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With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON, D. C Published by The Ivaning Star Newspaper Company. PRANK B. NOYSS, Chairman of the Board. FLEMING NEWBOLD, President. B. M. McKELWAY, Editor. MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE: 110 East 42d St. CHICAGO OFFICE: 43S North Michigan Ave. ' Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. Baity and Sunday Daily Only Sunday Only Monthly ..1.20* Monthly ...90c 10c por copy Wookly ...30c Weekly . 20c 10c per copy *10c additional when 3 Sundays are in a month. Alto 10c additional for Night Final Edition in those sections where delivery it made. Ratos by Mail—Payable in Advance. ^ Anywhere in United States. Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday 1 month_1.30 1 month ... 90c 1 month. 40c 4 months.. 7.50 4 months .. 5.00 4 months 3.00 1 yoar_15.00 1 yoar __10.00 1 year . 4.00 Telephone STerling 5000. Entered at the Pest Office, Washington, D. C., as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Frost is entitled exclusively to the use far republication of all the local news printed in this newspaper, at well as all A. P. news dispatches. A—» « FRIDAY, October U. VMS The ITU Decision * Judge Luther Swygert’s finding that the International Typographical Union and Its four top officers are in contempt of court rests on the important principle that the law must be applied even-handedly as between employers and unions. It is possible, of course, that the contempt Judgment may be reversed on appeal, and there is still a question as to precisely how the court’s order will apply to some of the details of the dispute between the printers and the newspapers. But the central prin ciple enunciated by the court is clear and unambiguous. The basic issue in this controversy was whether the ITU had or had not complied with the Taft-Hartley Act ban on the closed shop. Last March the union was ordered by an Injunction to desistvfrom certain practices which the employers said were an attempt to circumvent the closed shop provision. In other words, the con tention was that the union had resorted to subterfuges to maintain the closed shop In fact though not in name. This was denied by the union, which said that its practices and proposals were an attempt in good faith to comply with the law and the injunction. Judge Swygert’s ruling on this point was clear-cut. The union, he said, has “de liberately attempted since the issuance of the injunction to accomplish the objective against which the injunction Was issued, namely, the continuance of closed-shop conditions in the newspaper industry.” No penalty was imposed for this violation, but the union now is under specific mandate to comply with the injunction and to submit proof that it has complied. There is every expectation that the union will appeal from this ruling, as it has full right to do. But unless Judge Swygert should hold up, pending appeal, the appli cation of his order, there can be no excuse for further noncompliance by the union. In scores of cases under the original Wagner Act the Labor Board and the courts examined devices by employers which various unions said were subterfuges designed to circumvent the law. And in variably, where the facts warranted, the employers were ordered to desist from such practices and were published when they failed to do so. The essence of Judge Swygert’s ruling is that unions, in this respect, are to be treated just as employers have been treated. That is impartial Justice, and it should be recognized as such. The Italian Parallel There is an instructive parallel to be drawn between the current situations in Italy and France, albeit the parallel is by no means an exact one. Yet the basic common denominator is the same. It is the deliberate attempt of the Communists to upset economic life, sabotage recovery under the Marshall Plan, and either weaken or bring down the existing govern ment or any successor which excludes the Communists from participation. In both countries, Communism’s chief weapon is its hold over a majority of or ganized labor. And it* uses this hold to provoke crippling strikes. The reason why tt is able so to manipulate the workers, even against their own best interest, is not only Communist propaganda and disci pline, but also the fact that the workers have a legitimate grievance in the lag of wages behind prices due to an inflationary spiral. This predisposes the workers to use their collective bargaining power to get wage Increases. The trouble is that their Communist leaders get labor to make demands which, if granted, would upset the national economy still further and render wage gains illusory through accel erated inflation. In Italy, as in France, Communist spokesmen are threatening revolutionary action and demanding a new government based upon the “workers,” which, of course, means the Communists. The threat in Italy, however, is not quite so serious as it is in France, at least for the moment, because Italy has a stronger government. Whereas in France the Communists are numerically the largest group in Parlia ment and the government consists of an uneasy coalition between three moderate parties with divergent viewpoints and policies, in Italy the Christian Democrats effectively dominate the ruling parliamen tary bloc and are the largest single party in the Chamber. They correspond closely to the French Popular Republicans, both being left-wing clericals. But, whereas the Popular Republicans have lost much ground, the last Italian parliamentary elections notably strengthened Christian Democratic representation. In Italy, therefore, there is a solid governmentil basis which, in France, is lacking. And in Italy there is no militant right-wing move ment comparable to that of General de Gaulle’s. On the other hand, the fundamental economic situation in Italy is less favor able than in France. Italy is basically a poor country, overpopulated and tragically devastated by the late war. France is naturally rich, is if anything under peopled, and suffered much less from the late war in the physical sense. Its pres ent economic and financial unbalance is due largely to selfish group-pressures as well u to Communist sabotage. France, therefore, has a latent recuperative capac ity which Italy lacks. But this does not help France much in the present crisis of authority with which it is faced. Is Compromise Possible? Superficially at least, in their reply to the mediation efforts of the Security Council’s six “neutral” members, the Rus sians do not seem to have budged an inch from their position regarding the Berlin blockade. Nevertheless, even though France, Britain and the United States appear to be equally adamant on their side, Argentine Foreign Minister Bramug lia, the chief mediator, is said to be hopeful that a formula will yet be found to end the grave deadlock without causing anybody much loss of face. As reported in broad terms from Paris, the Russian position is that the blockade will be lifted If two conditions are met. The first condition is that the complaint about the siege—filed by the Anglo-French American delegations—must be removed from the agenda of the Security Council. The second is that the Western Powers must recognize the validity of the Moscow agreement of August 30—the directive which provided that the blockade would be ended after the military governors of Berlin worked out an understanding estab lishing a city-wide Soviet currency under quadripartite contrjl. As against this, the Western position may be summarized as follows: (1) France, Britain and the United States recognized the validity of the August 30 agreement until Soviet Marshal Sokolovsky refuse^ to honor it in Berlin; (2) since the marshal would not have so acted without instructions from Moscow, Russian bad faith thus became clear; (3) hence the filing of the Security Council complaint citing the blockade as a violation of the U. N. Charter and a threat to world peace; (4) to negotiate under that threat would be to negotiate under duress, which the Western Powers will not do; accordingly, (5) it must be lifted before there can be any further four-power talks on either the former German capital or Germany as a whole. These positions seem so diametrically opposed that it is difficult to see how Mr. Bramuglia can still hope for a face-saving formula to reconcile them. Yet it is Just barely possible that his small measure of optimism is not ill-founded. At any rate, assuming that nobody wants war—and it is hard to believe that anybody does—it is obvious that both sides would be able to breathe easier if there were no blockade and therefore no danger of explosive inci dents. Wholly apart from eliminating the heavy cost of the air lift, such a change would greatly benefit the Western Powers. As for the Russians, it is worth remember ing that they themselves are suffering from their siege; it has made them less popular than ever among the Germans, and it has intensified the economic and political strains in their zone of occupation now being counterblockaded by us—a situation in which they may be beginning to feel like somebody cutting off his nose to spite his face. In view of such circumstances, certain questions seem pertinent. Thus, is it con ceivable, as Mr. Bramuglia seems to think, that the Russians would really like to lift the blockade if only they could do so with out a heavy loss of prestige? And if that is how they feel, if they are anxious to get back to the August 30 agreement (with Marshal Sokolovsky instructed to honor it), would not the West be wise, in ex change for an end to the siege, to revert to that agreement and withdraw or in definitely defer the complaint to the Security Council? Or are matters too far gone to permit a compromise and prevent a showdown? Is Soviet good faith so lacking that France, Britain and the United States must refuse to shift from their present position? The situation is too involved and em bittered for easy answers. But if Mr. Bramuglia has any basis for his hope, if a peaceful way out of the impasse is at tainable, all parties concerned should exert every effort in that direction. The crisis is so deadly in its potentialities that none of the major powers can afford to be stiff-necked about it. Certainly, if world diplomacy is not resourceful enough to meet and overcome this challenge, man kind can look forward ito little more than dark and dangerous years ahead. Saving the Whooping Cranes The Smithsonian Institution, the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior, the National Audubon Society, the National Geographical Society and several other agencies want to study the whooping cranes—and thus to help the species to survive. But first the beautiful big white birds must be traced to their nesting grounds, and four years of search over Northwestern Canada and Alaska by skilled observers in high-powered planes have failed to solve the mystery. The most encouraging clue discovered was that of the presence of two whoopers in marshes near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Since the cranes are gregarious, there is reason to believe that at least a few others were hiding not far away. But ornithologists are pessimistic about the chances of saving what once was a very common group of birds. The gradual de velopment of agriculture from the Atlantic Coast in the seventeenth century to the Pacific in the twentieth has been a major cause of the decline in numbers of the Grus americana, as Linnaeus called It. Whoopers are the only birds in this part of the world that properly can be described as “almost as tall as a man.” They are five feet high when they stand erect. It follows that they are easy targets. The Indians shot them with bows and arrows, and when the earliest settlers from Europe reached Massachusetts and Virginia, they went to work on them—the largest winged game available—with muskets and blunderbusses. The slaughter still continues, even though conservationists are doing their best to persuade hunters to hold their fire until the cranes have had a chance to recoup from the losses of the past. Some progress, however, has been made in preserving the whoopers as a living variety of the Paludicolae order. Seventeen young birds have been counted since 1945 at the Arkansas National Wildlife Refuge, north of Corpus Christi, Texas. Another community of the cranes is believed to winter in the swamps of Louisiana or Florida. Readers of "The Yearling” will remember Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings’ de scription and N. C. Wyeth’s painting of their “cotillion” as Jody and Penny saw It. Still fascinating also is Audubon's story of the whooping migrants in Kentucky. It was the beautiful cranes' that in 4810 took him into the woods with Alexander Wilson, his melancholy rival—not too happily for either man, it seems. Communists in Court The case of Eugene Dennis, general sec retary of the Communist Party, presents no significant question of law or fact. Something more than a year ago the House Committee on Un-American Activi ties served him with a subpoena as a wit ness. Dennis refused to appear, was cited for contempt, and was duly tried and con victed. A unanimous Coflrt of Appeals has upheld the conviction, and that is that. What makes the case of more than pass ing interest is the insight it gives into the political uses which Communists, given the chance, will make of the courts. Dennis presented a defense which the appellate court variously described as “pre posterous,” “fantastic” and "sheer non sense.” Evidently he managed to get under the skin of Judge Bennett Champ Clark, who wrote the opinion. But there is no occasion for surprise at the tactics em ployed by Dennis in his appeal. One of his contentions was that the Uh-Amerlcan Activities Committee is not really a committee of Congress because Representative Rankin of Mississippi is among its members. The theory of this was that, under the Fourteenth Amend ment, Mississippi’s representation in the House should have been reduced because its election laws discriminate against Negroes. If this had been done, accord ing to Dennis, the State’s representation in the House would have been cut from seven to four, and from that he concluded that all of the Mississippi Congressmen are mere Interlopers. Therefore, under his reasoning, Representative Rankin is not a member of Congress, and, consequently, the committee on which he has been sitting cannot be a congressional committee. This particular argument was rejected by the court as being “sheer nonsense," which, of course, it is. But it is typical of the tactics which the Communists have been employing in appearances before con gressional committees and which now, ap parently, they are extending to the courts. No one need get excited, however, for this is simply old Communist technique in slightly different garb. =.-a-a , BBSSB The most dependable filers have long noses, a student of physiognomy contends; and if he means the stork, why doesn’t he say so? Funny thing about the housefly in Octo ber is its lack of speed, notwithstanding that it sounds like a three-motor Job. This and That By Charles E. Tracewell “ARLINGTON, Va. “Dear Sir: “Possibly an observation of mine may add a trifle to your recent article of albinism among birds and animals. “For approximately 23 years I have worked in the near vicinity of Lafayette and McPher son squares, and, as any one would over such a period of time, have had my attention drawn to the half-tame Inhabitants. “During perhaps the past four years there have been at least two entirely black squirrels which apparently travel back and forth be tween these parks (I saw them together in Lafayette park once) and a number of albinos —I should estimate not less than three. “It is noticeable that these off-color indi viduals are less approachable than the normal ones, and seem to avoid dose proximity to humans. However, I have not been able to observe any hostility or aloofness between the white or black squirrels and the normally col ored ones. * • • » “This year, for the first time, there appeared in McPherson square a squirrel that obviously is the offspring of an albino and a normal gray squirrel. Its coat is either a mixture of gray and white hairs or hairs indeterminate inf color between the two (I have never been able to approach closer than about 30 feet.) “Perhaps the most unusual predicament in which I ever saw an animal occurred in the spring of 1947 in Lafayette square. “Quite a few Government employes eat lunch there; the particular squirrel Involved had chewed a hole into an empty waxed paper milk container, evidently to lick out the small quantity remaining therein, and had its head stuck in the hole, thrashing and flopping blindly about in its frantic efforts to free it self. At another time an elderly practical Joker (no longer working for the Government) fed a squirrel some laxative chewing gum tab lets and chortled for weeks afterward about the eagerness with which this small victim de voured the treacherous stuff. “Yours truly,” etc. * * * * Park squirrels are more friendly to each other than squirrels in the suburbs. The latter shy away from albino specimens, and almost as much so from the black ones. In the downtown parks, the squirrels, as the pigeons, are bound closer together by the bond of hunger. Even sparrows in the busy downtown streets refuse to fight each other, or move more than two or three feet from the feet of passersby. Food is what they are after, and it does not come as easily downtown as it does in the outskirts, where thousands of residents are vying with one another to cater to the birds. What the birds get, in moet cases, the squir rels can eat, too. Pigeons, also. One of the recent popular songs contained the classic line, “Oh, see the pigeons, flying like birds I" Some people refuse to admit that pigeons are birds. They even want to spell it “pidgeon,” under the influence, no doubt, of the redoubtable Walter. Pigeons and squirrels and sparrows do their best in the downtown in the parks, where at lunch time there are scores of persons (and at other times usually several) eager to feed . them. Not many, fortunately, have any desire to fool them, or to injure them. Sometimes, someone will give a squirrel a piece of milk chocolate, which the animal will not eat but always buries in the ground. This means, though the animal does not know it, that the food will become mouldy, and unfit to eat, or even melt away in a rain. v Squirrels, after all, know nothing of man’s devious ways in manufacture. There is keen competition in the parks for the food handouts, so that each bird and squirrel must not be too finicky about his neighbors, friends and relations, even foes. For this reason, the normally colored ones do not resent the all-black and the all-white specimens so much. They cannot afford to do so. The pearl gray specimen spoken of by our correspondent has not been mentioned here for a long time. He is a beauty, and a great favorite, and seldom leaves the McPherson square area. Robins in season always drop down to these City squares, circles and just plain parks. So all spring and summer the parks present a true picture of nature. The city is fortunate to have such places, where busy people may contemplate the ceaseless activities .of pic turesque birds and animals. Letters to The Star Apartments for Families To tb« Sdltor of Th« Star: After reading in The Star of October 12 the story by Tlghe E. Woods on rent control, I want to say he certainly hits the nail on the head. We have to move from our apartment where we-have lived for eight years because the apartment has been purchased for colored. For three months my husband, son and I have tramped this city over trying to find a new home. It’s true there are lots of nice apartments going up in Maryland, Virginia and all over the city. But they are one-bedroom apartments and won’t accept children or two-bedroom apartments with one child permitted, and the rents are $80 to $97.50 a month. I guess we will have to drown our children to have a roof over our heads. These young married couples who both work are the ones who pay the big rents and keep the prices up. Why can't our rich Government put up decent low-cost houses for poorly paid Govern ment workers? A VERY TIRED AND DISGUSTED WIFE AND MOTHER. Prefers French to Germans To th» Editor of The Star: I disagree wholeheartedly with the opinions of Charles M. Mayer, .published October 12. He would like America to Invest more money with the “poor, hard-working Germans” and less with the “lazy, good-for-nothing, cognac-sip ping Frenchmen” in order to speed European and world recovery. It seems to me that another set of hard working Germans (or was it this same bunch?) brought the present misery on their own nation. Are we Americans going to be swin dled again? Are we to pay and pay and pay for the supercolossal mistakes and calamities the Germans, Kuns, Prussians or Nazis feel called upon-to bring on themselves and, quite incidentally, the rest of the world? Money we allot France is being invested in a republic that is based on liberty, equality and fraternity; whose people are firmly wedded to the Ideals of logic and the rights of man. Money we invest in Germany, if the past is any indication of the future, will be used ulti mately for the furtherance of autocratic prin ciples and in the end to our own peril. I cannot believe that we Americans are so totally lacking in powers of discrimination that we again will fail to read the fine print on any “hard work” contract the Germans may offer us. P. D. STRANG. Rluemont, Va. Praises Prince Georges Hospital To the ESI tor of The Star: My wife is returning home, after her second stay within this year, from the Prince Georges County General Hospital, located at Cheverly, Md. I would be very grateful if through your oolumns I might call to the attention of Wash ington and Maryland residents the splendid efficiency of this hospital. But I especially wish to comment on the lack of institutional feeling there, the really hard work which all the nurses perform, and their services of personal atten tion, combined with sympathetic understand ing. My wife, who has occupied beds in two different portions of the hospital, and I, in the capacity of a “watchful waiter,” found this same spirit extending through the personnel of the entire hospital. I believe that Prince Georges County is to be congratulated. C. J. S. WILLIAMSON. Increased Fare Justified To tbe Editor of The Ster: No doubt there are many Washingtonians who are deeply concerned about the increased transit fare to become effective, but I am sure that if those who feel that this fare increase is not Justified would give careful thought to the matter, they would realize how fortunate they are to have the public transportation service they now enjoy. Just stop and think of how all other costs of living have skyrocketed, and compare these with that of the longstanding ten-cent fare. Surely the transit company, for its tremendous outlay of capital in new streetcars, buses and other equipment, not to mention that of increased payrolls, is entitled to increased fares. The small Increase of fare authorized certainly is low in proportion to all other costs of living. If those who complain about the in creased fare would see the poor equipment and high fares prevalent in many other cities, they would appreciate what our local transit company offers us. ROBERT EMMET BURKE. Faith in Prayer To the Editor of The Star: On July 20 you saw fit to publish a few lines I quoted from the Book of Job and there were some who took notice. Now I would call atten tion to further consideration of the same 22nd chapter from the 22nd verse, with special attention to the 28th verse: “Thou shalt decree a thing and it shall be established unto thee, and the light shall shine upon thy ways." What might we people of the United States expect, if even a small percentage of us would pray the prayer that God inspired? “He loveth all, Both great and small On this whole terrestrial ball." MARY 1. LYNN. More on Buchenwald To thi Editor of The Star: I usually do not take time for such cor respondence. However, a letter appearing in your editorial page on October 11 bothered me so that I had to take this means to relieve my feelings. The letter I speak of is signed J. J. Sperry and its contents were arguments Justifying the barbarism of Buchenwald. How your stafi could let such a communication be printed is inconceivable. The Star is quite aware oi what happened at Buchenwald. There is no controversy on this point. Besides the tragi films, we have unbiased witnesses to verif beyond question the miserable tragedies. H. BROTT. To the Editor of The 8t*r: Reading the letter by J. J. Sperry made m more than furious. Of course, it is possibh that some of those people cremated in the concentration camps died from disease. But what caused the disease? Nothing but the “wonderful” treatment the Germans gave them, starvation, sleeping up to four In a bed without covers, even during the winters, and sometimes having to sleep with sick people. On the top of this they had to work hard, they were tortured. Words cannot describe what they went through. Does Mr. Sperry believe that those people, still alive, who were diseased directly because of the horrible treatment they received at the hands of the Nazis should have been cremated because they were diseased persons? Would Mr. Sperry have the United States Govern ment clean out our hospitals of diseased persons by the simple expedient of cremating the in mates? Of course, I am prejudiced. I am prejudiced against anything that is rotten and unnatural— which I think is much more commendable than an unprejudiced and utterly foolish sense of fairness. To establish that I know whereof I speak, I wish to state that I was under German Letters for publication must bear the signature and address of% the writer, although it is permissible for - a miter knoum to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be brief. occupation for. five yean In Norway, as a "pun Aryan,” and although I escaped concentration camp myself, I had enough friends returning from the horrors, and enough remaining, to believe what I heard. Possibly those who returned were not sick enough to follow those who remained. Furthermore, after the war, I had the privilege of caring for some of those people who were not cremated because the crematories were not big enough or because the Nazis did not have time enough to finish the Job. INGRID SOPHAR. Displaced Persons and Unemployment To th« Editor of Ttao Star: The United States had a depression In the early 1930s. Many today forget we then had 12,000,000 unemployed. We today are paying taxes on the relief then extended. Despite the above, a very vocal minority jammed through the last Congress the Dis placed Persons Act. This admits double the number of aliens that can enter under the Quota Act of 1921. Hav^ we not enough native labor without accepting all these from cheap-wage areas overseas? EDWIN GRANT. Radio Programs ‘Atrocious’ To th* Bdltor of Th* Star: I no longer can grin and bear it; I mean, endure the tortuous radio programs and re strain the Impulse to say what I think of them. They are atrocious, a trying test of human patience and endurance, and they well justify the antipathy which so many feel toward them. It cannot be true that this "stuff” repre sents a public choice and preference. Such a suggestion would be an insult to lovers of real music. Knowing the inspirational value of music, as every one should, and the severe criticism directed against the present musical trend, I cannot understand why or how the radio can persistently impose this “trash" upon the public. But that is what it adds up to. LLOYD. Ability to Teach To th* Bdltor of Th* atari There are several angles bearing upon the District’s "loss of teachers,” as reported to the Commissioners according to The Star* As a teacher, I have often wondered about the graduates of Wilson Teachers’ fcollege, who seemed so promising in the laboratory, only to fall in the examinations upon which their appointments depended. I have pondered, too, about students who, because they failed the examination, went into nearby areas where they obtained positions on the strength of their credentials and interviews, receiving, at the same time, salaries in excess of what the District pays. No examination was required of these appointees. Would it be wiser to return to the old rating system of years past, where graduates received appointments according to their place In the group? This is an age of standing in line with a number in one's hand. Or would it be still wiser to test an applicant in action rather than upon the number of facts she could retain under tension? Would it not be well to know what the applicant can do when she faces 40 dynamic individuals? Per haps such a situation should be, at least, part of her examination, if there must be an exami nation following a B.8. degree. Until educators and examiners realize that teaching appointments should depend on one’s ability to teach, with all that that implies, rather than upon ability to memorise, the District will continue to lose some of its best teaching material. The salary question is another story, but one which needs serious consideration. A TEACHER. Not Tobago Island To the Bditor of Th* Bt*r: In Mrs. Jessie Pant Evans’ article of Oc tober 10, it is said that Mr. Fiory often calls at Tobago Island in the West Indies which “is famous chiefly as the island where Defoe in 1791 marooned his now world-renowned hero, Robinson Crusoe.” Actually Alexander Selkirk (Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe) was a British sailor—a real character— who was shipwrecked on the island of Juan Fernandes, off the northern part of the coast of Chile and not in the West Indfes. See "Robinson Crusoe” in Funk and Wagnals En cyclopedia or the Encyclopedia Britannica. M. F. MOORE. National Prosperity the Issue To tha BUttor of The Btar: I claim there is only one major issue threat ening the security of this Nation, namely, a national crash in the years just ahead. Therefore, every man who is asking the people of this Nation to send him to the White House, or to either branch of Congress, should tell the people what he will do to prevent national depression. I am convinced that the man in the White House in 1949 and the Eighty-first Congress are our only hope, if they act promptly on this issue. Prom day to day, I can vision the groundwork being laid for the worst national crash in our history, if no action is taken by the Federal Government in 1949 to prevent it. If a national depression occurs, as in 1929, I feel sure our form of government will be destroyed. National poverty must be eliminated before lational security and world peace can be looked pon as possibilities. I am sure we can set up in the United States permanent national prosperity for all. ALBERT P. RUTHVEN. Serious View of Halloween ‘Treats’ > th« Sdltor of The Star: With the imminent approach of Halloween, roperty owners are shuddering for the safety >f everything that can be destroyed, marred or carried away by "frolicsome" juvenile ma rauders. Some will attempt to appease these “playful" vandals by acquiescing to their ultimatum of "tricks or treats,” thereby giving these children their first taste of the "fruits” of "collection for protection” which readily can lead to the far more serious adult "game” played by our gangsters, who call it "pineapples (bombs) or payment.” When one adds to this morale-destroying custom the kmount of wanton destruction of property caused every year by a traditlqn based on the false psychology that “kids will be kids," it is imperative that a sustained effort should be made by parents, teachers, ministers—all who have any part in the early training of our future citizens—to instill into their minds a greater sense of the inviolability of the property of others; the dangers, both individual and social, of substituting threats for honest effort and the much more satisfying results arising from constructive, rather than destructive, activities. A PARENT. Sfors, Men and Atom Penicillin Kept in Body In Form of Fine Dust Duration of Drug’s Effectiveness Tripled by New Development By Thomas R. Henry Penicillin in the form of a very fine dust which can be inhaled for respiratory infections like the common cold, and k chemical combina tion which retains this drug in the blood stream three to live times as long as is ordi narily the case, have been reported to the American Medical Association. The penicillin dust was described by Dr. Louis Krasno of the University of Illinois and Drs. Mary Karp and Paul S. Rhoads of North western University. First the liquid penicillin is crystallized by a special process so that the particles are only about a millionth of an inch in diameter. This dust is Inhaled from a container attached to a gas mask or through a plastic mouth Inhaler. Used to Treat “Carriers.’’ It has proved valuable, the doctors reported, for practically all infections of the throat and lungs due to organisms which are susceptible to the drug. These include several of those causing colds, bronchitis and some pneumonias. Among its greatest values has been to clear up the respiratory tracts of persons carrying germs of streptococcic sore throat and pneumonia which they may give to others, although they themselves are not sick. The experimenters listed IS common throat organisms whose growth either is stopped alto gether or greatly slowed by the dust. It proved a satisfactory treatment in 300 out of 361 cases of the common cold. It has the advantage of attacking directly the site of respiratory infec tions, whereas injected penicillin goes through the whole blood stream and a good deal neces sarily goes to waste. An atmosphere filled with this penicillin dust should be provided, it was stressed, for aged sick persons, persons in a state of shock after operations, and all patients of throat or lung surgery, to prevent development of pneumonia. This is the great killer in such cases. Drug Rapidly Thrown Off. One of the disadvantages of penicillin is that it is ao rapidly excreted. Within three hours, practically all of a given injection has been lost through the urine. This is one reason why repeated doses must be given until a patient is cured. It is generally explained that there Is a penicillin carrier of gome sort in the blood stream—some as yet unknown body chemical with a special affinity Ipr the drug. A molecule of this substance hitches Itself to a molecule of penicillin in a very short time and carries it immediately to the tubules of the kidneys. Whatever this carrier may be. Drs. William P. Bogen and J. William Crosson of the Phila delphia General Hospital reported, it has a still greater affinity for a newly discovered chemical compound known as caronamlde. Otherwise this material is physiologically inert. When it is mixed with penicillin, they reported, the carrier hitches itself to the caronamlde and leaves the drug alone. This continues to circulate in the blood stream: Commercial Penicillin Employed. Thus the chief route for the loss of penicillin /is completely blocked. The blood level of the drug js maintained from 12 to 24 hours. At the end of this period it is found to be two to ten times' as great as otherwise would be the case. Quite recently, they explained, other methods of prolonging the penicillin blood level have been devised, such as combining the drug with wax and oil. Special preparations are required, whereas with the caronamlde ordinary com mercial penicilln, now easily available every where, can be used. Questions and Answers A reader can set the answer to any question «C fact by writing The Washington Star Information Bureau. 318 I etreet N.E., Washington 2, D. C. Please Inclose 3 cents for return postage. • _ By THE HASKIN SERVICE. Q. Does the wind blow harder in the first part of a hurricane than in the second?— J. D. A. The Weather Bureau says that hurricane winds blow in a counter-clockwise direction about the center of the storm and the whole system has a forward movement. Since the winds blow inward toward the center as well as around the center, there is a tendency for the winds on the front side of the storm to be decreased somewhat due to the forward move ment of the storm, and those in the rear to be increased for the same reason. The same effect is even more noticeable causing the winds on the right side of the storm to have a higher velocity with regard to a stationary observer than those on the left side of the storm. Q. Was the first Bernadotte placed cm the throne of Sweden by Napoleon or was he chosen by the people of their own free will?— T. M. A. Gen. Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte was a celebrated marshal of France. In 1810 as a result of his military genius and popularity and with the consent of Napoleon, the Swedish Diet chose Bernadotte as the Crown Prince and suc cessor to King Charles XIII and when the latter died in 1818, he succeeded to the throne as King Charles XIV. Q. Does an employed man lose his seniority if he joins the Army or Navy for three years? —E. P. A. The Selective Service Act states that any person who, after June 24, 1948, and while this act is still in effect, enlists in the armed forces of the United States (other than in a reserve component) or the Coast Guard (other than a reserve component) for not more than three years shall, if such enlistment is his first enlistment in the Armed Forces or the Coast Guard after June 24, 1948, be entitled, upon the expiration of his enlistment (including any extension thereof by law but not including any voluntary extension thereof) or upon his discharge under honorable conditions prior to the expiration thereof, to all re-employment rights and other benefits provided for Ijy this act in the case of inductees. Q. How tall was Lou Gehrig? Did he bat with his right or left hand?—D. D. A. Lou Gehrig was 6 feet Vt inch tall. He batted and threw with his left hand. Q. In case of Incurable disease or sickness, is there any State which has legalized "mercy deaths”?_R. W A. The United 8tates Public Health Sendee says that no State has legalized the so-called "mercy deaths.” Song of Autumn You may not weigh the gold of autumn’s yield, Or measure depths of cloud flecked cobalt skies; You cannot still the essence from a field Of ripened corn, or cage late butterflies. But you can see the dawn mists veil the sun And hear the wild far cry of geese In flight, Or walk in amber light till day is done And scented hearthflres call you from the night. Then taste the tangy sweetness of the fruit Of tree and vine, and let your heart be still, The silence of the autumn like a lute, Is ringing from each wood and field and hill. Oh, listen, Love, and take your own re ward— The Song of Autumn is the year’s full chord. MARY HESTER TURNER.