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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, July 18, 1948, Image 6

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Southern Negro Vote
Is No Threat Yet,
Professor Declares
ty Ai*ooot#d Press
ATLANTA, July 17.—A Negro
.proiessor said today that there is
710 threat to white supremacy in
t ihe South yet from the ballot
‘..Jarmed members of his race,
it* The threat, Dr. Luther P. Jack
on of Virginia State College said,
^does not exist though the number
53bf qualified Negro voters increased
Klrom 211,000 in 1940 to 645,000 in
j* Dr. Jackson, a professor of his
®tory. observed in a report for the
'^Southern Regional Council released
V. "In spite of the sains made by
CNegroes as voters during the 1940's,
5pt is correct to say that the whites
hive likewise been advancing and
in most States art a faster rate . . .
In Florida, the ratio is about 14
to 1; in Virginia, 20 to 1, and In
Louisiana, 100 to 1. '
Figures Offered.
Dr. Jackson's figures showing the
increase in numbera of qualified
Negro voters:
Alabama—2,000 to 6,000; Arkan
sas—4.000 to 47,000; Florida—16,000
to 49,000; Georgia—20,000 to 125,000;
Louisiana—2,000 to 10,000; Mississ
ippi—2,000 to 5.000; North Carolina
—35.000 to 75.000; South Carolina—
^3,000 to 50,000; Tennessee—20,000 to
80,000; Texas—30,000 to 100.000. and
Virginia—15.000 to 48,000
Only Oklahoma among the 12
States showed a decline—from 60,
000 to 50.000 qualified Negro voters.
Dr. Jackson attributes this to the
loss of some 10.000 to 15,000 Negroes
to migration.
Dr. Jackson pointed out that the
total number of Negro voters is only
12 per cent, roughly, of the 5,069 895
Negroes of voting age in these 8tates.
Barriers Being Reduced.
While the barriers to registration
of Negroes as voters are atill consid
erable, Dr. Jackson said, they are
slowly being reduced.
He observed that of the 11 South
ern States which once required pay
ment of a poll tax, four have abol
ished it. These are Georgia. Florida,
Louisiana and North Carolina.
South Carolina and Arkansas re
tain the poll tax, but it is only one
dollar and non-cumulative. Texas
and and Tennessee require payment
of a slightly higher tax, but again
it is non-cumulative.
“Only Mississipi, Virginia and Al
abama remain, then," he wrote,
where this celebrated instrument
constitutes a significant barrier."
The greatest single barrier to the
qualifying of Negroes as voters, Dr.
Jackson said is registration. He
said that registrars in the indi
vidual States constitute almost a law
unto themselves in determining
whether a Negro is qualified to
South Carolina Enrolls
Negroes Under Court Order
By th# Associated Press
COLUMBIA, S. C., July 17.—Negro
enrollment in the South Carolina
Democratic Party, enforced by *
Federal court order, apparently
was proceeding slowly today.
A full scale movement of Negroes
to put their names on party books
was not expected until after next
Monday. Copies of District Judge
J. Waties Waring* order will be
ready by then for service on county
party officials by United States
An estimated 2.000 negroes have
enrolled in Charleston County since
last Monday, when Judge Waring
issued a temporary order pending
yesterday's hearing of a Beaufort
Negro's suit against the State party’s
double standard primary voting
Some counties, notably Florence
and Charleston, opened their books
immediately after the temporary
order was handed down. '
Other counties, among them Spar
tanburg, opened their books today.
India Renews U. N. Appeal
Against South Africans
By the Associated Press
LAKE SUCCESS, July 17.—India
renewed her demands today for
United Nations action to stop alleg
ed "Jim Crow’ practices against
Indians In South Africa.
In a lengthy memorandum to Sec
retary General Trygve Lie, the In
dian government declared that
treatment of Indians in South
Africa continues to be serious mat
ter, despite resolutions passed by the
General Assembly in 1946 and 1947.
Mr. Lie was asked to place the
question on the agenda of the com
ing Assembly session which oegir.s
In Paris September 21.
“The government of the Union of
South Africa has made no changes
whatever either in the discrimin
atory laws or In the practice of dis
crimination, on racial grounds alone,
against its nationals of Indian ori
gin,” the memorandum stated.
Declaration on States' Rights
my mt aiioihitn rr«M
BIRMINGHAM, Ala., July 17.—
Following is the “Declaration of
Principles’’ reported by the Resolu
tions Committee of the States
Rights’ meeting today:
We affirm that a political party
is an instrumentality for effectu
ating the principles upon which the
party is founded; that a platform
of principles is a solemn covenant
with the people and with the mem
bers of the party; that no leader of
the party, in temporary power, has
the right or privilege to proceed
contrary to the fundamental prin
ciples of the party, or the letter or
spirit of the Constitution of the
United States; that to act contrary
to these principles is a breach at
faith, a usurpation of power, and
a forfeiture of the party name and
| party leadership.
We believe that racial and re
ligious minorities should be pro
tected in their rights guaranteed by
the Constitution, but the bold defi
ance of the Constitution in selfish
appeals to such groups for the sake
of political power forges the chains
of slavery of such minorities by de
stroying the only bulwark of pro
tection against tyrannical majori
ties. The protection of the consti
tutional rights of a minority does
not Justify or require the destruc
tion of constitutional rights of the
majority. The destruction of con
stitutional limitations on the power
of the central government threatens
to create a totalitarian state and
to destroy individual liberty in
Bill of Right* Cited.
We believe that the protection
of the American people against the
onward march of totalitarian Gov
ernment requires a faithful observ
ance of Article X of the American
Bill of Rights which provides that:
"The powers not delegated to the
United States by the Constitution,
nor prohibited by it to the States,
are reserved to the States respec
tively, or to the people.”
We direct attention to the fact
that the first platform of the Demo
cratic Party, adopted In 1840, re
solved that: "Congress has.no power
under the Constitution to Interfere
with or control the domestic institu
tions of the several States, and that
such States are the sole and proper
judge* of everything appertaining
I to their own affairs not prohibited
by the Constitution.” 8uch pro
nouncement is the cornerstone of
the Democratic Party.
A long train of abuses and usur
pations of power by unfaithful lead
ers who are alien to the Democratic
Parties of the States here repre
sented has become Intolerable to
those who believe In the preserva
i tion of constitutional government
and individual liberty In America.
Court Domination Charged.
The executive department of the
Government is promoting the grad
ual but certain growth of a totali
tarian state by domination and con
trol of a politically minded Supreme
Court. As examples of the threat
to our form of Government, the
executive department, with the aid
of the Supreme Court, has asserted
national dominion and control of
.submerged oil-bearing lands in
[California, schools in Oklahoma and
WSte.souri*!' primg^Mgtons WH
[Texas, South LojiflP
ana, restrictive covenants In Hew
York and the District Of Columbia,
and other jurisdictions, as well as
religious instruction in Illinois. By
asserting paramount Federal right*
in these instances, a totalitarian
concept has been promulgated
which threatens the integrity of the
States and the basic rights of their
We have repeatedly remonstrated
with the leaders of the national
organization of our party but our
petitions, entreaties and warning*
have been treated with contempt.
The latest response to our entreatie*
was a Democratic convention in
Philadelphia rigged to embarras*
and humiliate the South. This al
leged Democratic assembly called
for a civil rights law that would
eliminate segregation of every kind
from all American life, prohibit all
forms of discrimination in private
employment, in public and private
.instruction and administration and
treatment of students; In the oper
ation of public and private health
.facilities: in all transportation, and
require equal access to all place*
iof public accommodation for per
.sons of all races, colors, creeds and
'national origin.
This infamous and iniquitous pro
gram calls for the reorganization ol
the civil rights section of the De
partment of Justice with a substan
tial increase in a bureaucratic staff
to be devoted exclusively to the en
forcement of the civil right* pro
gram; the establishment within the
FBI of a special unit of investigator*
Minimum Salary far 194S-1&4®
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Men's Suits, Coats, Sport
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Gs^ 36th feir it 13191 Street ^3
ana a pouce ■»» m a totalitarian,
centralized, bureaucratic govern
Felice State Seen.
This convention hypocritically
denounced totalitarianism abroad
but unblushingly proposed and ap
proved it at home. This convention
would strengthen the grip of a
police state upon a liberty-loving
people by the imposition of penal
ties upon local public officers who
failed or refused to act in accord
ance with its ideas in suppressing
mob violence.
We point out that if a foreign
power undertook to force upon the
people of the United States the
measures advocated by the Demo
cratic convention in Philadelphia,
with respect to civil rights, it would
mean war and the entire Nation
would resist such effort.
The convention that insulted the
South in the party platform advo
cated giving the Virgin Islands and
other dependencies of the United
States "the maximum degree of local
self-government.” When an effort
was made to amend this part of the
platform so as to make it read
that the party favored giving the
Virgin Islands and the several States
the maximum degree of local self
Oovernment, the amendment adding
the words "these several States" was
stricken out and the sovereign States
were denied the rights that the party
favors giving the Virgin Islands.
Point to voting Record.
we point out that the South, with
clock-like regularity, has furnished
the Democratic Party approximately
50 per cent of the votes necessary
to nominate a President every four
years for nearly a century. In 1020
the only States In the union that
went Democratic were the 11 South
ern States. Notwithstanding this
rugged loyalty to the party, the
masters of political intrigue now al
low Republican States In which
there Is scarcely a Democratic of
fice holder to dominate and control
the party and fashion its policies.
As Democrats who are Irrevocably
committed to Democracy as defined
and expounded by Thomas Jefferson,
Andrew Jackson and Woodrow Wil
son. and who believe that all neces
sary steps must be taken for its
preservation, r*e declare to the peo
ple of the United States as follows:
1. We believe that the Constitution
of he United States is the greatest!
charter of human liberty ever con
ceived by the mind of man.
2. We oppose all efforts to invade
| or destroy the rights vouchsafed
by it to every citizen of this republic.
3. We stand for social and eco
nomic justice, which we believe, can
be vouchsafed to all citizens only
by a strict adherence to our Con-j
stltution and the avoidance of any
invasion or destruction of the con
stitutional rights of the States and
! individuals. We oppose the totali
tarian, centralized, bureaucratic
i Government and the police State
j called for by the platforms adopted
by the Democratic and Republican
Race Segregation Supported.
4. We stand for the segregation of
the races and the racial integrity of
each race; the constitutional right
to choose one's associates; to ac
jcept private employment without
governmental interference, and": to
earn one s living in any lawful way.
We oppose the elimination of seg
regation, employment by Federal
bureaucrats called for by the mis
named civil rights program. We
favor home rule, local self-Govetn
ment and a minimum Interference
with Individual rights.
5. We oppose and condemn the
action of the Democratic conven
tion in sponsoring a civil rights
program calling for the elimination
of segregation, social equality by
Federal flat, regulation of private
employment practices, voting and
local law enforcement.
6. We affirm that the effective
enforcement of such a program
would be utterly destructive of the
social, economic and political life
of the Southern people, and of other
localities in which there may be
differences in race, creed or national
origin in appreciable numbers.
Favor Checks and Balances.
1. We stand for the checks and
balances provided by the three de
partments of our government.' We
oppose the usurpation of legislative
; functions by the Executive and
Judicial Departments. We unreserv
; edly condemn the effort to establish
nation-wide a police State in this
republic that would destroy the last
vestige of liberty enjoyed by a citi
8. We demand that there be re
turned to the people, to whom* of
right they belong, those powers
needed for the preservation of hum
an rights and the discharge of our
responsibility as Democrats for
human welfare. We oppose a denial
' of those rights by political parties,
a barter or sale of those rights by
a political convention, as well as
any invasion or violation of those
rights by the Federal Government.
We call upon all Democrats and
upon all other loyal Americans who
j are opposed to totalitarianism at
home and abroad to unite with us
in Ignominlously defeating Harry
8. Truman and Thomas E. Dewey,
and every other candidate for pub
lic office who would establish a
police State in the United States of
(Continued Prom First Page.),
then this movement could easily be
come the deciding factor in the
American political scene, since we
would have approximately 129 elec
tors and might easily be able to
throw the election into Congress.”
House Election Aim.
In other words, the organizers are
hoping to hold their Southern elec
torial votes together behind the
j Thurmond-Wright ticket as a rally
ing point. Then, if Mr. Truman
! and Gov. Dewey should so divide
; the rest of the States as to leave
neither a majority in the Electoral
College, the country would be
treated to the specatcle of an
election by the House.
In that event, Gov. Dixon sug
gested, “Congress might easily turn
to an outstanding American
selected by us for the next Presi
dent of the United States.”
if they succeed, however, in lin
ing up all of the South behind Govs.
Thurmond and Wright, the moat
likely result would be an easy vic
tory for the Republican ticket. For,
without the South, Mr. Truman
would have to make tremendous
gains in the North and West.
In that undertaking the President
would find himself battling Henry
A. Wallace for the liberal vote in
such pivotal Northern States as
New York and California, while the
conservative Southern Democrats
were working to bring about his
downfall in Dixie. >*»•
Thurmond-Dewey Race Seen.
Senator Eastland ,of Mississippi,
who moved adoption of the resolu
tion recommending the Thurmond -
Wright ticket to Democrats in all
8 “I'profflieiy^h* <#4derflsA#i%cfe'
*. . .t.j*; . - •: . _
will be between Thurmond and
Dewey, and that Mr. Truman won't
get a single electoral vote."
After the meeting had adjourned,
a leader was asked if he thought
the enthusiasm would last until the
fall campaign.
He pointed out that the reconven
ing of Congress next week on the
call of the. President undoubtedly
would lead to new efforts to pass
the Civil Rights Bill. If that hap
pens, he predicted, revolt launched
today against the Truman-Barkley;
ticket will grow in all the Southern;
The Birmingham conference did
not technically nominate a Thur
mond-Wright ticket. The resolu-;
tions adopted merely ‘ recommend j
to the Democrats of the several
States that they take all necessary
steps to have the electoral votes of
their respective States" cast for
these men.
Campaign Committee Named.
A campaign committee was ap
pointed to follow up in each State,
and one organizer intimated that
the movement would have as much
of a campaign fund as the Repub
The resolutions adopted also
called for another conference here
in Birmingham on Friday, October
1, and the Democrats in each State
were invited to send duly-accredited
representatives to* that meeting, in
numbers not to exceed the electoral
vote of each State.
Presumably, the purpose would be
to canvass the results of the drive
up to that date and make plans for
the homestretch campaign.
Every Seat Filled.
There was no effort today to con
fine the conference to the regular1
delegates who walked out of the
Philadelphia convention. Shortly\
before the session started 650 per-1
sons had registered at booths set up'
for that purpose, but this included'
between 60 and 70 press and radio
representatives. Every seat in the
spacious auditorium was filled by
Alabamians and visitors from the
surrounding States. Needless to say,
it was an all-white audience, and
it whooped and shouted its ap
proval of every attack on the Tru
man civil rights program.
A handful of Wallace supporters
succeeded in getting their candidate
in on the publloity by picketing the
front of the auditorium long enough
to attract a crowd of newsreel and
still cameramen.
In addition to (he standard bearers
«Ovs. Thurmowd and Wright—(he
ting *wfc!r attemied by Gov. Fpl
exactly 192 pairs of these famous-for-fit
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com of Alabama and former Gov.
■'Alfalfa” Bin Murray of Oklahoma.
"Big Jim” Balaam was met with
a mixture of cheers and boos, but he
added his few words of condemna
tion to the attacks of the Federal
Government on States’ Rights.
Walter Sillers of Mississippi, was
elected permanent chairman of the
It was announced early in the
afternoon that Gov. Tuck of Vir
ginia was on his way to Birmingham,
but if he arrived he remained in
the background.
Platform Adopted.
Not to be outdone by the regular
Democratic convention, the States'
Rights Southerners also adopted a
platform, which merely repeated in
more formal language the speeches
that filled the air all day.
Many of the spectators brought
Confederate flags, flags of the vari
ous Southern States and portraits
of Robert E. Lee.
Permanent Chairman Sillers re
called that the Democratic plat
form in Philadelphia promised a
maximum degree of selfgovemment
to the Virgin Islands, Guam and
‘‘But when your Southern dele
gates arose and moved to add the
several States to this promise, they
voted us down,” Mr. Sillers went on.
“They were not willing to grant to
the several States, and particularly
the Southern States, the same
rights they offered those three little
Former Lt. Gov. Handy Ellis of
Alabama, who led the walkout of
half of Alabama’s deletrrtion to
the Philadelphia convention, said:
“There doesn't seem to be much
choice between the little man with
the sickening smile, and the little
man with the silly mustache.”
Different Laws One Hurdle.
One of the hurdles confronting
the States Rights ticket is that
all of the States have different laws
governing the selection of presiden
tial electors, and in some of the
Southern States they already have
been chosen.
The campaign committee ap
pointed here today is expected to
survey the situation not only in the
States of the Solid South, but also
in the border States. One of the!
organizers said that in some States
they hope to swing the regular1
Democratic electors over to Gov.;
Thurmond and Wright. Where this
does not appear likely they will
try to put up a slate of their own
electors, if State laws still make it
possible. ■'
South Africans Fear
U. S. Ostrich Industry
Farmer* in Oudtshoorn, home of
the South African ostrich, are per
turbed over reports of the develop
ment of the ostrich industry in the
United States.
Although it is illegal to export o«
triches, except those which have
been emasculated, or ostrich eggs,
they fear that someone !
the law. It is understood they may
demand an investigation.
Han and Son Hit by Cab;
Police Try to Notify Wife
Arlington police lest nlftht were
attempting to locate a woman
whose husband and son are in
Arlington Hospital with serious in
juries after being struck by a taxi
The hospital said the condition
of James H. Ward. 35, was critical
and that of his son was serious.
The father remained unconscious
last night.
Nurses at the hospital said the
boy told them his name was “Pee
wee,” and that he was 6 yean old.
Papers found on the father con
tained the name “Mrs. Bertha Keen
Ward." Police sent telegrams to
addresses in New York City and
Jacksonville, Fla., which they found
among Mr. Ward's papen, in an
effort to locate Mrs. Ward.
Mr. Ward and his son were struck
by a taxicab yesterday as they
were crossing Route 1 opposite the
Arlington Hotel near Alexandria.
The driver of the cab was listed as
Louis W. Jackson, 39, colored, of
Alexandria. He was charged with
operating a car. with defective
equipment and was released under
9500 bond.
Reds Trying to Get Berlin
By Force, U. S. Official Says
•y tho Anociotod Proof
BERLIN, July 17.—Louis Glaser,
head of the American Military Gov
ernment's political division in Ber
lin, told 500 American officers and
men of the United States Air Force
at Tempelhof Airport todav that the
Russians want Berlin “because Ber
lin today is a flaming torch of de
fiance. No democratic nation wants
political slavery.”
The Russians, he said, failed to
win Berlin “through soft soap and
trickery, through lies and propa
ganda and through terror directed
against the Germans. Now they
have tried brute force—a threat of
disease and starvation.”
Quezon CHy Becomes
Philippines' Capital
Sy *K» AuaciaU# Pt«i
MANILA, July 17.—Manila ceased
to be the official Capital of the
Philippines today as President El
pidio Quirino signed a bill moving
the republic's seat to Quezon City,
10 miles northeast.
Manila will remain the actual
capital for more than a year, how
ever, until new buildings are erected.
Quirino said Manila now had a
population of almost 2.000,000, and
the move was necessary to relieve
He commented:
"Prom now on Manila will be cur
show window and Quezon City cur
workshop insofar as our govern
ment is concerned.”
Mr. Quirino said master planning
for construction was to be com
pleted within a year, as “I want to
lay the cornerstone of the new capl
tol myself.”
The late Manuel Quezon, first
president of the commonwealth,
planned the suburban development
in 1987, choosing a largely unin
habited tract of land higher and
with a cooler climate than Manils.
He named it “New Manila," but the
old commonwealth legislature short
ly changed It to Quezon City in his
Suede was named after the coun
try of its origin: Sweden.
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