officials were adopting a more cautious attitude. At thg Cumberland headquarters of the UMW, which includes the Frostburg area mines, David Watkins, veteran international union representative, refused to say more than that “the miners(do their own thinking." At Pittsburgh. John P. Busarello, president of UMW's District 5, said: "No comment this morning. Let's wait until tomorrow.” The head of UMW's District 3 at Greensburgh, Pa., Frank Hughes, told the Associated Press: “No comment. About all our men are back at work.” A sposesman for one UMW local which was still idle commented: "I don't know what will happen now. We re not working yet and it looks as if we won’t.” This ominous note could indicate a renewal of the walkout—ruled by Justice T. Allan Goldsborough today to have been a "strike." Up to this morning it had been estimated that more than two-thirds of the 400.00d striking miners had returned to then jobs, following the instructions last Monday of Mr. Lewis. He told them to end their "voluntary cessation of work" after he had won for them $100 monthly pensions. The pension issue touched off the strike March 15. There was a widespread fear among industrialists, before today's court decision, that all of the miners would walk out again if Mr. Lewis and the union were found guilty and assessed a large penalty. ICC Grants Carriers Average Freight Rate Increase of 5 Pet. Labor Costs and Strikes Blamed For Higher Rates, Totaling 300 Millions By the Associated Press The Interstate Commerce Commission today granted an other temporary freight rate in crease averaging about 5 per cent. The increases, totaling more than $300,000,000 a year, will apply to both railroads and domestic water ' carriers. They may be made ef fective on 10 days' notice to the public. The increases range from 10 per cent in the East to 5 per cent else where, with no change in the Far West. The commission said higher rates were required because of the freight business which has been lo6t be cause of work stoppages, in the coal mining and other major industries, and by severe winter condition* In the early months of this year. Tire ICC noted that the railroads themselves “are now facing either the possibility of a work stoppage j under » strike vote already taken” i or an increase in their labor costs. The railroads last summer asked for a long-term 30 per cent advance tin freight rates. Since this plan has been under study, the ICC has authorized temporary advances of 20 per cent, now further increased by about 5 per cent. The new increase lifts rates In the East by 10 per cent, within the south by 5 per cent, and within zone 1 of Western territory by 5 ' per cent, one 1 covers an area immediately west of Chicago com prising Iowa, Northern Missouri. Southeastern Minnesota and most of Wisconsin. | The commission said that rates on freight moving in the West and South and the West and East will take a 5 per cent increase. | Commissioners Miller and Mitch ell concurred in the new increases, •but both said the ICC should have disposed of the petition for perma nent raise instead of taking fur ther temporary action. Mrs. Roosevelt Quits Brussels BRUSSELS. April 19 (JP).—Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt left Brussels ; this morning by automobile for the Netherlands. She is to be a guest of the Dutch royal family. New Atom Test on Eniwetok Announced by Commission ly As*ociot«d Pr«»* A test of "an atomic weapon" has been held at the proving grounds on Eniwetok Atoll, in the Marshall Islands, the Atomic Energy Com mission announced today. This is the first such test an nounced since those held at Bikini, also in the Pacific, in 1946. The announcement came as the White House said President Tru man would reappoint all five mem bers of the atomic commission to new terms beginning August 1. The nominations will go the Senate sometime this week. Chairman David E. Lilienthal and his four fellow members will be named for staggered terms ranging from one to five years. Presidential Secretary Charles G. Rosa said he did not know what terms individual members would be named for. The commission did not explain whether the Eniwetok test was of an atomic bomb, or some new kind of atomic weapon. The commission said that for se curity reasons the date the test was held is not being announced. “A classified report of the test results is being made to the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy of the Congress.” the announcement said, adding: “The teswwas conducted under lull security restrictions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. and pur suant to the provisions of the act, the public issuance of further In formation concerning the test is not permissible at present.” Rumors of such tests on Eniwetok have been prevalent for several weeks. IB Bridges Backs 70 Air Groups, Urges Action Unexpected Move Clears Way for Early Vote in Senate By J. A. O'Leary Chairman Bridges of the Sen ate Appropriations Committee came out today in favor of swift Senate approval of Air Force ex pansion to 70 groups, for which the House already has voted a starting appropriation. His statement came unexpectedly, and virtually assures early Senate action in view of his position. There had been earlier reports that Senator Bridges wanted to pro ceed carefully in considering air strength in its relation to ^ balanced over-all defense program in line with the position taken by President Truman and Secretary of Defense Porrestal. The New Hampshire Republican also made it clear he is ready to give prompt consideration to the additional needs of the Army and Navy, which the Administration contends should go along with the larger air force. Says Need Is Urgent. The statement of the Senate Appropriations chairman follows: “I have always been an advocate of air power as the key to any na tional defense program. Through out my service in the Senate I havs urged the development and maintenance of a striking force ad equate to meet any contingency. Since World War II ended and Com munist Russia’s expansion was ac celerated I have emphasized that the need for such an air force is completely urgent. “The international situation is critical. In the face of this ever increasing Communist threat, the Congress has no choice but to act with dispatch on the 70-group air force plan as the spearhead of an adequate and balanced overall pro gram to secure America’s position in a threatened world. There should be prompt congressional authoriza tion of a 70-group air force. “Information which will enable the Congress to promptly authorize whatever iteps are necessary to an adequate and balanced overall de fense program should be immedi ately presented by the executive branch. In this period when It is impossible to predict daily develop ments the Government and the people must treat time as of the essence. Committee Will Act Swiftly. “I am hopeful that needed infor mation will come to the Senate Armed Services Committee immedi ately. But in any event, the Senate Appropriations Committee is pre pared to act swiftly regarding air force expansion and any othef na tional security matters placed before us.’’ Meanwhile^ the Senate Armed Services Committee recessed its study of military manpower needs until Wednesday when it found Sec retary of Defense Forrestal would not be ready before then to submit the overall figures showing what each branch of the service believes it should have. Chairman Gurney revealed that the separate armed forces have not yet agreed among themselves how much should be allocated to each of them out of the overall increase of $3,000,000,000 recommended by the administration two weeks ago to the original $11,000,000,000 de fense budget for the coming year. The controversy over the size of the Air Force was brought to a head when the House last week decided to take $3,198,000,000 of the administration's total defense bud get and make it immediately avail able for Air Force and naval air expansion alone. The Senate Appropriations Com | mittee also met in closed session, ] principally to work out procedure (See DEFENSE, Page A-5.) High Court Sustains Negro Vote in South •y th» Associated Press The Supreme Court in effect to day upheld a decision that Negroes have the right to vote in Demo cratic primaries in South Carolina. That decision was returned by the United States Circuit Court of Ap peal* in Richmond. It was ap pealed by party officials of Rich land County, S. C. They asked the Supreme Court to review and re verse the decision. They contended the Democratic party in South Carolina is “a voluntary political association which can exercise un restricted choice of membership.” The Supreme Court announced merely that it would not review the lower court findings. The effect of this is to let the findings stand. The circuit court decision said: “No election machinery can be upheld if its purpose or effect is to deny the Negro, on account of his race or color, an effective voice in the Government of his country or the State or community wherein he ; lives.” The Richland County party officials told the Supreme Court that the Democratic Party in South Carolina is not regulated by State law and primary elections are conducted merely under party rules. They argued that the Cir cuit Court had no right to act in the case because “there was no State action involved, and the pri mary waa not required by law and waa not an election.” # Thousands Swarm Into Stadium To See Nats, Yanks in Opener Truman to Deliver Pitch at 3 O'Clock; Bleacher Seats Sold Out for First Time BULLETIN BOSTON (iflP;.—'The Boston Red Sox and the Philadelphia Athletics opened the major league baseball season today in a Patriots’ Day double header and the Athletics won, 5 to 4, in 11 inning? despite three Boston home runs by Stan Spence, Vern Stephens and Bobby Doerr. The teams are playing again this after noon. By Francis E. Stann Sunny skies and near-perfect weather conditions greeted the Washington Nats and the World Champion New York Yankees at Griffith Stadium today as the Campaign for Pledges Against Segregated 1 Army Service Drawn Signatures of Negroes And Whites Sought, House Group Is Told By Robert K. Walsh A Nation-wide campaign will be launched to have Negroes and white men sign cards pledging refusal to obey any draft or uni- j versal military training law that! allows racial discrimination, the House Armed Services Commit tee was told today, j 1 Grant Reynolds, New York State Commissioner of correction and na tional chairman of the Committee Against Jimcrow in Military Service and Training, announced also that buttons with the inscription “Don't Coin a Jimcrow Army” will be sold 1 in front of the White House and the Capitol. His testimony advocating a “civil disobedience" drive against segrega tion in the armed forces was in line with statements he and A. Phillips Randolph, president of the Sleeping ■Car Porters Union, AFL, made two weeks ago to the Senate Armed Services Committee. They asserted that they would advjge Negroes not to serve in the armed services if Congress passed draft or UMT leg islation without a ban on racial segregation. Say* He Wouldn't Serve. Mr. Reynolds, who is colored, tes tified today as the House committee began its second week of open hear ings on a limited draft bill designed to help increase the regular armed strength from 1.377.000 to almost 2,000.000 men. with provision for a 70-group Air Force. Mr. Reynolds, in reply to sharp questions by committee members, declared he was “unalterably op posed to communism and Soviet Russia's policies." He said, however, that he personally tfculd refuse to register or serve in the armed serv ices unless racial segregation is pro hibited. “A policeman could come and get (See DRAFT, Page A-6.) Late News 1 Bulletin , U. 5. Protests to Nicaragua The State Department an nounced. today that the United States had made the “strong- i est’’ informal protest to Nic aragua against the presence of Nicaraguan troops in Costa Rica. The troops were reported to have been aiding govern ment forces. (Earlier Story on Page A-J.) 48th American League baseball season opened. Fans has lost none of their old zest for the pageantry of Wash ington's opening day. Long lines of ticket-seekers waited at bleacher entrances for the gates to open. Five minutes after the first gate swung back at 11 o’clock, approxi mately 2.000 fans basked in the sun for the four-hour wait until game time. It was announced that for the first time the bleachers were completely sold out before the game. At the main entrance on Florida avenue, more fans took up a block long vigil as early as 1 o'clock for the sale of standing room tickets, which will be available at 2:30. half an hour before President Truman delivers the traditional first pitch. Joe Kuhel, fresnman manager of the Nats, confirmed in the dressing (SeeBASEBALL? Pagc~A-4.> City Heads Consider Police Loyally Check For D. C. Employes 'Special Investigations Squad' Would Handle Screening of 18,000 A loyalty Investigation pro gram for District employes will be carried out by the police force, if the Commissioners put into effect their present ideas. Their idea is to have the pro gram here “supervised" by a special committee of District department chiefs, headed probably by a repre sentative of the Corporation Coun sel's Office. But the actual work of checking the actions and allegiances of the city's 18.000 employes would be in the hands of the “special investi gations squad’’ which, operating under a cloak of secrecy, already has had considerable practice as sembling anti-subversive informa tion. Suggested by Young. It was Commissioner John Russell Young who first suggested, on April 10. that a check of municipal em ployes by the District Government itself might be necessary. He reached that conclusion after being informed by the Civil Service Com mission that the Federal Govern ment had no authority to investi gate District ■workers. With Mr. Young's proposal on the agenda for tomorrow's board meet ing, the three Commissioners are already in full though informal agreement that the loyalty check must be made. And while they may change their minds about the de tails, they agree that the police de partment is the only agency that can handle the job. The "special investigations squad" (See-LOYALTY. Page'A-6.> 57th DAR Congress Opens Tonight With 4.C13 in Attendance Principal Talk to Be Given By Martin; Message From Truman Will Be Read Committees were ironing out final details today, while the last of the 4.000 delegates and alter nates signed the register in preparation for tonight’s open ing session of the 57th Conti nental Congress of Daughters of the American Revolution. As usual, colorful pageantry and patriotic ceremony will mark the first of the five-day sessions at Constitution Hail. Speaker of the House Martin will deliver the prin cipal address after Mrs. Roscoe C. O’Byrne of Brookville, Ind., extends her first welcoming message to the congress as president general. A message from President Tru man will be read to the initial assembly, which begins at 8:30 p.m. after a concert lay the Marine Band Orchestra. "National Defense" is the keynote of the congress. Yesterday, the daughters gath ered At Constitution Hall to honor the memory of their colleagues who have died in the last year. In her tribute to 2,664 deceased members, Mrs. O'Byrne said the story of Mrs. Mildred Fish Harnack. who was reported beheaded in 1943 on the personal orders of Hitler for resisting Nazi ideology, exempli fies the "sterner stuff" of which Daughters of the American Revolu tion are made. Mrs. Harnack graduated from Western High School and attended I George Washington University be ifore transferring to the University of Wisconsin, where she met her husband, Dr. Arvid Harnack. He • See DAR. Page A-5.1 Dirksen to Ask Debate Curb In House for Home Rule Bill Chairman Dirksen of the House District Committee, anticipating that his committee will approve the bill i to give home rule to the District people, announced today he will ask the House Rules Committee for a rule for two hours debate on the House floor. Opposition is expected both in the District Committee and on the floor. Best indication points to ap proval by the District Committee after debate. The home rule bill will come up for consideration by the District Committee Wednesday after the group has disposed of about seven other measures affecting the Dis trict. The session will start at 9:30 a.m. The hearing will be open to the public during consideration of minor bills, but the committee will go into executive session, Mr. Dirk sen said, to take up the home rule bill. So Important is this measure, Mr. Dirksen said, that the committee may have to meet on it during both ' the morning and the afternoon. Dirksen Calls for No Exemptions From Proposed D. C. Sales Tax Chairman Dirksen of the House District Committee today recom mended that all exemptions be elim inated from the proposed D. C. sales tax now being considered as a means to have city revenues meet city expenses. Sales tax proposals heretofore have called for exempting medical supplies and food sold in markets, but not in restaurants. The tax, as proposed, would be 2 per cent on retail pqrchases. Mr. Dirksen, in proposing that there be no exemptions, is support ing the contention of Chairman Horan of the House Subcommittee in charge of the District budget, who is concluding hearings on the record and unbalanced 1949 spend ing program. Mr. Dirksen said he did not like a sales tax, but that it could not be ri avoided as a means of meeting Dis trict budget demands. But he said it would be better to have no ex emptions because of bookkeeping troubles and confusion which other wise would arise. For example, he said it would al most be necessary for a grocer to rearrange his store and have all non-taxable goods on one side and taxed products on the other or to keep two sets of books. Even under such arrangements, he said, confusions still would be inevitable. The Horan subcommittee today took testimony from the last of the District officials on the Zoo, Park and Planning Commission and Of fice of National Capital Parks. A long list of citizen spokesmen is to be heard at a final session tomor row. i Early Returns From Italy Give Anti-Reds Lead Christian Democrats Threaten Leftist Domination of North By th« Associated Pros* ROME, April 19.—Early returns In Italy’s momentous elections gave anti-Communists a long lead today for the new Senate and threatened the leftist dom ination of the so-called “Red north.” Premier Alcide de Gasperi's Christian Democrats were ahead of the Communist-dominated Popular Front even in Turin, Venice, and Florence, which are under Com munist municipal administrations. The Vatican-backed Christian Dem ocrats also led in Milan, in the heart of the industrial north. In Bologna, capital of a region often called the “Italian Kremlin,” the Christian Democrats trailed the Popular Front by a shade. However, two minor parties associated with the Christian Democrats picked up enough votes to put the anti-Com munist total in Bologna well ahead of the Communists. ue uasperi • tncouragea. On the basis of these returns— too few to be decisive—Premier De Gasperi described himself as “very encouraged." He avoided making any predictions, however. Leaders were cautious about bas ing predictions on the Senate re turns, involving 237 elective seats, because they felt the vote for the Chamber of Deputies would be the real barometer of the Nation's feel ing on communism. A trickle of returns on the deputies' election la expected late tonight or early to morrow’. Unofficial returns from 200 of 911 sections in the Milan Senate con ! tests gave the Christian Democrats 76,739; the Popular Front, 50,219', the anti-Communlst Socialists, 28, 682. and the national bloc or rightist parties, 520. Voting Extremely Heavy. The voting was extremely heavy —estimated at 90 per cent of those eligible—and this was regarded as good news for the anti-Communists. In Rome, two voting precincts a block away from Mr. De Gasperi* home gave the Christian Democrats 817. the Popular Front 175, and the pro-Fascist Italian Social Movement (MSI) 76; Republican, 62 and Na tional Bloc, 21. Minister of Interior Mario Scelba announced the voting in this crucial test between Russia and the western democracies ended with “tranquil ity.” He warned against “alarmist news” being circulated by secret radios and unnamed persons. He said some arrests already had been made. Early returns from another Rome senatorial district gave the Chris tian Democrats 2,583, the Popular Front 505. Ten precincts in the city of Bo logna, often called the Italian Krem lin, gave the popular front a lead— 2,691 to the Christian Democrats’ 2,089. In Turin, under Communist muni cipal government for three years, 54 precincts gave the Christian Democrats 6,262, the Popular Front 2.557. These figures, representing less than 10 per cent of the Turin precincts, were announced by tha Interior Ministry. Complete unofficial returns from a seventh of Florence precincts gave the Christian Democrats a i 3-to-2 lead. The polls closed after 21 hours of voting full of meaning for the fu i ture of Europe and possibly for the peace of the world. Officials estimated 90 per cent of ! the 29,000,000 eligible* cast ballots. This may be a world record for a free election. Counting began Immediately. The Senate vote is counted first. First returns on 574 seats in the Cham ber of Deputies are due tomorrow. Campaign Often Violent. The grim tug-of-war in Italy be tween Russia and the West, re flected in the bitter and often vio lent campaign in the last three months, accounted for the heavy (See ITALY, Page A-4.) American MPs Make I Reds Release Woman 8/ th# Aiiocia!»d Pr*» I VIENNA, Austria, April 19.—A i Soviet attempt to kidnap a stateless [German woman in the American [ zone of Vienna led to a clash today ! between American and Russian mili tary police. The woman, identified as Elsa Pfeffer, was wrested from the Rus sians and released over their pro test. The incident was the most serious involving the two police forces since the start of the four power occupation of Vienna. American military police resorted to force when the Russians, who had been taken to the United States provost marshal’s headquarters, re fused to leave their automobiles. Capt. Kooshin, deputy Russian provast marshal for Vienna, was placed .under temporary arrest for ‘•countermanding the orders given by an American officer in an Amer ican district, and inciting a riot.” This kidnaping took place near the Kahlenberg. a castle in the Vienna woods overlooking the city. The woman had left the displaced per sons camp at Cobenzy, a former luxury hotel, when a civilian car pulled up alongside her. She said later she was forced into the automobile and a gun wu pushed into her ribe.